This article is about a historical group of Muslims. For other uses, see Moor
The term has also been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general,
especially those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa.
During the colonial era, the Portuguese
introduced the names "Ceylon Moors
" and "Indian Moors
" in South Asia and Sri Lanka
, and the Bengali Muslims
were also called Moors.
In the Philippines, the longstanding Muslim community, which predates the arrival of the Spanish, now self-identifies as the "Moro people
", an exonym
introduced by Spanish colonizers due to their Muslim faith.
During the classical period, the Romans
interacted with, and later conquered, parts of Mauretania
, a state that covered modern northern Morocco
, western Algeria
, and the Spanish cities Ceuta
tribes of the region were noted in the Classics
, which was subsequently rendered as "Moors" in English and in related variations in other European languages. Mauri
(Μαῦροι) is recorded as the native name by Strabo
in the early 1st century. This appellation was also adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii
The Moors were also mentioned by Tacitus
as having revolted against the Roman Empire
in 24 AD
During the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri
was used to refer to Berbers and Arabs in the coastal regions of Northwest Africa.
The 16th century scholar Leo Africanus
(c. 1494–1554) identified the Moors (Mauri
) as the native Berber inhabitants of the former Roman Africa Province
). He described Moors as one of five main population groups on the continent alongside Egyptians
(Abassins), Arabians and Cafri
In medieval Romance languages
, variations of the Latin
word for the Moors (for instance, Italian
) developed different applications and connotations. The term initially denoted a specific Berber people in western Libya
, but the name acquired more general meaning during the medieval period, associated with "Muslim
", similar to associations with "Saracens
". During the context of the Crusades
and the Reconquista
, the term Moors included the derogatory suggestion of "infidels".
can mean "dark-skinned" in Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and the Philippines. Also in Spanish, morapio
is a humorous name for "wine", especially that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e., pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, moro
came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Filipino Moros from Mindanao, and the moriscos
refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", moreno
, etc. It was also used as a nickname; for instance, the Milanese
Duke Ludovico Sforza
was called Il Moro
because of his dark complexion.
In Portugal, mouro
) may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura
, where "Moor" implies "alien" and "non-Christian". These beings were siren-like fairies with golden or reddish hair and a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties.
From this root, the name moor is applied to unbaptized children, meaning not Christian.
means moor and also refers to a mythical people.
Muslims located in South Asia
were distinguished by the Portuguese historians into two groups: Mouros da Terra ("Moors of the Land") and the Mouros da Arabia/Mouros de Meca ("Moors from Arabia/Mecca" or "Paradesi Muslims").
The Mouros da Terra were either descendants of any native convert (mostly from any of the former lower or untouchable castes) to Islam or descendants of a marriage alliance between a Middle Eastern individual and an Indian woman.
Within the context of Portuguese colonization
, in Sri Lanka
), Muslims of Arab origin are called Ceylon Moors
, not to be confused with "Indian Moors" of Sri Lanka (see Sri Lankan Moors
). Sri Lankan Moors (a combination of "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors") make up 12% of the population. The Ceylon Moors (unlike the Indian Moors) are descendants of Arab traders who settled there in the mid-6th century. When the Portuguese arrived in the early 16th century, they labelled all the Muslims in the island as Moors as they saw some of them resembling the Moors in North Africa. The Sri Lankan government continues to identify the Muslims in Sri Lanka as "Sri Lankan Moors", sub-categorised into "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors".
Moors of the Maghreb
The Great Mosque of Kairouan
was founded by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi
in 670 during the Islamic conquest, to provide a place of worship for recently converted or immigrating Muslims.
In the late 7th and early 8th centuries CE, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate
, established after the death of Muhammad, underwent a period of rapid growth. In 647 CE, 40,000 Arabs forced the Byzantine
governor of northern Africa to submit and pay tribute, but failed to permanently occupy the region.
After an interlude, during which the Muslims fought a civil war
, the invasions resumed in 665, seizing Byzantine North Africa up to Bugia
over the course of a series of campaigns, lasting until 689. A Byzantine counterattack largely expelled the Arabs but left the region vulnerable. Intermittent war over the inland provinces of North Africa continued for the next two decades. Further civil war delayed the continuation of further conquest, but an Arab assault took Carthage
and held it against a Byzantine counterattack.
Although a Christian
and pagan Berber
rebellion pushed out the Arabs temporarily, the Romanized urban population preferred the Arabs to the Berbers and welcomed a renewed and final conquest that left northern Africa in Muslim hands by 698. Over the next decades, the Berber and urban populations of northern Africa gradually converted to Islam, although for separate reasons.
The Arabic language was also adopted. Initially, the Arabs required only vassalage from the local inhabitants rather than assimilation, a process which took a considerable time.
The groups that inhabited the Maghreb following this process became known collectively as Moors. Although the Berbers would later expel
the Arabs from the Maghreb and form temporarily independent states, that effort failed to dislodge the usage of the collective term.
Modern use in parts of the Maghreb
Moors of Iberia
This is a large mural located on the ceiling of the Hall of Kings of the Alhambra
which possibly depicts the first ten sultans of the Nasrid dynasty. It is a late-14th-century Gothic painting by a Christian Toledan artist.
The Maghreb fell into a civil war
in 739 that lasted until 743 known as the Berber Revolt
. The Berbers revolted against the Umayyads
, putting an end to Eastern dominion over the Maghreb. Despite racial tensions, Arabs and Berbers intermarried frequently. A few years later, the Eastern branch of the Umayyad dynasty
was dethroned by the Abbasids
and the Umayyad Caliphate overthrown in the Abbasid revolution (746-750)
. Abd al-Rahman I
, who was of Arab-Berber
lineage, managed to evade the Abbasids and flee to the Maghreb and then Iberia, where he founded the Emirate of Córdoba
and the Andalusian
branch of the Umayyad dynasty. The Moors ruled northern Africa and Al-Andalus for several centuries thereafter. Ibn Hazm
, the polymath, mentions that many of the Caliphs in the Umayyad Caliphate and the Caliphate of Córdoba
were blond and had light eyes.
Ibn Hazm mentions that he preferred blondes, and notes that there was much interest in blondes in al-Andalus amongst the rulers and regular Muslims:
All the Caliphs of the Banu Marwan (God have mercy on their souls!), and especially the sons of al-Nasir
, were without variation or exception disposed by nature to prefer blondes. I have myself seen them, and known others who had seen their forebears, from the days of al-Nasir's reign down to the present day; every one of them has been fair-haired, taking after their mothers, so that this has become a hereditary trait with them; all but Sulaiman al-Zafir (God have mercy on him!), whom I remember to have had black ringlets and a black beard. As for al-Nasir
and al-Hakam al-Mustansir
(may God be pleased with them!), I have been informed by my late father, the vizier, as well as by others, that both of them were blond and blue-eyed. The same is true of Hisham al-Mu'aiyad
, Muhammad al-Mahdi, and `Abd al-Rahman al-Murtada (may God be merciful to them all!); I saw them myself many times, and had the honour of being received by them, and I remarked that they all had fair hair and blue eyes.
The languages spoken in the parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule were Andalusian Arabic
; they became extinct after the expulsion of the Moriscos
, but Arabic language influence on the Spanish language
can still be found today. The Muslims were resisted in parts of the Iberian Peninsula in areas of the northwest (such as Asturias
, where they were defeated at the battle of Covadonga
) and the largely Basque Country
in the Pyrenees
. Though the number of Moorish colonists was small, many native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam
. By 1000, according to Ronald Segal
, some 5,000,000 of Iberia's 7,000,000 inhabitants, most of them descended from indigenous Iberian converts, were Muslim. There were also Sub-Saharan Africans
who had been absorbed into al-Andalus to be used as soldiers and slaves
. The Berber and Sub-Saharan African soldiers were known as "tangerines" because they were imported through Tangier
The Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in Iberia fell under the rule of the Almohad Caliphate
in 1153. This second stage was guided by a version of Islam that left behind the more tolerant practices of the past.
Al-Andalus broke up into a number of taifas
(fiefs), which were partly consolidated under the Caliphate of Córdoba.
Moorish and Christian Reconquista battle, taken from The Cantigas de Santa María
The Moorish Kingdom of Granada
continued for three more centuries in southern Iberia. On 2 January 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada
surrendered to the armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragón
and Isabella I of Castile
, the "Catholic Monarchs
"). The Moorish inhabitants received no military aid or rescue from other Muslim nations.
The remaining Jews were also forced to leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity, or be killed for refusing to do so. In 1480, to exert social and religious control, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to allow the Inquisition in Spain
. The Muslim population of Granada rebelled in 1499
. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the Treaty of Granada (1491)
. In 1501, Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to the Muslims of Granada: they could either convert to Christianity or be expelled.
Court of the lions in the Alhambra
, a Moorish palace built in the 14th century in Granada, Spain
The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly. They were respectively called marranos
. However, in 1567 King Philip II
directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional dress, and prohibited the use of Arabic
. In reaction, there was a Morisco uprising
in the Alpujarras
from 1568 to 1571. In the years from 1609 to 1614, the government expelled Moriscos. The historian Henri Lapeyre estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants.
Some Muslims converted to Christianity and remained permanently in Iberia. This is indicated by a "high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%)" that "attests to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants."
According to historian Richard A. Fletcher
"the number of Arabs who settled in Iberia was very small. 'Moorish' Iberia does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e., Berbers from Algeria and Morocco."
In the meantime, Spanish and Portuguese expeditions
westward from the New World
spread Christianity to India, the Malay peninsula
, and the Philippines
. By 1521, the ships of Magellan
had reached that island archipelago, which they named Las Islas Filipinas
, after Philip II of Spain
. In Mindanao
, the Spaniards named the kris
-bearing people as Moros
or 'Moors'. Today this ethnic group in Mindanao, who are generally Filipino Muslim, are called "Moros".
Moors of Sicily
The first Muslim conquest of Sicily began in 827, though it was not until 902 that almost the entire island was in the control of the Aghlabids
, with the exception of some minor strongholds in the rugged interior. During that period some parts of southern Italy fell under Muslim control, most notably the port city of Bari
, which formed the Emirate of Bari
from 847–871. In 909, the Aghlabids
was replaced by the Isma'ili
rulers of the Fatimid Caliphate
Four years later, the Fatimid governor was ousted from Palermo when the island declared its independence under Emir Ahmed ibn-Kohrob. The language spoken in Sicily under Muslim rule was Siculo-Arabic
In 1038, a Byzantine
army under George Maniakes
crossed the strait of Messina. This army included a corps of Normans
that saved the situation in the first clash against the Muslims from Messina. After another decisive victory in the summer of 1040, Maniaces halted his march to lay siege to Syracuse
. Despite his success, Maniaces was removed from his position, and the subsequent Muslim counter-offensive reconquered all the cities captured by the Byzantines.
The Norman Robert Guiscard
, son of Tancred, invaded Sicily in 1060. The island was split between three Arab emirs, and the Christian population in many parts of the island rose up against the ruling Muslims. One year later, Messina fell, and in 1072 Palermo was taken by the Normans. The loss of the cities, each with a splendid harbor, dealt a severe blow to Muslim power on the island. Eventually all of Sicily was taken. In 1091, Noto in the southern tip of Sicily and the island of Malta, the last Arab strongholds, fell to the Christians. Islamic authors noted the tolerance of the Norman kings of Sicily. Ali ibn al-Athir
wrote: "They [the Muslims] were treated kindly, and they were protected, even against the Franks
. Because of that, they had great love for King Roger."
The Muslim problem characterized Hohenstaufen rule in Sicily under Holy Roman Emperors Henry VI
and his son, Frederick II
. Many repressive measures were introduced by Frederick II to appease the popes, who were intolerant of Islam in the heart of Christendom
. This resulted in a rebellion by Sicilian Muslims, which in turn triggered organized resistance and systematic reprisals and marked the final chapter of Islam in Sicily. The complete eviction of Muslims and the annihilation of Islam in Sicily was completed by the late 1240s when the final deportations to Lucera
The remaining population of Sicilian Muslims converted to Catholicism
due to the incentives put in place by Fredrich II.
Some Muslims from Lucera would also later convert due to oppression on the mainland and had their property returned to them and returned to Sicily.
During the reigns of Frederick II as well as his son, Manfred.
As slaves, a large amount of Muslims were brought to farm lands and perform domestic labor. Enslaved persons
in Sicily were not afforded the same privileges as the Muslims in mainland Italy.
The trend of importing a considerable amount of slaves from the Muslim world did not stop with the Hohenstaufen
but was amplified under the Aragonese
and Spanish crowns
, and was in fact continued until as late as 1838  
The majority of which would also come receive the label 'Moors'
Coat of arms of Aragon
with Moors' heads.
Arms of the wealthy Bristol merchant and shipper William II Canynges
(d.1474), as depicted on his canopied tomb in St Mary Redcliffe
Church, showing the couped
heads of three Moors wreathed at the temples
Moors—or more frequently their heads, often crowned—appear with some frequency in medieval European heraldry
, though less so since the Middle Ages. The term ascribed to them in Anglo-Norman blazon
(the language of English heraldry) is maure
, though they are also sometimes called moore
appear in European heraldry from at least as early as the 13th century,
and some have been attested as early as the 11th century in Italy
where they have persisted in the local heraldry
well into modern times in Corsica
Armigers bearing moors or moors' heads may have adopted them for any of several reasons, to include symbolizing military victories in the Crusades
, as a pun on the bearer's name in the canting arms
of Morese, Negri, Saraceni, etc., or in the case of Frederick II
, possibly to demonstrate the reach of his empire.
The arms of Pope Benedict XVI
feature a moor's head, crowned and collared red, in reference to the arms of Freising, Germany
In the case of Corsica and Sardinia, the blindfolded moors' heads in the four quarters have long been said to represent the four Moorish emirs who were defeated by Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona
in the 11th century, the four moors' heads around a cross having been adopted to the arms of Aragon around 1281–1387, and Corsica and Sardinia having come under the dominion of the king of Aragon in 1297.
In Corsica, the blindfolds were lifted to the brow in the 18th century as a way of expressing the island's newfound independence.
Moors on the North African coast, as depicted in Britain in 1739
As a large and diffuse ethnic group, the Moors consisted mostly of Berbers from Morocco and Western Algeria, sub-Saharan Africans from Mauritania, Northern Senegal, and Western Mali, Arab Bedouins, and Arab elite mostly from Yemen and Syria. Most writings on Moors applied darkness of skin as a trait for any and every Muslim invader of Europe.
In popular culture
- Tariq ibn Ziyad, Moorish general who defeated the Visigoths and conquered Hispania in 711.
- Abd ar-Rahman I, founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba in 756; along with its succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba, the dynasty ruled Islamic Iberia for three centuries.
- Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, Andalusian historian and grammarian.
- Yahya al-Laithi, Andalusian scholar who introduced the Maliki school of jurisprudence in Al-Andalus.
- Abbas ibn Firnas, 810–887, Berber inventor, poet, and scientist in the Emirate of Córdoba.
- Maslama al-Majriti, died 1007, Andalusian writer believed to have been the author of the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity and the Picatrix.
- Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), Andalusian physician and surgeon whose work Al-Tasrif, published in 1000, remained influential for centuries.
- Said Al-Andalusi, 1029–1070, Andalusian Qadi, historian, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer.
- Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel), 1029–1087, Andalusian astronomer and engineer who developed the equatorium and universal (latitude-independent) astrolabe and compiled a Zij later used as a basis for the Tables of Toledo.
- Artephius, a writer to whom a number of alchemical texts are ascribed.
- Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), died 1138, Andalusian physicist and polymath whose theory of motion, including the concept of a reaction force, influenced the development of classical mechanics.
- Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), 1091–1161, Andalusian physician and polymath who discovered the existence of parasites and pioneered experimental surgery.
- Muhammad al-Idrisi, circa 1100–1166, Moorish geographer and polymath who drew the Tabula Rogeriana, the most accurate world map in pre-modern times.
- Ibn Tufail, circa 1105–1185, Arabic writer and polymath who wrote Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, a philosophical novel.
- Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 1126–1198, classical Islamic philosopher and polymath who wrote The Incoherence of the Incoherence and several Aristotelian commentaries, and established the school of Averroism.
- Ibn al-Baitar, died 1248, Andalusian botanist and pharmacist who compiled the most extensive pharmacopoeia and botanical compilation in pre-modern times.
- Ibn Khaldun, who wrote about sociology, historiography and economics in the Muqaddimah in 1377.
- Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī, 1412–1486, Moorish mathematician who helped popularize algebraic symbolism.
- Leo Africanus, 1494–1554, Andalusian geographer, author and diplomat, who was captured by Spanish pirates and sold as a slave, but later baptized and freed.
- Estevanico, also referred to as "Stephen the Moor", was an explorer in the service of Spain of what is now the southwest of the United States.
- Ibn Battuta, an Islamic scholar and Moorish explorer who is generally considered one of the greatest travellers of all time.
- Ibn Hazm, a Moorish polymath who was considered one of the leading thinkers of the Muslim World and is widely acknowledged as the father of Comparative religion studies.
- Ibn Idhari, a Moorish historian who was the author of (Al-Bayan al-Mughrib) an important medieval text on the history of the Maghreb and Iberia.
- Ibn Arabi, Andalusian Sufi mystic and philosopher.
- Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi, a judge and scholar of Maliki law from al-Andalus.
...Hindu Kristao Moir sogle bhau
- Hindus, Christians and Muslims are all brothers...
- ^ a b Africanus, Leo (1526). The History and Description of Africa. Hakluyt Society. pp. 20 & 108. Retrieved 30 August 2017. the Mauri -- or Moors -- were the Berbers
- ^ The Arabs called the latter Muwalladun or Muladi. Menocal (2002). Ornament of the World, p. 16; Richard A Fletcher, Moorish Spain (University of California Press, 2006), pp.1,19.
- ^ Ross Brann, "The Moors?", Andalusia, New York University. Quote: "Andalusi Arabic sources, as opposed to later Mudéjar and Morisco sources in Aljamiado and medieval Spanish texts, neither refer to individuals as Moors nor recognize any such group, community or culture."
- ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Moors" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 812.
- ^ Blackmore, Josiah (2009). Moorings: Portuguese Expansion and the Writing of Africa. U of Minnesota Press. p. xvi, 18. ISBN 978-0-8166-4832-0.
- ^ Menocal, María Rosa (2002). Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Little, Brown, & Co. ISBN 0-316-16871-8, p. 241
- ^ John Randall Baker (1974). Race. Oxford University Press. p. 226. ISBN 9780192129543. Retrieved March 12, 2014. In one sense the word 'Moor' means Mohammedan Berbers and Arabs of North-western Africa, with some Syrians, who conquered most of Spain in the 8th century and dominated the country for hundreds of years.
- ^ Pieris, P.E. Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658-1796. American Ceylon Mission Press, Tellippalai Ceylon 1918
- ^ "Assessment of the status, development and diversification of fisheries-dependent communities: Mazara del Vallo Case study report" (PDF). European Commission. 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 28 September 2012. In the year 827, Mazara was occupied by the Arabs, who made the city an important commercial harbour. That period was probably the most prosperous in the history of Mazara.
- ^ Hillgarth, J. N. (2000). The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1700: The Formation of a Myth. University of Michigan Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-472-11092-6.
- ^ Diderot, Denis (1752). "Ceuta". Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert - Collaborative Translation Project: 871. hdl:2027/spo.did2222.0000.555.
- ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- ^ οἰκοῦσι δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα Μαυρούσιοι μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων λεγόμενοι, Μαῦροι δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν Ῥωμαίων καὶ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων "Here dwell a people called by the Greeks Maurusii, and by the Romans and the natives Mauri" Strabo, Geographica 17.3.2. Lewis and Short, Latin Dictionary, 1879 s.v. "Mauri"
- ^ Cornelius Tacitus, Arthur Murphy, The Historical Annals of Cornelius Tacitus: With Supplements, Volume 1 (D. Neall, 1829 ) p114.
- ^ Assouline, David. "'Moors' from Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Muslim Journeys. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World in the Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- ^ For an introduction to the culture of the Azawagh Arabs, see Rebecca Popenoe, Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a Saharan People. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0-415-28096-6
- ^ ASALE, RAE-. ""Diccionario de la lengua española" - Edición del Tricentenario". «Diccionario de la lengua española» - Edición del Tricentenario.
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- ^ Warwick Armstrong, James Anderson (2007). Geopolitics of European Union enlargement: the fortress empire. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-415-33939-1.
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- ^ Modood, Tariq; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Zapata-Barrero, Ricard (2006). Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship: a European approach. Routledge. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-415-35515-5.
- ^ Bekers, Elisabeth (2009). Transcultural modernities: narrating Africa in Europe. Rodopi. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-420-2538-7.
- ^ Lodovico Sforza, in: Thomas Gale, Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2005–2006
- ^ Xosé Manuel González Reboredo, Leyendas Gallegas de Tradición Oral (Galician Legends of the Oral Tradition), Galicia: Editorial Galaxia, 2004, p. 18, Googlebooks, accessed 12 Jul 2010 (in Spanish)
- ^ Rodney Gallop, Portugal: A Book of Folkways, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 1936; reprint CUP Archives, 1961, Googlebooks, accessed 12 Jul 2010.
- ^ Francisco Martins Sarmento, "A Mourama"Archived 2012-03-14 at the Wayback Machine, in Revista de Guimaraes, No. 100, 1990, Centro de Estudos de Património, Universidade do Minho, accessed 12 Jul 2010 (in Portuguese)
- ^ "Morris Student Plus". www1.euskadi.net. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014.
- ^ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (2012-04-30). The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700: A Political and Economic History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470672914.
- ^ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay."The Political Economy of Commerce: Southern India 1500-1650" Cambridge University Press, (2002)
- ^ "WWW Virtual Library: From where did the Moors come?". www.lankalibrary.com.
- ^ Rodd, Francis. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers: "A Sketch of the Arab Invasion of Ifriqiya in the First Century of the Hijra" Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 3, No. 4, (1925), 731-2
- ^ a b Lapidus, 200-201
- ^ "Sala de los Reyes", alhambradegranada.org
- ^ Board of the Alhambra, SALA DE LOS REYES
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- ^ Blakemore, Erin (12 December 2019). "Who were the Moors?". National Geographic. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
- ^ Richard A. Fletcher (2006-05-05). Moorish Spain. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780520248403.
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- ^ Ibn Hazm, طوق الحمامة
- ^ Richard A. Fletcher (2006-05-05). Moorish Spain. University of California Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780520248403.
- ^ Ronald Segal, Islam's Black Slaves (2003), Atlantic Books, ISBN 1-903809-81-9
- ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
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- ^ See History of Al-Andalus.
- ^ Adams et al., "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula", Cell, 2008. Quote: "Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile."
- ^ Elena Bosch, "The religious conversions of Jews and Muslims have had a profound impact on the population of the Iberian Peninsula"Archived 2009-05-21 at the Wayback Machine, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2008, Quote: "The study shows that religious conversions and the subsequent marriages between people of different lineage had a relevant impact on modern populations both in Spain, especially in the Balearic Islands, and in Portugal."
- ^ Richard Fletcher. Moorish Spain p. 10. University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-520-08496-4
- ^ Aubé, Pierre (2006). Les empires normands d'Orient. Editions Perrin. p. 168. ISBN 2-262-02297-6.
- ^ Abulafia, David (1988). Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. London: Allen Lane.
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- ^ Taylor, Julie Anne (2007-04-01). "Freedom and Bondage among Muslims in Southern Italy during the Thirteenth Century". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 27 (1): 71–77. doi:10.1080/13602000701308889. ISSN 1360-2004.
- ^ Bonazza, Giulia (2018-12-13). Abolitionism and the Persistence of Slavery in Italian States, 1750–1850. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-01349-3.
- ^ De Lucia, Lori (2020). Sicily and the Two Seas: The Cross Currents of Race and Slavery in Early Modern Palermo (Thesis). UCLA.
- ^ Goodman, Jack (2017-06-01). "Slavery and Manumission in Fourteenth-Century Palermo". Dissertations.
- ^ Abulafia, David (1985-01-01). "Catalan Merchants and the Western Mediterranean, 1236-1300: Studies in the Notarial Acts of Barcelona and Sicily". Viator. 16: 209–242. doi:10.1484/J.VIATOR.2.301424. ISSN 0083-5897.
- ^ Zeldes, Nadia (1999-12-01). "The account books of the Spanish inquisition in Sicily (1500–1550) as a source for the study of material culture in a Mediterranean country". Mediterranean Historical Review. 14 (2): 67–94. doi:10.1080/09518969908569759. ISSN 0951-8967.
- ^ Curl p. 502.
- ^ Pevsner, The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture.
- ^ Parker, James. "Man". A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- ^ a b c "Africans in medieval & Renaissance art: the Moor's head". Victoria and Albert Museum. 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- ^ Mons. Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo. "Coat of Arms of His Holiness Benedict XVI". The Holy See. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- ^ Sache, Ivan (2009-06-14). "Corsica (France, Traditional province)". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- ^ Curry, Ian (2012-03-18). "Blindfolded Moors - The Flags of Corsica and Sardinia". Vaguely Interesting. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- ^ In his July 15, 2005 blog article "Is that a Moor's head?", Mathew N. Schmalz refers to a discussion on the American Heraldry Society's website where at least one participant described the moor's head as a "potentially explosive image".
- ^ "Part IX: Offensive Armory". Rules for Submissions of the College of Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- ^ Assouline, David. "'Moors' from Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Muslim Journeys. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World in the Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- ^ Furtado, A. D. (1981). Goa, yesterday, to-day, tomorrow: an approach to various socio-economic and political issues in Goan life & re-interpretation of historical facts. Furtado's Enterprises. pp. 254 pages(page xviii).
This section's bibliographical information is not fully provided. If you know these sources and can provide full information, you can help Wikipedia by completing it.
- Jan R. Carew. Rape of Paradise: Columbus and the birth of racism in America. Brooklyn, NY: A&B Books, c. 1994.
- David Brion Davis, "Slavery: White, Black, Muslim, Christian." New York Review of Books, vol. 48, #11 July 5, 2001. Do not have exact pages.
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- Stanley Lane-Poole, assisted by E. J. W. Gibb and Arthur Gilman. The Story of Turkey. NY: Putnam, 1888.
- Stanley Lane-Poole. The Story of the Barbary Corsairs. NY: Putnam,1890.
- Stanley Lane-Poole, The History of the Moors in Spain.
- J. A. (Joel Augustus) Rogers. Nature Knows No Color Line: research into the Negro ancestry in the white race. New York: 1952.
- Ronald Segal. Islam's Black Slaves: the other Black diaspora. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 2001.
- Ivan Van Sertima, ed. The Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992. (Journal of African civilizations, vol. 11).
- Frank Snowden. Before Color Prejudice: the ancient view of blacks. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1983.
- Frank Snowden. Blacks in antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman experience. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970.
- David M. Goldenberg. The Curse of Ham: race and slavery in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, c2003.
- Lucotte and Mercier, various genetic studies
- Eva Borreguero. "The Moors Are Coming, the Moors Are Coming! Encounters with Muslims in Contemporary Spain." p. 417-32 in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 2006, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 417–32.
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