Moro Islamic Liberation Front
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The armed wing of the group was the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces
although the name of the parent organization MILF, was often used to refer to BIAF.
Following the Jabidah massacre
in 1968, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF
) was established clandestinely in 1969 by Moro
students studying at the University of the Philippines
, and in the Middle East
who sought to create an independent Muslim nation in southern Philippines. The MNLF gained foreign support from Muammar Gadaffi
and the governor in Sabah
, which supplied arms and provided training for Moro youths.
took part in terrorist attacks and assassinations to achieve their goals.
The government in Manila
sent troops into the southern Philippines to control the insurgency. In 1976, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
brokered a negotiation between the Philippine government and MNLF Leader Nur Misuari
which led to the signing of the MNLF-GRPH Tripoli Agreement of 1976 wherein the MNLF accepted the Philippine government's offer of semi-autonomy of the regions in dispute.
The signing of this agreement brought about a serious rift
in MNLF leadership, leading to the formation of a breakaway group in 1977 by Hashim Salamat and 57 MNLF officers. The group was initially known as "The New Leadership". Misuari expelled Salamat in December 1977, after which Salamat moved his new organization first to Cairo, Egypt
and then, in 1980, to Lahore, Pakistan
, where it engaged in diplomatic activities. This organization was formally established in 1984 as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.
Muammar Gaddafi became a longstanding supporter of the MILF after its emergence.
In January 1987, the MNLF accepted the Philippine government's offer of semi-autonomy
of the regions in dispute, subsequently leading to the establishment of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
on November 6, 1990. The MILF, however, refused to accept this offer and continued their insurgency operations. A general cessation of hostilities between the government in Manila and the MILF was signed in July 1997 but this agreement was abolished in 2000
by the Philippine Army
under the administration of Philippine President Joseph Estrada
. In response, the MILF declared a jihad
against the government, its citizens and supporters. Under President Gloria Arroyo
, the government entered into a cease-fire agreement with the MILF and resumed peace talks.
Despite peace negotiations and the cease-fire agreement, the MILF attacked government troops in Maguindanao
resulting in at least twenty-three deaths in January 2005. The combined armies of the MILF and Abu Sayyaf
were involved in days of fighting which necessitated government troops using heavy artillery to engage rebel forces.
The bombing incident in Davao Airport
in 2003 which the Philippine government blamed on MILF members,
raised speculation that the peace negotiations might be ineffectual in bringing peace to Mindanao if the MILF is unable to control its operatives. The MILF denies ties with terrorist group Jemaah Islamiyah
, although Jemaah Islamiyah is considered to have provided them with training facilities in areas they control.
The MILF also continues to deny connections with Al-Qaeda
, though it has admitted to sending around 600 volunteers to Al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan
and that Osama Bin Laden
sent money to the Philippines, though the group denies directly receiving any payment.
From June 28 to July 6, 2006, conflict between the MILF and armed civilian volunteers under Maguindanao Province
governor Andal Ampatuan
who were supported by the Philippine Army
had been reported. The fighting began after governor Ampatuan blamed the MILF for a June 23 bomb attack on his motorcade, which killed five in his entourage. The MILF denied responsibility, but Ampatuan sent police and civilian volunteers to arrest MILF members connected to the attack. Four thousand families were reported displaced by the fighting that followed, which was ended by a cease-fire agreement signed on July 10 and 11.
Talks between the MILF and the government collapsed in 2008 after a Supreme Court
decision in Sema vs. COMELEC
which rejected a preliminary accord that would have expanded the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
. In 2011, the MILF withdrew their demands for independence, instead saying that they would pursue substate status, likened to a U.S. state
instead of independence from the Philippines.
Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain
On August 4, 2008, the Supreme Court of the Philippines
issued a temporary restraining order, preventing the Government and the MILF from officially signing the Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain, which would conclude all dispute and begin formal talks that would lead to the drafting and eventual signing of a Final Comprehensive Compact between the two groups.
The Court accepted motions by the southern provincial governments that object to the extended boundaries for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao envisioned in the peace deal. The MOA-AD would have allowed the Moro people
gained control of the region under the concept of human rights
with the right to establish a police
force and to control natural resources
The MOA-AD was initialed by former governor and peace panel chair Rodolfo García and Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process Hermogenes Esperon
and MILF peace panel chair Mohagher Iqbal on July 27 in Malaysia. It was scheduled for formal signing on August 5, but the Supreme Court issued no negotiation preventing the executive department from signing the agreement.
The MOA-AD is the last of several agenda items under the 2001 agreement of the GRP-MILF. after security and relief and rehabilitation, prior to the discussion on the political settlement.
The Young Moro Professionals Network
(YMPN) appealed to the public not to be afraid of the MOA-AD and to "open your hearts to the Moro grievance".
The YMPN said in a statement dated August 21:
"In these times of hardship, we hold hands as one, with our Christian and Islamic neighbours, in the name of peace, acceptance and justice. We are committed to democratic and peaceful resolution of the conflict. Do not be afraid of the MOA-AD. To the national public, open your hearts to the Moro grievance.
Over the next month, several MILF commanders were tagged by government officials as having initiated an offensive campaign. This was responded by the Armed Forces of the Philippines
, which immediately deployed ten battalions composed of a total of 6,000 soldiers into Mindanao under the command of Lt. Gen. Cardozo Luna.
The violence displaced over 600,000 people and left about 300 dead.
On October 14, 2008, the Court conducted a series of divided votes declared "contrary to law and the Constitution" the MOA-AD of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and Moro Islamic Liberation Front Tripoli Agreement
of Peace on 2001. The document of Conchita Carpio-Morales
ruled: "In sum, the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process committed grave abuse of discretion when he failed to carry out the pertinent consultation process. The furtive process by which the MOA-AD was designed and crafted runs contrary to and in excess of the legal authority and amounts to a whimsical, capricious, oppressive, arbitrary and despotic exercise thereof. It illustrates a gross evasion of positive duty and a virtual refusal to perform the duty enjoined."
Civil society organizations such as Consortium of Bangsamoro Civil Society
had submitted a Motion for Reconsideration. However, the Supreme Court affirmed its October 14 ruling that declared unconstitutional the initialed MOA-AD between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front on November 21, 2008.
MILF soldiers offered to help free the Irish priest father Michael Sinott, who was kidnapped in the Philippines on October 14, 2009 and sought permission to deploy about 100 of its soldiers in the area where Sinnott is believed to be held. However it was turned down by the Philippine government.
Modification of demands
On September 23, 2010, Mohagher Iqbal said that the MILF will pursue a substate, likened to a U.S. state
, instead of independence from the Philippines. The Muslim substate would not exercise power over national defense, foreign affairs, currency and coinage, and postal services, which the central government exercises. Igbal further added that the substate would not have its own armed forces but instead would have troops for internal security.
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. (July 2013)
On October 7, 2012, President Benigno Aquino
announced a peace deal
with the MILF and that "This framework agreement paves the way for a final and enduring peace in Mindanao". MILF Vice Chairman Ghazali Jaafar
is quoted as saying "We are very happy. We thank the president for this." The deal was signed on October 15, 2012. Its aim is to pave the way to enduring peace between the two parties by officially envisaging an autonomous region in Mindanao.
According to the framework, this semi-independent Muslim area would have a more just share of revenues from the extraction of its own plentiful resources, budgetary autonomy, its own police, and sharia law
only for Muslims
In exchange for this, the MILF will stop armed movements against the government for autonomy and will allow the national government to retain its control of national security
and foreign policy
The autonomy agreement to be gradually implemented will also rename the region Bangsamoro
after the Moro people.
Chief peace negotiator Miriam Coronel-Ferrer said that the government was cautiously optimistic for a final agreement soon following six days of talks on July 13, 2013. She said: "This signing indicates that both sides are really committed to finish the peace negotiations. Nobody wants this not to reach its fruition." The agreement would see government allowances for the MILF to have a 75 percent share of earnings from natural resources and metallic minerals in a proposed autonomous region. For other energy resources, earnings would be split equally in accordance with Malaysia-brokered talks.
On January 24, 2014, Philippine government chief negotiator Miriam Coronel Ferrer and MILF chief negotiator Mohagher Iqbal signed a peace agreement in Kuala Lumpur
. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous entity called "Bangsamoro
" under a law to be approved by the Philippine Congress. The government aimed to set up the region by 2016. The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF. MILF forces would turn over their firearms to a third party selected by the MILF and the Philippine government. A regional police force would be established, and the Philippine military would reduce the presence of troops and help disband private armies in the area.
President Rodrigo Duterte
signed the law, a key step to ending a Muslim rebellion in the south of the mainly Catholic
In early January 2020, the OPAPP announced progress exceeding its target for the decommissioning of MILF fighters, noting that “8,879 out of the 12,000 MILF combatants were decommissioned from the last quarter of 2019.”
Some former rebel fighters have joined the police and military to protect certain areas of the Bangsamoro region until an elected government is established in 2022.
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Last edited on 17 April 2021, at 22:59
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