In July 1860, the Bey was persuaded by the British consul, Richard Wood, to allow a British subject named Holt to set up the first official printing press,
as well as the first Arabic-language newspaper in the country, the ar-Ra'id at-Tūnisi
concession was established, with a French interest taking it up in 1859.
On 23 April 1861 he promulgated the first written constitution
in the Arab world,
separating executive, legislative and judiciary powers, through a new Supreme Council, legislature and court system, thus limiting the powers of the Bey. This constitution guaranteed equality of rights to Muslims, Christians (effectively, therefore, to Europeans) and to Jews
; in particular, concerning the right to own property. This created a new legal environment which encouraged Europeans to set up businesses in Tunisia; thus new French traders appeared, along with non-Muslim religious schools.
On 26 April 1861, the Bey changed the order of succession to the throne; henceforth it would be the oldest prince in the beylical family who would inherit, rather than the oldest son of the late sovereign.
Portrait of as-Sadiq from 1864
The Bey commissioned the Marseille
engineer Colin to repair the Zaghouan aqueduct
providing a fresh water supply to the capital. In 1865 he began demolishing the walls around the medina, some of which were so unsound they threatened to collapse. It is during this period that Tunis lost a number of its historic gates - Bab Cartagena
, Bab Souika
, Bab Bnet
and Bab El Jazira
. The bronze cannon on the city walls and the fortifications of La Goulette
were sold off in 1872. Europeans began to settle near the former Bab el Bhar
, in streets close to the old walls and along the Avenue de la Marine, now planted with fig trees. Room for building was limited in nearby areas by European cemeteries, particularly opposite the new consulate building, and by market gardens along the Lake of Tunis
which extended as far towards the city as the present Avenue de Carthage.
Private chambers of Muhammad III as-Sadiq in Ksar Said
Muhammad as-Sadiq had several wives. The first was his cousin, the daughter of the Qaid
Ahmed al-Munastiri, from a Turkish family which had been influential in the harem
of the Beys of Tunis throughout the century; her mother and grandmother were respectively the second wives of Hussein II Bey
et Mahmud ibn Muhammad
. His second wife was Henani, daughter of Ali Laroussi, a rich merchant dealing in traditional Tunisian chéchia
headgear. He also married a Circassian odalisque Lella Kmar
, who was a gift from the Ottoman sultan
His main residence was the Ksar Said palace, built in an Italianate style in front of the Bardo palace. It had been confiscated from the former minister and Keeper of the Seals, Ismail as-Sunni, who was accused of treason and executed in 1867. (This minister was the maternal grandfather of the future Moncef Bey
). It was to one of the first floor staterooms of this palace that, on 12 May 1881, the French consul Théodore Roustan
brought the French General Jules Aimé Bréart [fr]
to the Bey
's privy council to secure his signature on the Treaty of Bardo
Homosexuality of the bey
According to the historian Nizar Ben Saad
, Sadok Bey had many sexual affairs with several male ministers from his court, the most famous with his Grand Vizir Mustapha Ben Ismail.
The intimate meetings of the bey were always held in Dar El Bey
at night to avoid being seen. Not only that, his marriage to Lella Kmar
was never consummated, which made it easier for her to marry his brother Ali Bey after his death.
The bey died without leaving any children to inherit the throne. Yet, he was the adoptive father of his nephew Mohamed Naceur
, and Jnaina the spouse of his Vizie Ismail Ben Mustapha.
- ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, Présent des hommes de notre temps. Chroniques des rois de Tunis et du pacte fondamental, vol. V, éd. Maison tunisienne de l'édition, Tunis, 1990, p. 11
- ^ Nadia Sebaï, Mustafa Saheb Ettabaâ. Un haut dignitaire beylical dans la Tunisie du XIXe siècle, éd. Cartaginoiseries, Carthage, 2007, p. 11
- ^ Annuaire diplomatique et consulaire de la République française pour 1876, éd. BiblioBazaar, Charleston, 2008, p. 97
- ^ Alexandre de Clercq, Recueil des traités de la France, tome XIII, éd. BiblioBazaar, Charleston, 2008, p. 22
- ^ Spuler, Bertold (1977). Rulers and governments of the world. Bowker. p. 516. ISBN 978-0-85935-009-9.
- ^ https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01402235/document p.283 Retrieved 9 May 2017
- ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, op. cit., p. 36
- ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Encyclopédie de l'Islam, fasicule 111, éd. Brill Archive, Leyde, 1989, p. 788
- ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, op. cit., p. 26
- ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, op. cit., p. 64
- ^ Ibn Abi Dhiaf, op. cit., p. 26
- ^ Bice Slama et Charles-André Julien, L'insurrection de 1864 en Tunisie, éd. Maison tunisienne de l'édition, Tunis, 1967, p. 18
- ^id=2M4UAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA153&dq=bey+commission++1869&hl=fr&ei=K0B5TOyGCpTk4gatv4D7Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=bey%20commission%20%201869&f=false G. S. van Krieken, Khayr al-Dîn et la Tunisie, 1850-1881, éd. Brill, Leyde, 1976, pp. 150-152
- ^ Jean-François Martin, La Tunisie de Ferry à Bourguiba, éd. L'Harmattan, Paris, 1993, p. 173
- ^ Scawen Blunt, Wilfred; Nourallah, Riad (2002). The future of Islam. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7007-1460-5.
- ^ a b Ben Saad, Nizar (2019). Lella Kmar, destin tourmenté d'une nymphe du sérail. Tunis, Tunisia: KA editions. pp. 38–39.
- ^ The Royal Tourist—Kalakaua's Letters Home from Tokio to London. Editor: Richard A. Greer. Date: 10 March 1881
Last edited on 13 May 2021, at 01:04
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