List of battles by casualties
  (Redirected from Most lethal battles in world history)
The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world history. The list includes both sieges (not technically battles but usually yielding similar combat-related deaths) and civilian casualties during the battles. Large battle casualty counts are almost impossible to calculate precisely. Many of these figures are estimates, and, where possible, a range of estimates is presented. Figures display numbers of all types of casualties when available (killed, wounded, missing, and sick) but may only include number killed. Where possible, the list specifies whether or not prisoners are included in the count. This list does not include bombing runs (such as the attack on Pearl Harbor and the bombing of Tokyo) or massacres such as the Rape of Nanking, which, despite potentially massive casualties, are not typically classified as "battles", since they are usually one-sided engagements or the nation attacked is not officially at war with the attackers. Tactical or strategic strikes, however, may form part of larger engagements which are themselves battles.
Classical formation battles
These refer to battles in which armies met on a single field of battle and fought each other for anywhere from one to several days. Military formations lost their impact and the use of this type of battle died out in favor of grander military operations.
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
Battle of Thymbra547 BCLydian–Persian War100,000[1]
Battle of Marathon490 BCGreco-Persian Wars5,000–8,000[2]
Battle of Thermopylae480 BCGreco-Persian Wars22,300[3]–22,500[4]
Battle of Plataea479 BCGreco-Persian War51,500[4]–257,000[3]
Battle of Chaeronea338 BCRise of Macedon1,000[5]–4,000
Battle of the Granicus334 BCWars of Alexander the GreatAround 7,000[6]
Battle of Issus333 BCWars of Alexander the Great20,000-40,000[7]
Battle of Gaugamela331 BCWars of Alexander the Great53,500[8]
Battle of the Hydaspes326 BCWars of Alexander the Great23,310[8]
Battle of Sentinum295 BCThird Samnite War33,700[9]
Battle of Heraclea280 BCPyrrhic War11,000–26,000[9]
Battle of Kalinga262 BCKalinga-Maurya Empire150,000[10]–200,000 or even 300,000[11][12] (including civilians)
Battle of Changping260 BCQin's wars of unification700,000 (according to ancient sources)
Battle of the Trebia218 BCSecond Punic War35,000[13]
Battle of Lake Trasimene217 BCSecond Punic War30,000[13]
Battle of Cannae216 BCSecond Punic War56,000[14]–92,000 or more[15]
Battle of the Metaurus207 BCSecond Punic War12,000[16]
Battle of Zama202 BCSecond Punic War21,500[16]
Battle of Magnesia190 BCRoman–Seleucid War53,350[17]
Battle of Pydna168 BCThird Macedonian War21,000[17]
Battle of Arausio105 BCGermanic Wars (Cimbrian War)84,000[18][19][20]
Battle of Carrhae53 BCRoman–Persian Wars24,000[21]
Siege of Alesia52 BCGallic Wars100,000–150,000
Battle of Pharsalus48 BCCaesar's Civil War17,000[22]
Battle of Philippi42 BCLiberators' civil war24,000
Battle of Actium31 BCFinal War of the Roman Republic7,500 or more
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest9 ADRoman–Germanic wars20,000[23]
Battle of Watling Street61 ADIceni Revolt80,400[24]
Battle of Mons Graupius84 ADRoman conquest of Britain10,360[25]
Battle of Guandu200Three Kingdoms78,000[26]
Battle of Red Cliffs208Three Kingdoms100,000[26]
Battle of Barbalissos252Roman–Persian Wars60,000
Battle of Edessa260Roman–Persian Wars50,000-70,000
Battle of Adrianople378Gothic War40,000 or more[27]
Battle of Fei River383Wu Hu Era150,000 or more [28]
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains451Hunnic Invasion165,000 (doubtful, according to one ancient source)[29]
Battle of Salsu612Goguryeo–Sui War302,300[30]
Battle of al-Qadisiyyah636Muslim conquest of Persia31,000[31]
Battle of Muzayyah633Muslim conquest of Persia10,000
Battle of Ullais633Muslim conquest of Persia35,000[32]
Battle of River633Muslim conquest of PersiaMore than 15,000[33]
Battle of Walaja636Muslim conquest of Persia22,000[34]
Battle of Nahavand642Muslim conquest of Persia28,500[35]
Battle of Yarmouk636Muslim conquest of the Levant70,000[36]
Battle of Tours732Umayyad invasion of Gaul13,000
Battle of Gwiju1019Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War90,000+.
Battle of Nhu Nguyet river1077Lý–Song War150,000[37][38]
Battle of Montgisard1177Ayyubid–Crusader WarAround 25,850
Battle of Hattin1187Ayyubid–Crusader War17,000–20,000[39]
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa1212Reconquista60,000[40]
Battle of Yehuling1212Mongol conquest of the Jin dynastyAround 50,000
Battle of the Kalka River1223Mongol invasion of Rus'Around 50,000 [41]
Battle of Legnica1241Mongol invasion of Poland30,000[42]
Battle of Mohi1241Mongol invasion of Europe15,000[43]
Third battle of Bach Dang river1288Mongol invasion of Vietnam85,000[44]
Battle of Jaran Manjur1298Mongol invasions of IndiaOver 20,000
Battle of Yamen1279Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty100,000
Battle of Bannockburn1314First War of Scottish Independence19,000[45]
Battle of Kulikovo1380List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus'136,000
Battle of Roosebeke1382Hundred years war27,600
Battle of the Terek River1395Tokhtamysh–Timur war100,000[46]
Conquest of Delhi1398Timur's Indian campaign100,000[47][48]
Battle of Ankara1402Ottoman–Timur War15,000 or more[49]
Battle of Grunwald1410Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War13,000[50]
Battle of Agincourt1415Hundred Years' War14,000[citation needed]
Battle of Tốt Động – Chúc Động1426Lam Sơn uprising30,000[51]
Tumu Crisis1449Ming–Mongol War200,000 or more[citation needed]
Battle of Towton1461Wars of the Roses28,000[52]
Night Attack at Târgoviște1462Wallachian-Ottoman Wars20,000[53]
Battle of Vaslui1475Moldavian-Ottoman Wars40,000 or more[citation needed]
Battle of Valea Albă1476Moldavian–Ottoman Wars30,000 or more[citation needed]
Battle of Kabul1504Campaigns of Babur20,000 or more[54]
Battle of Ravenna1512War of the League of Cambrai13,500[55]
Battle of Marignano1515War of the League of Cambrai11,000–15,000[56]
Battle of Ridaniya1517Ottoman wars in the Near East13,000[57]
First Battle of Panipat1526Mughal Conquest20,000–50,000[58]
Battle of Mohács1526Ottoman–Hungarian warsProbably 30,000[59]
Battle of Ghaghra1529Mughal Conquest13,000[60]
Battle of Lepanto1571Ottoman–Venetian wars22,566–27,566[61]
Battle of Molodi1572Russo-Crimean Wars29,000–33,000 or 100 000[62]
Battle of Chungju1592Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)8,000–16,000[63] 100,000[64][65]
Battle of Călugăreni1595Long War (Ottoman War)11,000–16,000[citation needed]
Battle of Sacheon (1598)1598Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)30,000[66]
Battle of Sekigahara1600Sengoku period60,000 or less[67]
First Battle of Breitenfeld1631Thirty Years' War20,000 or more[68]
Battle of Lützen1632Thirty Years' War11,000–14,000[68]
Battle of Nördlingen1634Thirty Years' War17,000[69]
Battle of the Downs1639Eighty Years' War15,000 or more[70]
Battle of Song-Jin1641Qing conquest of the Ming60,000[citation needed]
Second Battle of Breitenfeld1642Thirty Years' War14,000[71]
Battle of Jankau1645Thirty Years' War15,500[72]
Battle of Berestechko1651Khmelnytsky Uprising30,000–40,000[73]
Battle of Samugarh1658Mughal Conquest32,000[70]
Battle of Khajwa1659Mughal Conquest20,000[70]
Battle of Lund1676Scanian War14,000[74]
Battle of Vienna1683Ottoman–Habsburg wars19,500[75]
Battle of Bijapur1686[76]Mughal Conquest17,000[77]
Battle of Landen1693War of the Grand Alliance28,000[77]
Battle of Zenta1697Ottoman–Habsburg wars30,300[78]
Battle of Jinji1698Mughal Conquest16,000[77]
Battle of Blenheim1704War of the Spanish Succession32,000[77]
Battle of Fraustadt1706Great Northern War16,500[79]
Battle of Ramillies1706War of the Spanish Succession15,600[80]
Battle of Poltava1709Great Northern War14,300[81]
Battle of Malplaquet1709War of the Spanish Succession95,000[80]
Battle of Fontenoy1745War of the Austrian Succession14,000[82]
Battle of Leuthen1757Seven Years' War11,800[83]
Battle of Zorndorf1758Seven Years' War30,000[citation needed]
Battle of Kunersdorf1759Seven Years' War35,000[84]
Third Battle of Panipat1761Marathas and Afghans150,000-200,000 (including civilian camp followers)[85][86]
Battle of Kagul1770Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)21,000[87]
Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút1785Siamese-Vietnamese Wars50,000[88]
Battle of Rymnik1789Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)21,000[89]
Battle of Arcole1796War of the First Coalition11,000[90]
Battle of Trebbia1799War of the Second Coalition17,000–23,000[91]
Battle of Novi1799War of the Second Coalition19,500[92]
Battle of Marengo1800War of the Second Coalition16,400[93]
Ulm campaign1805War of the Third Coalition62,000[93]
Battle of Austerlitz1805War of the Third Coalition45,300[94]
Battle of Jena–Auerstedt1806War of the Fourth Coalition52,000 including prisoners later killed[95]
Battle of Eylau1807War of the Fourth Coalition40,000[95]
Battle of Wagram1809War of the Fifth Coalition77,000[95]–79,000[96]
Battle of Talavera1809Peninsular War13,900[97]
Battle of Slobozia1811Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)20,000[98]
Battle of Salamanca1812Peninsular War18,800[99]
Battle of Borodino1812French invasion of Russia74,000[100]
Battle of Berezina1812French invasion of Russia60,000[100]
Battle of Vitoria1813Peninsular War13,000[99]
Battle of Leipzig1813War of the Sixth Coalition124,000[101]
Battle of Dresden1813War of the Sixth Coalition48,000[94]
Battle of Ligny1815Hundred Days28,000[102]
Battle of Waterloo1815Hundred Days47,000 or more (not including prisoners and missing)[103][104]
Battle of Inkerman1854Crimean War15,857[105]
Battle of Shiloh1862American Civil War24,000[106]
Battle of Antietam1862American Civil War23,000​[107]​–26,193​[108]
Battle of Fredericksburg1862American Civil War17,300​[107]​–17,962​[109]
Battle of Gettysburg1863American Civil War51,000[110][111]
Battle of Chickamauga1863American Civil War34,000[112]
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House1864American Civil War30,000[113]
Battle of Stones River1862–1863American Civil War24,000[114]
Battle of Königgrätz1866Austro-Prussian War47,500[115]
Battle of Tuyutí1866Paraguayan War7,000–16,000[116]
Battle of Mars-la-Tour/Battle of Gravelotte1870Franco-Prussian War34,000[115]
Battle of Sedan1870Franco-Prussian War26,000[117]
Battle of Adwa1896First Italo-Ethiopian War17,300[118]
Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican1896Philippine Revolutionary War2,000–15,000[119]
Battle of Omdurman1898Mahdist War20,430[120]
Battle of Sakarya1921Greco–Turkish War of 1919–2261,000[121][122]
Sieges and urban combat
This list includes sieges, as well as modern battles that were fought primarily in urban areas. Major military operations that included city fighting are listed below. The battles included here inflicted at least 50,000 casualties.
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
(High est.)
(Low est.)
Siege of Alesia52 BCGallic Wars200,000100,000
Siege of Constantinople717–718Arab–Byzantine wars170,000130,000[36]
Siege of Yongzhou1076Lý-Song War140,000[123]78,000[124]
Siege of Baghdad1258Mongol invasions and conquests2,000,000[125]100,000[125]
Siege of Tenochtitlan1521Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire240,000100,000[126][127]
Siege of Rhodes1522Ottoman wars in Europe55,200[57]55,200
Siege of Chittorgarh1567–1568Mughal-Rajput Wars (1558-1576)40,00035,000
Siege of Ostend1601–1604Eighty Years' War115,00090,000
Siege of Candia1648–1669Cretan War149,739149,739
Second Siege of Zaragoza1808–1809Peninsular War64,000[128]64,000
First Siege of Sevastopol1854–1855Crimean War230,000[129]230,000
Third Battle of Nanking1863Taiping Rebellion100,000[130]100,000
Siege of Petersburg1864–1865American Civil War70,000[131]70,000
Battle of Gettysburg1863American Civil War50,00050,000
Siege of Paris1871Franco-Prussian War332,142229,000
Siege of Plevna1877Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)75,000[132]75,000
Siege of Port Arthur1904–1905Russo-Japanese War100,000[133]100,000
Siege of Adrianople1912–1913First Balkan War93,282[134]93,282
Battle of Taiyuan1937World War II130,000[135]130,000
Battle of Xinkou1937World War II200,000[citation needed]200,000
Battle of Shanghai1937World War II400,000[136]400,000
Battle of Wuhan1938World War II540,000[137]540,000
First Battle of Changsha1939World War II80,000+80,000+[138]
Battle of Nanchang1939World War II75,328[139]75,328
Battle of Dunkirk1940World War II88,000[140]88,000
Battle of South Shanxi1941World War II120,000+120,000+[141]
Siege of Odessa1941World War II133,813[142]133,813
Battle of Kiev1941World War II700,544[142]700,544
Second Siege of Sevastopol1941–1942World War II236,437236,437
Third Battle of Changsha1942World War II84,862[143]84,862
Battle of Stalingrad1942–1943World War II2,500,620[144]1,250,000[145]
Battle of Changde1943World War II100,000100,000[146]
Battle of West Hubei1943World War II115,830115,830[147]
Siege of Leningrad1941–1944World War II5,500,000[148]1,117,000[149][150]
Warsaw Uprising1944World War II200,000+200,000+[151]
Siege of Budapest1944–1945World War II422,000422,000[152]
Battle of Berlin1945World War II1,298,745[153]1,298,745[154]
Battle of Okinawa1945World War II241,593[155]241,593[155]
Battle of Manila1945World War II500,000[156][157]100,000[158][159]
Battle of the Bulge1944–1945World War II218,900161,370[160]
Siege of Changchun1948[161]Chinese Civil War425,000425,000[162]
Siege of Basra1987Iran-Iraq War85,00085,000
Major operations
This list includes major operations and prolonged battles or operations fought over a large area or for a long time. The duration of some operations, like the Battle of Moscow, are disputed so numbers found in various sources may differ for that reason alone.
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
Flanders and the Rhine Campaign1702–1713War of the Spanish Succession190 442
Ulm Campaign1805War of the Third Coalition62,000
French invasion of Russia1812Napoleonic Wars920,000–1,040,000
German Campaign1813War of the Sixth Coalition745,000
Six Days' Campaign1814War of the Sixth Coalition80,000[101]
Hundred Days1815War of the Seventh Coalition241,525
Peninsula Campaign1862American Civil War36,463[163]
Battle of Chancellorsville1863American Civil War30,000​[164]​–30,500​[107]
Overland Campaign1864American Civil War87,000​[165]​–92,000​[128]
Appomattox Campaign1865American Civil War16,500[131]
Battle of Mukden1905Russo-Japanese War160,000[166]
Battle of Lule Burgas1912First Balkan War42,162+[167]
First Battle of Çatalca1912First Balkan War22,000[168]
Battle of Bregalnica1913Second Balkan War36,620[134]
Serbian Campaign (1914)1914World War I437,361, including prisoners
Battle of the Frontiers1914World War I664,191
Battle of Tannenberg1914World War I145,000​[169]​–160,000​[170]
Battle of Galicia1914World War I645,000–700,000
First Battle of the Marne1914World War I513,000[171]
First Battle of the Aisne1914World War IAt least 263,541
First Battle of Ypres1914World War I210,000[172]
Battle of Łódź1914World War I130,000[173]
First Battle of Champagne1914–1915World War I139,532
Battle of Sarikamish1914–1915World War I60,000—85,000[174]
Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes1915World War I216,200
Second Battle of Ypres1915World War I104,208​[175]​–107,000​[176]
Gallipoli Campaign1915World War I503,000​[175]​–552,000​[177]
Second Battle of Artois1915World War I186,000[175]
Second Battle of ChampagneThird Battle of Artois1915World War I75,000​[176]​–440,000​[175]
Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive1915World War I300,000–1,087,000​[175]
Great Retreat (Russian)1915World War I1,943,800+
Serbian Campaign (1915)1915World War I331,000, including prisoners[178]
Erzurum Offensive1916World War I80,000—85,000[174]
Battle of Verdun1916World War I755,000​[179]​–976,000​[175]
Battle of Asiago1916World War I250,000[175]
Brusilov Offensive1916World War I1,600,000[175]
Battle of the Somme1916World War I1,120,000​[180]​–1,215,000​[175]
Monastir Offensive1916World War I111,000[181]
Romanian Campaign1916–1917World War I240,000[175][dubious discuss] - 933,000, including prisoners
Nivelle Offensive1917World War I354,000[182]
Second Battle of the Aisne1917World War I350,000-463,000
Battle of Arras1917World War I278,000-288,000
Battle of Messines1917World War I42,000[183][184]
Tenth Battle of the Isonzo1917World War I200,000[185]
Third Battle of Ypres1917World War IOver 585,000[186]
Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo1917World War I273,000
Battle of Caporetto1917World War I60,000[187]
Battle of Cambrai1917World War I95,000[187]
German spring offensive1918World War I1,539,000[188]
Operation Michael1918World War I494,616
Battle of the Lys1918World War I204,300-228,340
Third Battle of the Aisne1918World War I257,000
Second Battle of the Piave River1918World War I131,494 killed and wounded, 73,729 prisoners
Second Battle of the Marne1918World War I288,000[188]
Battle of Soissons (1918)1918World War I287,259
Hundred Days Offensive1918World War I2,240,000[188]
Meuse–Argonne offensive1918World War I318,000
Battle of Warsaw1920Polish–Soviet WarAbout 130,000, not including prisoners[189]
Invasion of Manchuria1931Second Sino-Japanese War35,000[190]
Battle of Guadalajara1937Spanish Civil War12,000[191]
Battle of Teruel1937–1938Spanish Civil War110,000, including prisoners[192]
Battle of the Ebro1938Spanish Civil War106,500[192]
Battle of Xuzhou1938World War II130,000[193]
1938 Yellow River Flood1938World War II800,000[194]
Battles of Khalkhin Gol1939Soviet–Japanese border conflicts42,000—75,000​[195]​[196]
Invasion of Poland1939World War II310,000[197]
Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang1939World War II49,000[198]
Winter Offensive1939–1940World War II100,000+[199]
Operation Weserübung1940World War II12,800[197]
Battle of France1940World War II469,000[200]
Hundred Regiments Offensive1940Second Sino-Japanese War62,900[201]
Battle of Keren1941World War II34,000 including over 12,600 killed
Battle of Greece1941World War II46,295 dead[202]
Battle of Shanggao1941World War II42,000[203]
Battle of Crete1941World War II16,007 dead [204]
Operation Barbarossa1941World War II5,000,000​[205]​–6,000,000​[206]
Battle of Białystok–Minsk1941World War II429,886 including prisoners [207]
Battle of Smolensk (1941)1941World War II595,606 killed, captured, and missing; 300,000 Soviet prisoners
Battle of Uman1941World War II223,853
Battle of Kiev (1941)1941World War II761,783 killed, captured, and missing
Battle of Bryansk (1941)1941World War II700,000 Soviet killed, captured and missing; German casualties unknown.
Battle of Moscow1941World War II1,000,000[205]
Battle of Hong Kong1941World War II18,000 including prisoners[208]
Battle of Malaya/Battle of Singapore1941–1942World War II143,800, and 60,000 prisoners[209]
Battle of Bataan/Battle of Corregidor1942World War II30,000 killed[210]
Battle of the Kerch Peninsula1942World War IIOver 176,000[211]
Demyansk Pocket1942World War II300,000
Second Battle of Kharkov1942World War II300,000[211]
Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign1942World War II356,000[212]
Battle of Gazala1942World War II148,000[213]
Case Blue1942World War II1,400,000
Battle of Voronezh (1942)1942World War II662,847 including prisoners
Battle of the Caucasus1942-1942World War II625,000
Guadalcanal Campaign1942–1943World War II29,100​[214]​–31,100​[215]
Battles of Rzhev1942–1943World War II2,900,000–3,080,000
Second Battle of El Alamein1942World War II39,400​[213]​–82,500​[216]
Operation Iskra1943World War II129,332[217]
Battle of Kursk1943World War II257,125​[218]​–388,000​[219]
Operation Kutuzov1943World War II516,344
Allied invasion of Sicily1943World War IIAt least 36,000 killed, and over 100,000 Italian POWs[220]
Belgorod–Kharkov offensive operation1943World War II202,654-280,634
Battle of Smolensk (1943)1943World War II522,059
Dnieper Campaign1943World War II1,582,000 (lowest est.) – 2,480,000 (highest est.)
Allied invasion of Italy1943World War II17,092 killed[221]
Bougainville Campaign1943–1945World War II21,929 killed, and 23,571 Japanese prisoners[222]
Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive1943–1944World War II1,442,956
Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive1944World War II385,604
Battle of Monte Cassino1944World War II185,000[223]
Battle of Narva1944World War II550,000 all causes[224]
Operation Shingle1944World War II52,200 killed[225]
First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive1944World War II195,000[226]
Ichi-Go1944World War II1,300,000+[227]
Battle of Normandy1944World War II650,600​[228]​[229]​–795,400​[230]​[229]
Battle of Saipan1944World War II43,500 killed, including mass suicides[231]
Operation Bagration1944World War II1,430,000[232]
Falaise Pocket1944World War II140,000[233]
Second Jassy–Kishinev Offensive1944World War II485,424, including prisoners[234]
Operation Market Garden1944World War II27,200[235]
Baltic offensive1944World War II280,120 Soviet casualties; German casualties unknown
Battle of Hürtgen Forest1944–1945World War II63,000[236]
Courland Pocket1944–1945World War II278,819
Battle of Leyte Gulf1944World War II12,000 killed[237]
Battle of the Bulge1944–1945World War II161,370​[160]​[238]​–218,900
Vistula–Oder Offensive1945World War II636,191 including prisoners
Battle of Luzon1945World War II332,330–345,330, including sick[239]
Battle of the Rhineland1945World War II82,000 and 250,000 prisoners[240]
Battle of Iwo Jima1945World War II44,821​[241]​–48,700​[242]
East Prussian Offensive1945World War II806,778 including prisoners
Battle of Okinawa1945World War II113,920​[243]​–158,400​[244]
Burma campaigns1942–1945World War II700,000[245]
Battle of West Hunan1945World War II50,000[246]
Second Guangxi campaign1945World War II1,000,000[247]
Arab–Israeli War1948–1949Arab–Israeli conflict12,000–19,000[248]
Liaoshen campaign1948Chinese Civil War542,000, including captured[249]
Huaihai campaign1948Chinese Civil War689,000, including captured[250]
Pingjin campaign1948–1949Chinese Civil War560,000, including captured[251]
Shanghai Campaign1949Chinese Civil War213,073[252]
Battle of Inchon1950Korean War17,429[253]
Invasion of North Korea1950Korean War51,700[254]
Battle of Chosin Reservoir1950Korean War66,000
Battle of Dien Bien Phu1954First Indochina War31,500, not including prisoners[255]
Tet Offensive1968Vietnam War65,000[256]
Operation OAU1968Nigerian Civil War30,000[256]
Easter Offensive1972Vietnam War150,000[256]
Operation Dawn 51984Iran-Iraq War75,000
Battle of the Marshes1984Iran-Iraq War55,000
Battle of Aleppo2012-2016Syrian Civil War31,275[257]
See also
  1. ^ Grant, p. 17
  2. ^ Krentz, Peter, The Battle of Marathon (Yale Library of Military History), Yale Univ Press, (2010) p. 98
  3. ^ a b Herodotus (440 BC). Histories.
  4. ^ a b Grant, p. 23
  5. ^ Freewalt, Jason. "Battle Report: The Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC".
  6. ^ Arrian 1.16.45 – 50
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