Classical Arabic has two diphthongs
, realised as the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/, respectively, which developed further into /iː/ and /uː/, respectively, in urban North African dialects
Some notable exceptions to this monophthongization are some rural Lebanese dialects, which preserve the original pronunciations of some of the diphthongs. Other urban Lebanese dialects, such as in Beirut
, use the mid vowels /eː/ and /oː/. Another exception is the Sfax
dialect of Tunisian Arabic
, which is known mostly for keeping the Classical Arabic diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/.
Some English sounds
that may be perceived by native speakers as single vowels are in fact diphthongs; an example is the vowel sound in pay
, pronounced /ˈpeɪ/. However, in some dialects (e.g. Scottish English
) /eɪ/ is a monophthong [e
In Received Pronunciation
, when a diphthong is followed by schwa
(or possibly by an unstressed /ɪ/), a series of simplifying changes may take place, sometimes referred to as smoothing
To begin with, the diphthong may change to a monophthong by the dropping of the second element and slight lengthening of the first element: /aɪ/→[aː], /aʊ/→[ɑː], /eɪ/→[eː], /əʊ/→[ɜː]. The vowels /iː/ and /uː/, whose usual forms are in fact slightly diphthongal (close to [ɪi], [ʊu]), may undergo the same change and become [iː], [uː].
Next, the following schwa may become non-syllabic, forming a diphthong with (what is now) the preceding monophthong. In certain cases, this diphthong can itself be monophthongized. Thus the original sequences /aʊ/+/ə/ and /aɪ/+/ə/ can end up as simply [ɑː] and [aː].
For example, the citation form
of the word our
is /ˈaʊə/, but in speech, it is often pronounced as [ɑə] (two syllables or a diphthong), or as a monophthong [ɑː]. Similarly, fire
/ˈfaɪə/ can reduce to [faə] or [faː].
, the pure vowels /ɛː/ and /ɔː/ are written with the letters for the diphthongs ai
and related alphabets. The vowel sequences /aːɪ/ and /aːʊ/ exist in Hindi, but are written as āi
, with long initial vowels.
The so-called early frühneuhochdeutsche Monophthongierung
(monophthongization in the earliest stages of New High German) is particularly important in today's Standard German.
It changed the diphthongs ie
[uə] and üe
[yə] to respectively ie
[uː] and ü
before 11th century > nowadays
liebe [iə] > liebe [iː]
guote [uə] > gute [uː]
brüeder [yə] > Brüder [yː]
The digraph "ie" has kept its spelling despite monophthongization.
The New High German monophthongization started in the 11th century in the center of the German-speaking area. Bavarian
dialects in the south did not undergo the monophthongization changes and thus these dialects remain in an older language state.
underwent monophthongization and so the digraph ⟨ai⟩, which formerly represented a diphthong, represents the sound /ɛ/ or /e/ in Modern French
. Similarly, the digraph ⟨au⟩ and trigraph ⟨eau⟩ represent the monophthong /o/ due to the same process.
underwent monophthongization two times─18th century, and 20th century. Their common point is all of monophthongized vowels was falling diphthongs. In 18th century, /ɐi əi/ monophthongized to /ɛ e/. Similarly, in 20th century /oi ui/ monophthongized to /ø y/.
- ^ Garcarz, Michał (2013). African American Hip Hop Slang: A Sociolinguistic Study Of Street Speech. Wrocłąw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ATUT. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-83-7432-938-5.
- ^ Wells, J.C., Accents of English, CUP 1982, pp. 238ff.
- ^ Waterman, J.T., A history of the German language, 1966.
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 19:24
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