Mongol invasions of the Levant
Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols
made repeated invasions of Syria
or attempts thereof. Most failed, but they did have some success in 1260 and 1300, capturing Aleppo
and destroying the Ayyubid dynasty
. The Mongols were forced to retreat within months each time by other forces in the area, primarily the Egyptian Mamluks
. Since 1260, it had been described as the Mamluk-Ilkhanid War
During the governorship of Bachu in Persia, the Mongolian army under Yisaur attacked Syria in 1244. The reasons for the attack are unclear, but it may have been in retaliation for the Syrian participation on the Seljuk side in the Battle of Köse Dağ
In the autumn 1244, Yisaur concentrated the Mongol forces in the upper Tigris valley where they subjugated the Kurdish province of Akhlat. Moving across, the Mongolian army encountered no resistance and ravaged the area en route. The fortified cities were untaken in his advance because Yisaur was not prepared for siege assault. Passing through the territory of the city of Urfa, he crossed the Euphrates.
He marched directly to Aleppo but went as far as Hailan before the climate impaired his army's movements. Yisaur sent envoys to Aleppo to demand submission of tribute, which Malik agreed to pay. The same demand were sent to Bohemond of Antioch who chose not to fight them instead of defiance.
Yisaur withdrew his force back up the Euphrates valley and received the submission of Malatia. In Egypt, Sultan as-Salih Ayyub
decided to acquiesce to the results and made no attempt to raise an army to encounter the Mongols who had invaded his dominions in Syria.
In 1251, as an expediency to buy peace, Sultan an-Nasir Yusuf
sent his representatives to Mongolia for the election of Möngke and agreed to make Syria a vassal state of the Mongol Empire.
In 1255, Hulagu sought to further expand the Empire into the Middle East under orders from his older brother, the Great Khan Möngke
. Hulagu's forces subjugated multiple peoples along the way, most notably the center of the Islamic Empire, Baghdad
, which was completely sacked in 1258
, destroying the Abbasid Caliphate
. From there, the Mongol forces proceeded into Syria.
In 1260, Egypt
was under the control of the Bahri Mamluks
, while most of the Levant (aside from the Crusader states
) was still under the control of Ayyubid
princes. The Mongols, for their part, had combined their forces with that of their Christian vassals in the region, the Georgians
; the army of Cilician Armenia
under Hethum I, King of Armenia
; and the Franks of Bohemond VI of Antioch
. In what is described by the 20th-century historians René Grousset
and Lev Gumilev
as the "yellow crusade" (Croisade Jaune
the combined forces captured
the city of Aleppo
in January, and then on March 1, 1260, under the Mongol Christian general Kitbuqa
, took Damascus
. The last Ayyubid king, An-Nasir Yusuf
, was captured by the Mongols near Gaza
in 1260. However, Hulagu promised him that he would appoint An-Nasir Yusuf as his viceroy
With the Islamic power center of Baghdad and Syria gone, the center of Islamic power transferred to the Mamluks
Hulagu's intention at that point was to continue south through Palestine
to Egypt, to engage the Mamluks. However, Möngke died in late 1259, requiring Hulagu to return to Karakorum to engage in the councils on who the next Great Khan would be. Hulagu departed with the bulk of his forces, leaving only about 10,000 Mongol horsemen in Syria under Kitbuqa. Some of Kitbuqa's forces engaged in raids southwards towards Egypt, reaching as far as Gaza, where a Mongol garrison was established with 1,000 troops.
The Mamluks took advantage of the weakened state of the Mongol forces, and, negotiating a passive alliance with the remnants of the Crusader forces in Acre
, advanced northwards to engage the Mongols at the pivotal Battle of Ain Jalut
in September 1260. The Mamluks achieved a decisive victory, Kitbuqa was executed, and the battle established a high-water mark for the Mongol conquests. In previous defeats, the Mongols had always returned later to re-take the territory, but they were never able to avenge the loss at Ayn Jalut. The border of the Mongol Ilkhanate remained at the Tigris River
for the duration of Hulagu's dynasty. Sultan An-Nasir and his brother were executed after Hulagu heard the news of the defeat of Kitbuqa at Ain Jalut
In December 1260, Hulagu sent 6,000 troops back into Syria, but they were defeated at the First Battle of Homs
Caliphate of Cairo and the rebellion in Mosul
After the fall of Baghdad
in 1258, a few of Abbasid
princes fled to Syria and Egypt. There, the Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, under the Mamluks. But their authority was limited to being figureheads. First of the Caliphs in Cairo
, Al-Mustansir II
was dispatched to Mesopotamia
by Baibars. The Caliph was reinforced with Syrian auxiliaries and the Bedouins
. However, he was totally crushed by the Mongol vanguard in South Iraq in 1262. The Mongol protectorate
and ruler of Mosul
, Badr al-Din's sons sided with the Mamluks and rebelled against the rule of Hulagu. This led to the destruction of the city state and the Mongols finally suppressed the rebellion in 1265.
The Mamluks under Baibars (yellow) fought off the Franks and the Mongols during the Ninth Crusade
The second Mongol invasion of Syria took place in October 1271, when 10,000 Mongols and Seljuk auxiliaries moved southwards from Rûm
and captured Aleppo; however they retreated back beyond the Euphrates when the Mamluk leader Baibars
marched on them from Egypt.
In the second half of the 13th century, civil war had erupted in the Mongol Empire
. In the Middle East, this manifested as conflict between the Mongols of the Golden Horde
, and the Mongols of the Ilkhanate
, who battled over claims on Georgia
. Both the Golden Horde and the Ilkhanate sought to strengthen their position via trade agreements or other types of alliances with other powers in the area. In 1261, Berke
of the Golden Horde allied with the Mamluk
against their common enemy the Ilkhanate. This alliance was both strategic, and also in terms of trade exchanges, as the Egyptians had been the Golden Horde's long-standing trade partner and ally in the Mediterranean.
Conflict between the Golden Horde and the Il-Khans
The two Western Mongol realms, the Golden Horde
and the Il-Khanate
, were already in open war. The roots of the conflict were related to battles between the descendants of Genghis Khan
over the control of the Empire. The immediate successor to Genghis Khan was his son Ögedei
, but the leadership was then taken by force by the descendants of Genghis' son Tolui
. During the reign of Kublai Khan
(son of Genghis' son Tolui
), descendants of Genghis's other sons Ögedei
, and Jochi
sought to oppose the rule of Kublai. The Ilkhanate
had been founded by Hulagu
, another of Tolui's sons, who was therefore loyal to Kublai. The Golden Horde
had been founded by Genghis' son Jochi
, following the Mongol invasion of Central Asia
. Genghis had designated several of the territories south of the Caucasus
to Jochi, specifically Georgia
, and the Seljukid Sultanate
Hulagu, with the backing of his brother the Great Khan Kublai, invaded and captured these territories in 1256, even installing his capital in the center of the disputed territories, at Maragha
, the leader of the Golden Horde
, could not tolerate this infringement of his inheritance,
and a drawn-out conflict between the two Mongol realms continued well into the 14th century.
Ethnic and religious affinities
Various affinities led to a more or less natural alliance between the Mongols of the Golden Horde and the Mamluks of Egypt. The Mamluks' Empire had been founded by former slaves bought from the Kipchack
territory of southern Russia, which was now an important segment of the Mongol Golden Horde. There were therefore already cultural affinities between large segments of the Mongol Horde and the ruling elite of Egypt.
Berke's Turkic subjects also spoke the same Turkic language as the Mamluks.
Further, the Golden Horde, under Berke
's leadership, was the first of the Mongol states to convert to Islam,
which lent to solidarity with the Islamic realms to the south.
On the other hand, the Il-Khan rulers were highly favourable to Christianity, and did not commit to Islam until 1295, when the Ilkhan Ghazan
, a descendant of Tolui, formerly converted when he took the throne.
Even after his conversion though, he continued to battle the Mamluks for control of Syria, while simultaneously seeking an alliance with Christian Europe.
Mamluk-Golden Horde rapprochement
The Golden Horde entered into a defensive alliance with the Mamluks in Egypt, with the agreement being that each realm would intervene if the other was attacked by the Ilkhanate.
This required the Il-khan to devote forces to both his northern and southern borders, and never use all forces in a single battle. On multiple occasions, the forces of the Ilkhanate would start a campaign towards Syria in the south, only to be forced to recall troops within a few months because of attacks from the Golden Horde in the north.
The third major invasion took place in 1281 under Abaqa Khan
. Having crossed the Euphrates and captured Aleppo, the Mongols of the Ilkhanate moved as far south as Homs
with 80,000 men before they were beaten back to the Euphrates
river at the Second Battle of Homs
The Il-khan Tekuder
. 1282–1284) was friendly to Islam, and sent a letter to the Mamluk sultan to broach the subject of peace, but Tekuder's envoy was arrested by the Mamluks. Tekuder's conversion to Islam and attempts to make peace with the Mamluks were not popular with the other nobles of the Ilkhanate. When Tekuder's brother Arghun
challenged him for the throne, Tekuder sought assistance in vain from the Mamluks, but was executed. Arghun (r
. 1284–1291) took power, and as directed by the Great Khan Kublai
. 1260–1294) continued Mongol attempts to conquer Syria.
The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War: 1299–1303
In late 1299, the Mongol Ilkhan Mahmud Ghazan
, son of Arghun, took his army and crossed the Euphrates river to again invade Syria. They continued south until they were slightly north of Homs,
and successfully took Aleppo
. There, Ghazan was joined by forces from his vassal state of Cilician Armenia.
The Mamluk relief force sent from Damascus
met the Mongol army northeast of Homs, at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
(sometimes called the Battle of Homs) in December 1299. The Mongols had some 60,000 troops, with about 40,000 Georgian and Armenian auxiliaries, and routed the Egyptian Mamluks with their much smaller force of 20,000–30,000 troops. The Mamluks retreated, and were harassed by Maronite and Druze bowmen who wanted independence from the Mamluks. One group of Mongols also split off from Ghazan's army, and pursued the retreating Mamluk troops as far as Gaza
pushing them back to Egypt.
1300–1301 operations from Ruad
and Mongol offensives under Ghazan
's general Kutluka.
The bulk of Ghazan's forces then proceeded onward towards Damascus
. Some of the populace of Damascus upon hearing of the Mongol approach had fled to Egypt, and the governor of the city, Arjawash, had entrenched himself deep inside the Citadel of Damascus
. The Mongols besieged the city for ten days, which surrendered between December 30, 1299, and January 6, 1300, though its Citadel resisted.
Ghazan then withdrew most of his forces in February, promising to return in the winter of 1300–1301 to attack Egypt.
The reason for the withdrawal is believed to be either the Chagatai
Mongols invading their eastern borders, or the need to retreat to areas where there was better grazing room for the horses. The Mamluks had learned that the availability of pastures was important to the Mongols, and so had taken to burning pastureland so as to prevent the rapid advance of the Mongol cavalry. After Ghazan's main force withdrew, only about 10,000 horsemen remained in Syria, under the Mongol general Mulay
With the retreat of the majority of forces from both sides, for about three months, until the Mamluks returned in May 1300, Mulay's forces were in technical control over Syria,
and some Mongols engaged in raids as far south as Jerusalem and Gaza.
However, when the Mamluks returned from Egypt, the remaining Mongols retreated with little resistance.
Also in early 1300, two Frankish rulers, Guy d'Ibelin
and Jean II de Giblet
, had moved in with their troops from Cyprus in response to Ghazan's earlier call. They had established a base in the castle of Nephin
in the lordship of Gibelet (Byblos
) on the Syrian coast with the intention of joining him, but Ghazan was already gone.
They also started to besiege the new city of Tripoli, but in vain,
and then returned to Cyprus.
In late 1300, Ghazan's forces had dealt with the distraction of the Chagatai
invasion on their northern border, and once again turned their attention to Syria. They crossed the Euphrates river between December 14, 1300 and November 1, 1301. Again, the Mamluk army in Syria withdrew without engaging in combat, which resulted in a panic in Damascus when they heard of the new threat from the Mongols. The Syrians of Hamat were able to achieve a small victory against the Mongols at a battle near Aleppo by the post of Hamat. This created order in Damascus, enough for the governor to send for a larger relief force from Egypt. However, the Mongols had already left Syria due to a death in Ghazan Khan
's family.
Dominion of Bahri Mamluks (red)
The Ilkhanate returned to Syria in 1303, travelling unopposed down the Levant until they reached Damascus. However, near Damascus they were once again soundly defeated by the Mamluks at the Battle of Marj al-Saffar
in April 1303.
Final Stage: 1312
In 1312 , 33, the new khan of the Ilkhanate, Öljaitü
, pursued an aggressive policy to consolidate his rule, subduing the Caspian Province of Gilan and destroying the autonomous principality of Herat. Encouraged by the defection of some Syrian emirs, Öljaitü decided to cross the Euphrates in 1312 to attack the Mamluk Sultanate. He laid siege to the heavily fortified town of Rahbat
. After about a month of fighting in which they suffered heavy casualties, the Mongols ultimately failed to take the fortified place and withdrew. This was to be the last major Mongol incursion into the Levant.
Treaty of Aleppo
The Mongol world, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire
Following the defeat of the Mongol ruler Ghazan
and the progressive conversion of the Il-Khanate to Islam
, the Mongols finally were amenable to ceasing hostilities. The first contacts to establish a treaty of peace were communicated via the slave trader al-Majd al-Sallami. After the initial communications, more formal letters and embassies were exchanged.
Under the Ilkhanate ruler Abu Sa'id
, who was following the advice of his custodian Chupan
, the treaty with the Mamluks was ratified in 1322/1323. Indeed, the Mongols never made peace with the Muslims until they themselves became Muslims. A situation analogous to the pagan Viking conquest of Normandy and England, where Viking Scandinavians never truly made peace with the Christian Kingdoms until they themselves became Christian.
Following the treaty and a period of peace, the Il-Khanate further disintegrated, and effectively disappeared during the 14th century.
- ^ D. S. Benson The Mongol campaigns in Asia, p.179
- ^ Jeremiah Curtin The Mongols: A history, p.178
- ^ Vasiliev, Alexander A. (1958). History of the Byzantine Empire, 324–1453. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 600. ISBN 0299809269.
- ^ Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich (1987). Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom: The Legend of the Kingdom of Prester John. Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN 0521322146.
- ^ The Cambridge History of Egypt: Islamic Egypt, 640-1517, p.255
- ^ Ryley-Smith in Atlas of the Crusades, p.112 (French Edition): "When the Golden Horde allied with the Mamluks, the Ilkhanate looked towards an alliance with the Christians"
- ^ "The alliance which Berke had created between the Mongols and the Mamluks against the Ilkhanate remained constant", Morgan, p.144
- ^ "The Mongols of Iran were all but encircled by a chain of alliances linking the Mamluks to the Golden Horde, and this power to Kaidu", Setton, p.529
- ^ "The friendship between Egypt and the Golden Horde, which would last until the conclusion of peace between the Mamluks and the Il-Khan in 1320" The New Cambridge Medieval History, page 710, by David Abulafia - 1999
- ^ "In order to fight their common enemy [the Ilkhanate], the Kipchack Mongols and the Mamluks entered into an alliance." Luisetto, p.157
- ^ Mantran, Robert (Fossier, Robert, ed.) "A Turkish or Mongolian Islam" in The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 1250-1520, p. 298
- ^ Morgan, Mongols and the West
- ^ a b Luisetto, p.155
- ^ a b The Mongols, David Morgan, p.144
- ^ "It is a fact of crucial importance that the Mamluks of Egypt and the Mongols of the Golden Horde were natural allies (…) simply because the ruling class of Egypt and an important and influential segment of the Golden Horde belonged in fact to the same ethnic group." A History of the Crusades, Kenneth Meyer Setton, p.527
- ^ Setton, p.527
- ^ By ultimately becoming Muslims, the Mongols of the Golden Horde conspicuously identified themselves with their Turkish subjects and with the people to the south, rather than with the Christian Russians to the North" Morgan, p.128
- ^ "On the contrary, Hulagu, accompanied by Dokuz Khatun greatly favoured Christianity", Luisetto, p.155-156
- ^ "In order to fight their common enemy [the Ilkhanate], the Kipchack Mongols and the Mamluks entered into an alliance. This was based on a defensive rather than an offensive policy: if one of their territories was attacked, the second would fight for the other, on his own front, in order to create a diversion or weaken enough Persian troops so that their action would be stopped." Luisetto, p.157
- ^ "Before invading Syria in 1299, Ghazan was forced to send troops in the Caucasus, in order to reinforce his Christian-Mongol troops. These were so many soldiers who could not fight in Palestine.", Luisetto, p.156
- ^ Luisetto, p.158
- ^ Demurger, p.143
- ^ Demurger, p.142 (French edition) "He was soon joined by King Hethum, whose forces seem to have included Hospitallers and Templars from the kingdom of Armenia, who participate to the rest of the campaign."
- ^ Demurger, p.142 "The Mongols pursued the retreating troops towards the south, but stopped at the level of Gaza"
- ^ Demurger 142-143
- ^ Runciman, p.439
- ^ Demurger, p.146
- ^ Demurger (p.146, French edition): "After the Mamluk forces retreated south to Egypt, the main Mongol forces retreated north in February, Ghazan leaving his general Mulay to rule in Syria".
- ^ "Meanwhile the Mongol and Armenian troops raided the country as far south as Gaza." Schein, 1979, p. 810
- ^ Amitai, "Mongol Raids into Palestine (AD 1260 and 1300)"
- ^ "Arab historians however, like Moufazzal Ibn Abil Fazzail, an-Nuwairi and Makrizi, report that the Mongols raided the country as far as Jerusalem and Gaza"— Sylvia Schein, p.810
- ^ The Arab historian Yahia Michaud, in the 2002 book Ibn Taymiyya, Textes Spirituels I-XVI, Chap XI, describes that there were some firsthand accounts at the time, of forays of the Mongols into Palestine, and quotes two ancient Arab sources stating that Jerusalem was one of the cities that was invaded by the Mongols
- ^ Demurger, p.144
- ^ "After Ghazan had left, some Christians from Cyprus arrived in Gibelet and Nefin, led by Guy, Count of Jaffa, and Jean d'Antioche [Jean II de Giblet] with their knights, and from there proceeded to go to Armenia where the camp of the Tatars was. But Ghazan was gone, so they had to return."|Le Templier de Tyr, 614. Le Templier de Tyr, 614: "Et apres que Cazan fu partis aucuns crestiens de Chipre estoient ales a Giblet et a Nefin et en seles terres de seles marines les quels vous nomeray: Guy conte de Jaffe et messire Johan dantioche et lor chevaliers; et de la cuyderent aler en Ermenie quy estoit a lost des Tatars. Cazan sen estoit retornes: il se mist a revenir"
- ^ Jean Richard, p.481
- ^ J.J. Saunders, "History of the Mongol Conquests," page 144
- ^ Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization," page 573
- ^ a b Meri, p.541
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- Amitai, Reuven (1987). "Mongol Raids into Palestine (AD 1260 and 1300)". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 236–255.
- Grousset, René (1935). Histoire des Croisades III, 1188-1291 (in French). Editions Perrin. ISBN 2-262-02569-X.
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- Maalouf, Amin (1984). The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-0898-4.
- Maalouf, Amin (1983). Les croisades vues par les Arabes. JC Lattes.
- Michaud, Yahia (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) (2002). Ibn Taymiyya, Textes Spirituels I-XVI (PDF) (in French). "Le Musulman", Oxford-Le Chebec.
- Morgan, David (2007). The Mongols (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-3539-9.
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