is a form of government
in which a person, the monarch
, is head of state
for life or until abdication
. The political legitimacy
and authority of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic
), to restricted (constitutional monarchy
), to fully autocratic
), and can expand across the domains of the executive
. A monarchy can be a polity
, personal union
, and monarchs can carry various titles such as emperor
, or pharaoh
The word "monarch" (Late Latin: monarchia
) comes from the Ancient Greek
), derived from μόνος
, "one, single") and ἄρχω
, "to rule"): compare ἄρχων
, "ruler, chief"). It referred to a single at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchy
usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are quite rare.
identified monarchy as one of three "benign" basic forms of government (monarchy, aristocracy
, and democracy
), opposed to the three "malignant" basic forms of government (tyranny
, and ochlocracy
). The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as "king
" or "ruler" (translating archon
, etc.) or as "queen
). Polybius originally understood monarchy[note 1]
as a component of republics, but since antiquity monarchy has contrasted with forms of republic, where executive power is wielded by free citizens and their assemblies. The 4th-century BCE Hindu text Arthasastra
laid out the ethics of monarchism.
In antiquity, some monarchies were abolished
in favour of such assemblies in Rome
, 509 BCE), and Athens
, 500 BCE).
Map of monarchies and republics in 1648
Since then advocacy of the abolition of a monarchy or respectively of republics
has been called republicanism
, while the advocacy of monarchies is called monarchism
. As such republics have become the opposing and alternative form of government to monarchy,
despite some having seen infringements
through lifelong or even hereditary heads of state.
In some nations, however, such as Brunei
, Saudi Arabia
, the hereditary monarch has more political influence than any other single source of authority in the state, either by convention or by a constitutional mandate.
According to a 2020 study, monarchy arose as a system of governance because of an efficiency in governing large populations and expansive territories during periods when coordinating such populations was difficult. The authors argue that monarchy declined as an efficient regime type with innovations in communications and transportation technology, as the efficiency of monarchy relative to other regime types declined.
Characteristics and role
Monarchies are associated with hereditary reign
, in which monarchs reign for life[note 2]
and the responsibilities and power of the position pass to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family
, the centre of the royal household
. Growing up in a royal family (called a dynasty
when it continues for several generations
), future monarchs
are often trained for their expected future responsibilities as monarch.
Powers of the monarch
- In an absolute monarchy, the monarch rules as an autocrat, with absolute power over the state and government—for example, the right to rule by decree, promulgate laws, and impose punishments.
- In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch's power is subject to a constitution. In most current constitutional monarchies, the monarch is mainly a ceremonial figurehead symbol of national unity and state continuity. Although nominally sovereign, the electorate (through the legislature) exercises political sovereignty. Constitutional monarchs' political power is limited. Typical monarchical powers include granting pardons, granting honours, and reserve powers, e.g. to dismiss the prime minister, refuse to dissolve parliament, or veto legislation ("withhold Royal Assent"). They often also have privileges of inviolability and sovereign immunity. A monarch's powers and influence will depend on tradition, precedent, popular opinion, and law.
- Monarchical reign has often been linked with military authority. In the late Roman Empire, the Praetorian Guard several times deposed Roman Emperors and installed new emperors. Similarly, in the Abbasid Caliphate, the Ghilmans (slave soldiers) deposed Caliphs once they became prominent, allowing new ones to come to power. The Hellenistic kings of Macedon and of Epirus were elected by the army, which was similar in composition to the ecclesia of democracies, the council of all free citizens; military service was often linked with citizenship among the male members of the royal house. The military has dominated the monarch in modern Thailand and in medieval Japan (where a hereditary military chief, the shōgun, was the de facto ruler, although the Japanese emperor nominally reigned). In Fascist Italy, the Savoy monarchy under King Victor Emmanuel III coexisted with the Fascist single-party rule of Benito Mussolini; Romania under the Iron Guard and Greece during the first months of the Colonels' regime were similar. Spain under Francisco Franco was officially a monarchy, although there was no monarch on the throne. Upon his death, Franco was succeeded as head of state by the Bourbon heir, Juan Carlos I, and Spain became a democracy with the king as a figurehead constitutional monarch.
Person of monarch
currently is the world's only constitutional diarchy, a co-principality. Located in the Pyrenees
, it has two co-princes: the bishop of Urgell
in Spain (a prince-bishop
) and the president of France
(derived ex officio
from the French kings, who themselves inherited the title from the counts of Foix). It is the only case in which an independent country's (co-)monarch is democratically
elected by the citizens of another country.
In a personal union
, separate independent states share the same person as monarch, but each realm retains separate laws and government. The sixteen separate Commonwealth realms
are sometimes described as being in a personal union with Queen Elizabeth II as monarch; however, they can also be described as being in a shared monarchy.
may rule when the monarch is a minor
, absent, or debilitated.
is a claimant to an abolished throne or a throne already occupied by somebody else.
is the act of formally giving up one's monarchical power and status.
Role of monarch
In the Western political tradition, a morally based, balanced monarchy was stressed as the ideal form of government, and little attention was paid to modern-day ideals of egalitarian democracy: e.g. Saint Thomas Aquinas
unapologetically declared: "Tyranny is wont to occur not less but more frequently on the basis of polyarchy [rule by many, i.e. oligarchy or democracy] than on the basis of monarchy." (On Kingship
). However, Thomas Aquinas also stated that the ideal monarchical system would also have at lower levels of government both an aristocracy and elements of democracy in order to create a balance of power. The monarch would also be subject to both natural and divine law, and to the Church
in matters of religion.
In Dante Alighieri
's De Monarchia
, a spiritualised, imperial Catholic monarchy is strongly promoted according to a Ghibelline
world-view in which the "royal religion of Melchizedek
" is emphasised against the priestly claims of the rival papal ideology.
Titles of monarchs
Monarchs can have various titles
. Common European titles of monarchs (in that hierarchical order of nobility) are emperor
or imperatrix), king
, grand duke
or grand duchess
Some early modern
European titles (especially in German states) included elector
, Prince-Elector, literally "electing prince"), margrave
, equivalent to the French title marquis
, literally "count of the borderland"), and burgrave
, literally "count of the castle"). Lesser titles include count
and princely count
. Slavic titles include knyaz
(ц︢рь) or tsaritsa
(царица), a word derived from the Roman imperial
In the Muslim world
, titles of monarchs include caliph
(successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim community), padishah
(king) or malikah
(commander, prince) or emira
(used in Oman
). East Asian titles of monarchs include huángdì
(emperor or empress regnant), tiānzǐ
(son of heaven), tennō
(emperor) or josei tennō
(empress regnant), wang
(king) or yeowang
(queen regnant), hwangje
(emperor) or yeohwang
(empress regnant). South Asian and South East Asian titles included mahārāja
( high king) or maharani
( high queen), raja
(king) and rana
(king) or rani
(queen) and ratu
(South East Asian queen). Historically, Mongolic
monarchs have used the title khan
(emperor) or khatun
; Ancient Egyptian
monarchs have used the title pharaoh
for men and women. In Ethiopian Empire
, monarchs used title nəgusä nägäst
(king of kings) or nəgəstä nägäst
(queen of kings).
Many monarchs are addressed with particular styles
or manners of address, like "Majesty
", "Royal Highness
", "By the Grace of God
", Amīr al-Mu'minīn
("Leader of the Faithful"), Hünkar-i Khanedan-i Âl-i Osman
, "Sovereign of the Sublime House of Osman"), Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda
"), Tennō Heika
(literally "His Majesty the heavenly sovereign"), Bìxià
("Bottom of the Steps").
, South Africa
, the ancient kingdoms and chiefdoms
that were met by the colonialists when they first arrived on the continent are now constitutionally protected as regional or sectional entities.
Furthermore, in Nigeria
, though the hundreds of sub-regional polities
that exist there are not provided for in the current constitution, they are nevertheless legally recognised aspects of the structure of governance that operates in the nation. For example, the Yoruba
city-state of Akure
in south-western Nigeria is something of an elective monarchy: its reigning Oba Deji
has to be chosen by an electoral college of nobles
from amongst a finite collection of royal princes of the realm upon the death or removal of an incumbent.
In addition to these five countries, dependent monarchies of varied sizes and complexities exist all over the rest of the continent of Africa
Monarchies, though, have applied state symbols
or abstracts like the concept of the Crown
to create a state identity, which is to be carried and occupied by the monarch, but represents the monarchy even in absence and succession
of the monarch.
In a hereditary monarchy
, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession
, usually within one royal family
tracing its origin through a historical dynasty
or bloodline. This usually means that the heir to the throne is known well in advance of becoming monarch to ensure a smooth succession.
, in which the eldest child of the monarch is first in line to become monarch, is the most common system in hereditary monarchy. The order of succession is usually affected by rules on gender. Historically "agnatic primogeniture" or "patrilineal primogeniture" was favoured, that is inheritance according to seniority of birth among the sons of a monarch or head of family
, with sons and their male issue inheriting before brothers and their issue, and male-line
males inheriting before females of the male line.
This is the same as semi-Salic primogeniture. Complete exclusion of females from dynastic
succession is commonly referred to as application of the Salic law
(see Terra salica
Before primogeniture was enshrined in European law and tradition, kings would often secure the succession by having their successor (usually their eldest son) crowned during their own lifetime, so for a time there would be two kings in coregency
—a senior king and a junior king. Examples were Henry the Young King
of England and the early Direct Capetians
in France. Sometimes, however, primogeniture can operate through the female line.
In 1980, Sweden
became the first European monarchy to declare equal (full cognatic) primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne.
Other kingdoms (such as the Netherlands
in 1983, Norway
in 1990, Belgium
in 1991, Denmark
in 2009, and Luxembourg
in 2011) have since followed suit. The United Kingdom
adopted absolute (equal) primogeniture (subject to the claims of existing heirs) on April 25, 2013, following agreement by the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth Realms
at the 22nd Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.
In the absence of children, the next most senior member of the collateral line (for example, a younger sibling of the previous monarch) becomes monarch. In complex cases, this can mean that there are closer blood relatives to the deceased monarch than the next in line according to primogeniture. This has often led, especially in Europe in the Middle Ages
, to conflict between the principle of primogeniture and the principle of proximity of blood
Other hereditary systems of succession included tanistry
, which is semi-elective and gives weight to merit and Agnatic seniority
. In some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia
, succession to the throne first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother, and only after that to the monarch's children (agnatic seniority). However, on June 21, 2017, King Salman of Saudi Arabi revolted against this style of monarchy and elected his son to inherit the throne.
Six forms of elective monarchies exist today. The pope
of the Roman Catholic Church
(who rules as Sovereign
of the Vatican City State
) is elected
for life by the College of Cardinals
. In the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
, the Prince and Grand Master
is elected for life tenure by the Council Complete of State from within its members. In Malaysia
, the federal king, called the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
or Paramount Ruler, is elected for a five-year term from among and by the hereditary rulers (mostly sultans
) of nine of the federation's constitutive states
, all on the Malay peninsula
. The United Arab Emirates
also chooses its federal leaders from among emirs of the federated states. Furthermore, Andorra
has a unique constitutional arrangement as one of its heads of state is the President of the French Republic
in the form of a Co-Prince
. This is the only instance in the world where the monarch of a state is elected by the citizens of a different country. In New Zealand, the Maori King, head of the Kingitanga Movement, is elected by a council of Maori elders at the funeral of their predecessor, which is also where their coronation takes place. All of the Heads of the Maori King Movement have been descendants of the first Maori King, Potatau Te Wherowhero, who was elected and became King in June 1858. The current monarch is King Tuheitia Potatau Te Wherowhero VII
, who was elected and became King on 21 August 2006, the same day as the funeral of his mother, Te Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu
, the first Maori Queen. As well as being King and head of the Kingitanga Movement, King Tuheitia is also ex officio
the Paramount Chief of the Waikato-Tainui tribe.
Appointment by the current monarch is another system, used in Jordan
. It also was used in Imperial Russia
; however, it was soon changed to semi-Salic because the instability of the appointment system resulted in an age of palace revolutions
. In this system, the monarch chooses the successor, who is always his relative.
Other ways of succession
This is especially employed to legitimize and settle disputed successions, changes in ways of succession, status of a monarch (e.g. as in the case of the privilegium maius
deed) or new monarchies altogether (e.g. as in the case of the Coronation of Napoleon I
In cases of succession challenges it can be instrumental for pretenders
to secure or install legitimacy
through the above, for example proof of accession like insignia, through treaties or a claim of a divine mandate to rule (e.g. by Hong Xiuquan
and his Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
with an executive presidency separate from the legislature Semi-presidential system
with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the rest of the executive, who is appointed by the president and accountable to the legislature Parliamentary republics
with a ceremonial and non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive and is dependent on the confidence of the legislature
Republics in which a combined head of state and government is elected by, or nominated by, the legislature and may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence
Monarchical forms of government:
(in principle republics)
Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended
Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional government
or unclear political situations)
Currently, there are 44 nations and a population of roughly half a billion people in the world with a monarch as head of state. They fall roughly into the following categories:
Queen Elizabeth II
is, separately, monarch of sixteen Commonwealth realms
(Antigua and Barbuda
, the Commonwealth of Australia
, the Commonwealth of the Bahamas
, New Zealand
, the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
, the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
, Saint Lucia
, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
, the Solomon Islands
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
). They evolved out of the British Empire
into fully independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations
that retain the Queen as head of state. All sixteen realms are constitutional monarchies and full democracies where the Queen has limited powers or a largely ceremonial role. The Queen is head of the Church of England
(the established church
of England), while the other 15 realms do not have a state religion
Other European constitutional monarchies
The Principality of Andorra
, the Kingdom of Belgium
, the Kingdom of Denmark
, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
, the Kingdom of the Netherlands
, the Kingdom of Norway
, the Kingdom of Spain
, and the Kingdom of Sweden
are fully democratic states in which the monarch has a limited or largely ceremonial role. In some cases, there is a Christian religion established as the official church in each of these countries. This is the Lutheran form of Protestantism
in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, while Andorra is a Roman Catholic
country. Spain, Belgium, and the Netherlands have no official state religion. Luxembourg, which is predominantly Roman Catholic, has five so-called officially recognised cults of national importance
(Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Greek Orthodoxy, Judaism, and Islam), a status which gives to those religions some privileges like the payment of a state salary to their priests.
Andorra is unique among all existing monarchies, as it is a diarchy
, with the co-princeship being shared by the president of France
and the bishop of Urgell
. This situation, based on historical precedence, has created a peculiar situation among monarchies, as:
- neither of the co-princes is of Andorran descent;
- one is elected by citizens of a foreign country (France), but not by Andorrans as they cannot vote in the French presidential elections; and
- the other, the bishop of Urgel, is appointed by a foreign head of state, the pope.
European monarchies in which the monarch retains more powers
The Principality of Liechtenstein
and the Principality of Monaco
are constitutional monarchies in which the prince retains substantial powers. For example, the 2003 Constitution referendum
gave the Prince of Liechtenstein
the power to veto any law that the Landtag
(parliament) proposes, while the Landtag can veto any law that the Prince tries to pass. The prince can appoint or dismiss any elective member or government employee. However, he is not an absolute monarch, as the people can call for a referendum to end the monarch's reign. When Hereditary Prince Alois threatened to veto a referendum to legalize abortion in 2011, it came as a surprise because the prince had not vetoed any law for over 30 years.[note 5]
The prince of Monaco
has simpler powers; he cannot appoint or dismiss any elective member or government employee to or from his or her post, but he can elect the minister of state
, government council
and judges. Both Albert II, Prince of Monaco
, and Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein
, are theoretically very powerful within their small states, but they have very limited power compared to the Islamic monarchs (see below). They also own huge tracts of land and are shareholders in many companies.
The Islamic monarchs of the Kingdom of Bahrain
, the State of Brunei Darussalam
, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
, the State of Kuwait
, the Kingdom of Morocco
, the Sultanate of Oman
, the State of Qatar
, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
, and the United Arab Emirates
generally retain far more powers than their European or Commonwealth counterparts. Brunei Darussalam, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia remain absolute monarchies; Bahrain, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates are classified as mixed, meaning there are representative bodies of some kind, but the monarch retains most of his powers. Jordan, Malaysia, and Morocco are constitutional monarchies, but their monarchs still retain more substantial powers than European equivalents.
East and Southeast Asian constitutional monarchies
The Kingdom of Bhutan
, the Kingdom of Cambodia
, the Kingdom of Thailand
are constitutional monarchies where the monarch has a limited or merely ceremonial role. Bhutan made the change in 2008. Cambodia had its own monarchy after independence from the French Colonial Empire
, but it was deposed after the Khmer Rouge
came into power. The monarchy was subsequently restored in the peace agreement of 1993. Thailand transitioned into a constitutional monarchy over the course of the 20th Century.
Five monarchies do not fit into any of the above groups by virtue of geography or class of monarchy: the Kingdom of Tonga
; the Kingdom of Eswatini
and the Kingdom of Lesotho
in Africa; the Vatican City State
in Europe and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
. Of these, Lesotho and Tonga are constitutional monarchies, while Eswatini and the Vatican City are absolute monarchies. Eswatini is unique among these monarchies, often being considered a diarchy
: the King, or Ngwenyama
, rules alongside his mother, the Ndlovukati
, as dual heads of state
. This was originally intended to provide a check on political power. The Ngwenyama, however, is considered the administrative head of state, while the Ndlovukati is considered the spiritual and national head of state, a position which more or less has become symbolic in recent years
. The Pope
is the absolute monarch of the Vatican City State (a separate entity from the Holy See
) by virtue of his position as head of the Roman Catholic Church
and Bishop of Rome; he is an elected rather than a hereditary ruler and does not have to be a citizen of the territory prior to his election by the cardinals
. The Order of Malta describes itself as a "sovereign subject" based on its unique history and unusual present circumstances, but its exact status in international law is subject of debate. Samoa
, the position is described in Part III of the 1960 Samoan constitution. At the time the constitution was adopted, it was anticipated that future heads of state would be chosen from among the four Tama a 'Aiga "royal" paramount chiefs. However, this is not required by the constitution, so, for this reason, Samoa can be considered a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy
Notes and references
- ^ Now substituted with the concept of autocracy.
- ^ Malaysia is a special case. Malaysia’s head of state, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (often translated as "King"), is elected to serve a five-year term. However, he is elected from among the federation’s subnational monarchies, each of whom inherit their position and rule for life.
- ^ Examples are Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell in the Commonwealth of England, Kim il-Sung and Kim Jong-il in North Korea, the Somoza family in Nicaragua, François Duvalier and Jean-Claude Duvalier in Haiti, and Hafez al-Assad and Bashar al-Assad in Syria.
- ^ For example, the Kennedy family in the United States and the Nehru-Gandhi family in India. See list of political families.
- ^ In the end, this referendum failed to make it to a vote.
- ^ Conrad Phillip Kottak (1991). Cultural Anthropology. McGraw-Hill. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-07-035615-3.
- ^ A. Adu Boahen; J. F. Ade Ajayi; Michael Tidy (1986). Topics in West African History. Longman Group. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-582-58504-1.
- ^ Traditions and encounters. McGraw–Hill Education. p. 63. By about 5000 b.c.e. many Sudanic peoples had formed small monarchies ruled by kings who were viewed as divine or semidivine beings.
- ^ The Arthasastra: Selections from the Classic Indian Work on Statecraft. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 9781603849029.
- ^ The Feminist Companion to Literature in English, ed. Virginia Blain, Patricia Clements and Isobel Grundy, (London: Batsford, 1990), p. 272.
- ^ Bohn, H. G. (1849). The Standard Library Cyclopedia of Political, Constitutional, Statistical and Forensic Knowledge. p. 640. A republic, according to the modern usage of the word, signifies a political community which is not under monarchical government ... in which one person does not possess the entire sovereign power.
- ^ "Definition of Republic". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved February 18, 2017. a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch ... a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law
- ^ "The definition of republic". Dictionary.com. Retrieved February 18, 2017. a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them. ... a state in which the head of government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state.
- ^ W. Veenendaal, "Monarchy and Democracy in Small States: An Ambiguous Symbiosis," in S. Wolf, ed., State Size Matters: Politik und Recht I'm Kontext von Kleinstaatlichkeit und Monarchie (Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2016), pp. 183–198, doi:10.1007/978-3-658-07725-9_9, ISBN 978-3-658-07724-2.
- ^ Gerring, John; Wig, Tore; Veenendaal, Wouter; Weitzel, Daniel; Teorell, Jan; Kikuta, Kyosuke (July 12, 2020). "Why Monarchy? The Rise and Demise of a Regime Type". Comparative Political Studies. doi:10.1177/0010414020938090. ISSN 0010-4140.
- ^ https://www.theclassroom.com/definition-elective-monarchy-5221.html
- ^ Marlowe, Lara. "The Central African Republic, where Emperor Bokassa ruled with violence and greed". The Irish Times. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1999) The Search for Modern China, W.W. Norton and Company. p. 274. ISBN 0-393-97351-4.
- ^ Anckar, Carsten; Akademi, Åbo (2016). "Semi presidential systems and semi constitutional monarchies: A historical assessment of executive power-sharing". European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982 vol.1 p21
- ^ Wimmer, Andreas; Feinstein, Yuval (October 8, 2010). "The Rise of the Nation-State across the World, 1816 to 2001". American Sociological Review. 75 (5): 764–790. doi:10.1177/0003122410382639. S2CID 10075481. Sovereignty has a domestic and an external component. Domestically, a written constitution claims a nationally defined community of equal citizens as the political (and moral) foundation of the state and foresees some institutional representation of this community (not necessarily a freely elected parliament). Internal sovereignty thus stands in opposition to dynasticism, theocracy, feudal privilege, and mass slavery. [page 773]
- ^ Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter (2000). "The constitutional economics of autocratic succession". Public Choice. 103 (1/2): 63–84. doi:10.1023/A:1005078532251. ISSN 0048-5829. S2CID 154097838.
- ^ Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter (2004). "Autocratic succession". Encyclopedia of Public Choice. 103: 358–362. doi:10.1007/978-0-306-47828-4_39. ISBN 978-0-306-47828-4.
- ^ Murphy, Michael Dean (2001). "A Kinship Glossary: Symbols, Terms, and Concepts". Anthropology.UA.edu. Retrieved October 5, 2006.
- ^ SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronföljd, p. 16.
- ^ "Overturning Centuries of Royal Rules" (2011-10-28). BBC.com. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
- ^ "New rules on royal succession come into effect". BBC. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- ^ Chara, Jihan (October 1, 2018). "Saudi Arabia: A prince's revolution". European View. 17 (2): 227–234. doi:10.1177/1781685818803525. ISSN 1781-6858.
- ^ Young W. Kihl, Hong Nack Kim. North Korea: The Politics of Regime Survival. Armonk, New York, USA: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2006. Pp 56.
- ^ Robert A. Scalapino, Chong-Sik Lee. The Society. University of California Press, 1972. Pp. 689.
- ^ Bong Youn Choy. A history of the Korean reunification movement: its issues and prospects. Research Committee on Korean Reunification, Institute of International Studies, Bradley University, 1984. Pp. 117.
- ^ Sheridan, Michael (September 16, 2007). "A tale of two dictatorships: The links between North Korea and Syria". The Times. London. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
- ^ The Twisted Logic of the N.Korean Regime, Chosun Ilbo, 2013-08-13, Accessed date: 2017-01-11
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