Moroccan Western Sahara Wall
Protesters carrying Polisario flags in front of the Western Sahara berm (2011).
The main function of the barriers is to exclude guerrilla
fighters of the Polisario Front
, who have sought Western Saharan independence since before Spain
ended its colonial occupation in 1975, from the Moroccan-controlled part of the territory.
The Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is also called Western Sahara berm, Western Sahara separation barrier.
The fortifications lie in uninhabited or very sparsely inhabited territory. They consist of sand
walls or berms
about 3 m (10 ft) in height, with bunkers, fences
, and landmines
throughout. The barrier minebelt that runs along the structure is thought to be the longest continuous minefield in the world.
Military bases, artillery posts and airfields dot the Moroccan-controlled side of the wall at regular intervals, and radar
masts and other electronic surveillance equipment scan the areas in front of it.
The following is one observer's description of the Berm from 2001:
Physically, the berm is a 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high wall (with a backing trench), which rides along a topographical high point/ridge/hill throughout the territory. Spaced out over every 5 km (3.1 mi) are big, small and medium bases, with approximately 35–40 troops at each observation post and groups of 10 soldiers spaced out over the distance as well. About 4 km (21
mi) behind each major post there is a rapid reaction post, which includes backing mobile forces (tanks, etc). A series of overlapping fixed and mobile radars are also positioned throughout the berm. The radars are estimated to have a range of between 60 and 80 km (37 and 50 mi) into the Polisario controlled territory, and are generally utilized to locate artillery fire onto detected Polisario forces. Information from the radar is processed by a forward-based commander, who contacts a rear-based artillery unit.
In all, six lines of berms have been constructed.
The main ("external") line of fortifications extends for about 2,500 km (1,600 mi). It runs east from Guerguerat
on the coast in the extreme south of Western Sahara near the Mauritanian town of Nouadhibou
, closely parallelling the Mauritanian border
for about 200 km (120 mi), before turning northwards beyond Techla
. It then runs generally northeastward, leaving Guelta Zemmur
, crossing again Mauritanian territory and reaching Hamza
in Moroccan-held territory, before turning east and again closely following the Algerianborder
as it approaches Morocco. A section extends about 200 km (120 mi) into southeastern Morocco.
Significant lines of fortifications also lie deep within the Moroccan-controlled area.
Their exact number and location are a source of some confusion for overseas commentators.
System of the Moroccan Walls in Western Sahara with chronology of their construction
The fortifications were progressively built by Moroccan forces starting in 1980, with help from South African, South Korean and Israeli advisors and formally ending on 16 April 1987.
The wall was built in six stages, and the area behind the wall was expanded from a small area near Morocco in the north to most of the western and central part of the country gradually. The walls built were:
2005 expulsion incident
Sahrawi women hold a protest in Western Sahara on the eastern side of the wall.
In the summer of 2005, the Moroccan Army
accelerated the expulsion (started in late 2004) of illegal immigrants
detained in northern Morocco to the eastern side of the wall, into the Free Zone
. The Polisario Front and the MINURSO rescued several dozen lost in the desert, who had run out of water. Others died of thirst.
By October, the Polisario had received 22 immigrants in Mehaires
, 46 in Tifariti
and 97 in Bir Lehlu
. They were from African countries (Gambia
, etc.), except a group of 48 who were from Bangladesh
The Thousand Column demonstration
Since 2008, a demonstration called "The Thousand Column
" is held annually in the desert against the barrier by international human rights
activists and Sahrawi refugees. In the 2008 demonstration, more than 2,000 people (most of them Sahrawis and Spaniards
, but also Algerians
, and others) made a human chain
demanding the demolition of the wall, the celebration of the self-determination referendum
accorded by the UN and the parts in 1991, and the end of the Moroccan occupation of the territory.
In the 2009 edition, a teenage Sahrawi refugee named Ibrahim Hussein Leibeit lost half of his right leg in a landmine
The incident happened when Ibrahim and dozens of young Sahrawis crossed the line into a minefield while aiming to throw stones to the other side of the wall.
Effectively, after the completion of the wall, Morocco has controlled the bulk of Western Sahara territory that lies to the north and west of it, calling these the kingdom's "Southern Provinces
". The Polisario-founded Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
controls the mostly uninhabited "Free Zone
", which comprises all areas to the east of the barrier. Units from the United Nations mission MINURSO separate the two sides, and enforce cease-fire regulations on their troops.
External reactions and opinions
Western attention to the wall, and to the Moroccan annexation of the Western Sahara in general, has been minimal, apart from Spain
. In Africa
, the annexation of Western Sahara by Morocco has attracted somewhat more attention. Algeria supports the Polisario Front "in its long-running desert war to oppose Moroccan control of the disputed area".
The Organization of African Unity
(AU) and United Nations have proposed negotiated solutions.
The AU's stance on Western Sahara led to Morocco's exit from the organization
. After a 33-year absence, Morocco rejoined on 30 January 2017, despite 9 member states voting against, but 39 supporting.
Morocco was re-admitted with the understanding that Western Sahara will remain an AU member. The membership of relatively wealthy Morocco was welcomed by many members, as the AU has been criticized for being overly dependent on non-African donor funding.
Wall south of Mahbes
References and notes
- ^ Saddiki, Said (October 2017), "5. The Wall of Western Sahara", World of Walls: The Structure, Roles and Effectiveness of Separation Barriers, Open Book Publishers, pp. 97–120, doi:10.11647/obp.0121.06, ISBN 9781783743681, However, with the completion of the Moroccan separation wall in the 1980s,...
- ^ Maclean, Ruth (22 September 2018). "Build a wall across the Sahara? That's crazy – but someone still did it". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- ^ Deployment of MINURSO Archived 27 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Western Sahara Atlas Map – June 2006
- ^ MINURSO
- ^ McCoull, Chad. "Country Profiles – Morocco and Western Sahara". Journal of Mine Action. ISSN 2154-1485.
- ^ ARSO Website
- ^ a b Milestones of the conflict Archived 21 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine, page 2. Website of the United Nations MINURSO mission.
- ^ United Nations Map No. 3691 Rev. 53 United Nations, October 2006 (Colour), Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section. Depicts the deployment of the MINURSO mission, as well as the Wall location.
- ^ See also e.g. this satellite montage at Google Maps for a section of the wall in Moroccan territory. The northernmost fort that is clearly distinguishable can be seen here . (Google Maps, as of 30 November 2006)
- ^ For example, a sand berm with fortifications much like on the main external line can be seen here , reaching the coast near Imlili, over 200 km (125 miles) north of the main external berm along the southern border. (Google Maps, as of 30 November 2006)
- ^ (in Dutch) Marokkaanse veiligheidsmuur al twee decennia onomstreden Archived 9 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine, CIDI Israel website, Nieuwsbrief (2004)
- ^ "Patada al desierto" (in Spanish). Diario de Córdoba. 17 October 2005. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- ^ "El Polisario busca desaparecidos" (in Spanish). El País. 18 October 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- ^ "De Bangladesh al desierto del Sáhara" (in Spanish). El País. 19 October 2005. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- ^ Una cadena humana de más de 2.000 personas pide el derribo del muro del Sáhara El Mundo (EFE), 22 March 2008 (in Spanish)
- ^ Demonstration in Western Sahara against Moroccan Army Wall Demotix, 9 April 2009
- ^ Ibrahim Hussein Leibeit Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Focus Features, 28 May 2009
- ^ Screenings in The Devil’s Garden: The Sahara Film Festival New Internationalist, Issue 422, 20 May 2009
- ^ The Berlin Wall of the Desert New Internationalist, Issue 427, 10 November 2009
- ^ "Security Problems with Neighboring States", Country Studies/Area Handbook Series, Library of Congress Federal Research Division (retrieved 1 May 2006).
- ^ Williams, Ian and Zunes, Stephen, "Self Determination Struggle in the Western Sahara Continues to Challenge the UN" Archived 9 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Foreign Policy in Focus Policy Report, September 2003 (retrieved 1 May 2006).
- ^ "Morocco rejoins the African Union after 33 years". Al Jazeera. 31 January 2017.
- Map of Western Sahara, with the location of the wall marked Produced by the United Nations, showing the deployment of the MINURSO mission as of January 2014. Map No. 3691 Rev. 72 United Nations, January 2014 (Colour), Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section
- Landmine Monitor, LM Report 2006, Morocco
- Landmine Monitor, LM Report 2006, Western Sahara
- Landmine Monitor, LM Report 2006, Algeria
- Profile – Created by the United Nations MINURSO mission
- Fly over the Berm of Western Sahara in Google Earth Community
- The Thousand Column 2011 Official Website(in Spanish)
- Photos of the wall, landmines and Sahrawi victims Demotix, 27 December 2011
Last edited on 16 May 2021, at 14:56
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