en.m.wikipedia.org
Multi-National Force – Iraq
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
Multi-National Force – Iraq

Multi-National Force-Iraq Shoulder Sleeve Insignia[1]
Leaders
Raymond T. Odierno (2008–2009)
David Petraeus(2007–2008)
George W. Casey, Jr. (2004–2007)
Ricardo Sanchez(2003–2004)
Dates of operation14 May 2004 – 31 December 2009
Country
 Iraq
Contributing Nations:
Size112,000 (December 2009)[2]
Allies
NATO Training Mission – Iraq
U.N. Assistance Mission for Iraq
 Republic of Iraq
OpponentsJama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad
al-Qaeda in Iraq
Mujahideen Shura Council
Islamic State of Iraq
Kata'ib Hezbollah[3]
Mahdi Army
Battles and warsWar on terror
Distinctive unit insignia
Flag
Flag
Websitehttp://www.mnf-iraq.com/
The MNF-I replaced the previous force, Combined Joint Task Force 7, on 15 May 2004, and was later itself reorganized into its successor, United States Forces – Iraq, on 1 January 2010. The Force was significantly reinforced during the Iraq War troop surge of 2007. As of May 2011, all non-U.S. coalition members had withdrawn from Iraq,[4] with the U.S. military withdrawing from the country on December 18, 2011, thus, bringing about an end to the Iraq War.[5]
The United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, which does humanitarian work and has a number of guards and military observers, has also operated in Iraq since 2003. The U.N. Assistance Mission in Iraq was not a part of the MNF-I, but a separate entity. The NATO Training Mission – Iraq, was in Iraq from 2004 to December 2011, where it trained the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi Police.
Definition
The news media in the United States generally used the term "U.S.-led coalition" to describe Multi-National Force – Iraq, as the vast majority of military forces in MNF-I were contributed from the United States.[6] The majority of countries that deployed military forces to Iraq as part of the MNF-I generally confined them to their respective military installations,[6] due to widespread violence throughout the country.
History
The MNF-I's objectives, as expressed in an annex to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546, a June 2004 letter from U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell to the U.N. Security Council, were stated to be:
The MNF under unified command is prepared to continue to contribute to the maintenance of security in Iraq, including by preventing and deterring terrorism and protecting the territory of Iraq. The goal of the MNF will be to help the Iraqi people to complete the political transition and will permit the United Nations and the international community to work to facilitate Iraq's reconstruction.
— Colin Powell, UNSCR 1546 (June 2004)[7]
The government of Iraq enjoyed broad international recognition, including from constituent countries of the Arab League. Jordan assisted in training of Iraqi security forces, and the United Arab Emirates donated military equipment, though purchased from Switzerland.
As of September 2008, over 545,000 Iraqi security forces have been trained.[8]
In November 2006, the United Nations Security Council voted to extend the mandate of the multinational force in Iraq until the end of 2007. The move was requested by the Iraqi government, which said the troops were needed for another year while it built up its own security forces.[9] In December 2007, the Security Council unanimously approved resolution 1790, which extended the mandate until December 31, 2008.[10]
In December 2008, the American and Iraqi governments signed the U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement, which covered only American troops. It allowed them to remain in the country until 2011, but changed the status on several issues. Iraq regains sovereignty of its airspace, gains sovereignty over American contractors U.S. forces who commit crimes, if they are both off-duty and off base. The U.S. were given until July 31, 2009 to withdraw from Iraqi cities and the whole agreement was subject to a referendum of Iraqi voters held prior to June 30, 2009. If the referendum failed to approve the agreement, the Iraqi government would have given the U.S. until July 31, 2010 to withdraw completely.
On December 18, 2008 the Iraqi government published a law that covered the status of non-U.S. foreign forces in the country from the end of the U.N.'s mandate on December 31, 2008 through to their withdrawal on July 31, 2009. The Iraqi parliament voted on Saturday December 20, 2008, after a second reading of this law, to reject it and send it back to the Iraqi cabinet. The majority of Iraqi parliamentarians wanted it to be made into a binding international agreement rather than simply presenting it as a local Iraqi law.[11] A compromise was reached and the law passed on December 23, 2008, with the Iraqi government agreeing to then sign bilateral agreements with the affected countries.[12]
List of countries in the coalition
Troop deployment in Iraq 2003–2011
Iraq War Coalition troop deployment
Troops at time of MNF-I deactivationWithdrawn troops (2008–2011)Withdrawn troops (2003–2007)
Total invasion deployment
Less than 200,000 troops
Multi-National Force – Iraq units
  •  NATO: A contingent of around 150 advisers under the separate command NATO Training Mission – Iraq(withdrawn 12/11)
  •  United States: 150,000 invasion 165,000 peak (withdrawn 12/11)
  •  United Kingdom: 46,000 invasion(withdrawn 5/11)
  •  Australia: 2,000 invasion(withdrawn 7/09)
  •  Romania: 730 peak (deployed 7/03; withdrawn 7/09)
  •  El Salvador: 380 peak (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 1/09)
  •  Estonia: 40 troops (deployed 6/05; withdrawn 1/09)
  •  Bulgaria: 485 peak (deployed 5/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Moldova: 24 peak (deployed 9/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Albania: 240 troops (deployed 4/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Ukraine: 1,650 peak (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Denmark: 545 peak (deployed 4/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Czech Republic: 300 peak (deployed 12/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  South Korea: 3,600 peak (deployed 5/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Tonga: 55 troops (deployed 7/04; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Azerbaijan: 250 peak (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Singapore: 175 offshore (deployed 12/03; withdrawn 12/08)
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina: 85 peak (deployed 6/05; withdrawn 11/08)
  •  Macedonia: 77 peak (deployed 7/03; withdrawn 11/08)
  •  Latvia: 136 peak (deployed 5/03; withdrawn 11/08)
  •  Poland: 200 invasion—2,500 peak (withdrawn 10/08)
  •  Kazakhstan: 29 troops (deployed 9/03; withdrawn 10/08)
  •  Armenia: 46 troops (deployed 1/05; withdrawn 10/08)
  •  Mongolia: 180 peak (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 09/08)
  •  Georgia: 2,000 peak (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 8/08)
  •  Slovakia: 110 peak (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 12/07)
  •  Lithuania: 120 peak (deployed 6/03; withdrawn 08/07)
  •  Italy: 3,200 peak (deployed 7/03; withdrawn 11/06)
  •  Norway: 150 troops (deployed 7/03; withdrawn 8/06)
  •  Japan: 600 troops (deployed 1/04; withdrawn 7/06)
  •  Hungary: 300 troops (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 3/05)
  •  Netherlands: 1,345 troops (deployed 7/03; withdrawn 3/05)
  •  Portugal: 128 troops (deployed 11/03; withdrawn 2/05)
  •  New Zealand: 61 troops (deployed 9/03; withdrawn 9/04)
  • Thailand: 423 troops (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 8/04)
  •  Philippines: 51 troops (deployed 7/03; withdrawn 7/04)
  •  Honduras: 368 troops (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 5/04)
  •  Dominican Republic: 302 troops (deployed 8/03; withdrawn 5/04)
  •  Spain: 1,300 troops (deployed 4/03; withdrawn 4/04)
  •  Nicaragua: 230 troops (deployed 9/03; withdrawn 2/04)
  •  Iceland: 2 troops (deployed 5/03; withdrawal date unknown)
Notable deployment of military equipment
Norway contributed with ARTHUR counter-battery radar systems, which pointed out 1,500 bombing targets during"[13] the first days of the war (the British minister of defence, Geoff Hoon, thanked Norway for its "robust"[13] contribution).
Countries that deployed troops to Iraq
2011 withdrawals
See also: Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq (2007–2011)
2009 withdrawals
2008 withdrawals
2007 withdrawals
Provincial security transition assessment as of August 2007
2006 withdrawals
2005 withdrawals
2004 withdrawals
Clandestine deployment of Canadian forces
 Canada – According to the U.S. State Department, a total of 15 countries participated covertly.[117] According to classified U.S. documents released by WikiLeaks, despite the Canadian government's official position that they would not participate in the invasion, Canadian officials allegedly promised to clandestinely support it.[118] In addition to naval vessels and personnel already in the region,[118] Canadian officers, Major Generals Walter Natynczyk, Peter Devlin, and Nicholas Matern, served as Deputy Commanding Generals of Multi-National Corps – Iraq.[119][120] and Canadian pilots flew Boeing C-17s into Iraq to "season" the flight crews.[121] In 2003, Prime Minister Chrétien admitted that some Canadian troops could be serving alongside U.S. and British troops in Iraq. "It's possible," he said, "but they are not in combat roles." Canadian Defense Minister John McCallum refused to give Parliament details about the locations of Canadian soldiers in Iraq.[122]
Public relations
YouTube
In early March 2007, Multi-National Force – Iraq announced[123] that it had launched an official YouTube channel for the first time.[124] The channel's videos have over eight million views.[125]
The stated purpose of the YouTube channel is to "document action as it appeared to personnel on the ground and in the air as it was shot." The video clips posted to the site are edited for "time, security reasons, and/or overly disturbing or offensive images."
Commanders
Commanders of Multi-National Force – Iraq
PrecedenceCommanderPortraitStart of tenureEnd of tenure
1LTG Ricardo Sanchez, USA
June 14, 2003June 4, 2004
2GEN George W. Casey, Jr., USA
June 4, 2004February 10, 2007
3GEN David Petraeus, USA
February 10, 2007September 16, 2008
4GENRaymond Odierno, USA
September 16, 2008January 1, 2010
Controversy
Critics of the war have argued that, in addition to direct incentives, the involvement of other members of the coalition was in response for indirect benefits, such as support for North Atlantic Treaty Organization membership or other military and financial aid. Estonian Foreign Minister Urmas Paet, stated in April 2006, that Estonian military forces were to remain in Iraq due to Estonia's "important partnership" with the United States.[126]
Incentives given to MNF-I member countries
Many MNF-I member countries had received monetary gain, among other incentives from the United States, in return for their sending of military forces to Iraq, or otherwise supporting coalition forces during the Iraq War.[127]
Georgia
Georgia, is believed to have sent soldiers to Iraq as an act of repayment for U.S. training of security forces that could potentially be deployed to the break-away regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[128] Indeed, Georgian troops that were sent to Iraq have all undergone these training programs.[129]
Turkey
Turkey was offered approximately $8.5 billion in loans in exchange for sending 10,000 peacekeeping troops in 2003. Even though the United States did say the loans and the sending of troops to Iraq were not directly linked, it also said the loans are contingent upon "cooperation" on Iraq.[130] The Turkish government swiftly rejected all offers of financial aid, and on March 1, 2003, the Turkish Grand National Assembly rejected sending military forces to help participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The decision of the Turkish parliament to do so, at the time, was seen as both a response against American interests in the Middle East, and a desire to keep Turkey out of the Iraq War. The Turkish government, however, allowed all humanitarian flights into and out of Turkey, such as the airlifting of wounded coalition forces.
United Kingdom
In March 2006, British newspaper, The Independent, reported that companies based within the United Kingdom had received at least £1.1bn in contracts for reconstruction work in post-invasion Iraq.[131]
Deaths
When U.S. forces withdrew in December 2011, 4,804 coalition military personnel had been killed in Iraq. This list, which includes withdrawn countries, lists those deaths.[132]
Coalition fatalities
CountryDeathsReference(s)
 United States4,486[133]
 United Kingdom179[134]
 Italy
33[135]
 Poland23[136]
 Ukraine
18[137]
 Bulgaria13[138]
 Spain
11[139]
 Denmark
7[140]
 El Salvador5[141]
 Georgia
5[142]
 Slovakia
4[143]
 Latvia3[144]
 Romania
3[145]
 Estonia
2[146]
 Thailand
2[147]
 Australia2[148]
 Netherlands
2[149]
 Kazakhstan1[150]
 South Korea
1[151]
 Hungary1[152]
 Czech Republic
1[153]
 Azerbaijan1[154]
See also
References
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Further reading
Carney, Stephen A. (2011). Allied Participation in Operation Iraqi Freedom (PDF). Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. ISBN 978-0-16-086694-4.
External links
Wikinews has related news:
UK and Denmark announce troop withdrawals from Iraq
Last edited on 15 April 2021, at 18:31
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