Municipality - Wikipedia
Municipality
A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate.
The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barrios making up the municipality.
Map of all city municipalities in Slovenia
The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality.[1] A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.
The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.[2] The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).
A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass
Political powers
Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to supply public services through municipally-owned public utility companies.[4]
Terms in various countries
New York City as well as its composite five boroughs are all municipalities.
  1. Manhattan
  2. Brooklyn
  3. Queens
  4. The Bronx
  5. Staten Island
A city or town municipalities (red-colored) with other non-town municipalities in Finland (2020)
Municipality
Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure,[clarification needed] are Spanish municipio (Spain) and municipalidad (Chile), and Catalan municipi.
Communes
In a number of countries terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms:
The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.
Other terms
In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound democracy (rule of the people).
In some countries, the Spanish term ayuntamiento, referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via synecdoche to denote the municipality itself.[citation needed] In Moldova and Romania, both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality.[citation needed]
In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.
English-speaking
Chinese-speaking
Municipalities by country
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CountryTermExampleSubdivision ofQuantityNotesFurther reading
Afghanistanشاروالی یا شهرداری
shārwāli (or shahr-dari)
Provinces of Afghanistan20434 'provincial' municipalities of provincial capitals (shārwāli) and 170 rural or 'district' municipalities (shārwāli uluswāli)www.km.gov.af, dmm.gov.af, idlg.gov.af
Albaniabashki (urban) or komunë (rural)61Municipalities of Albania
AlgeriaBaladiyahdaïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province)1,541Municipalities of Algeria
AndorraparròquiaSant Julià de Lòria7
ArgentinamunicipalidadPuerto MadrynProvinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments2,100Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or townshipMunicipalities of Argentina
AustraliaLocal government areaPort Stephens CouncilStates and territories of Australia547Local government in Australia
AustriaGemeindea state (Bundesland).2,095The entire area of Austria is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population.Municipality (Austria)
BangladeshPouroshobhaUpazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district311Municipalities of Bangladesh
Belgiumgemeente/communeMontigny-le-Tilleula province (provincie/province) or of the Brussels-Capital Region581The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalitiesMunicipalities in Belgium
BoliviamunicipioArani Municipalityprovince, which is part of a departamento.327 (2005)Municipalities of Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovinaopćina or opštinain Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton (kanton). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government.144Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
BrazilmunicípioSão Paulo (most populous), Borá (least populous)states (estados)5,570Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal District or the Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwideMunicipalities of Brazil
BruneibandaranBandar Seri Begawan4Independent of subdivisions; nevertheless overlap with mukims and villagesMunicipalities of Brunei
BulgariaBulgarian: община, Bulgarian: obshtinaAksakovo Municipalityan oblast264Municipalities of Bulgaria
Canadamunicipality3,572Municipality system is similar to that in the United States, however rules vary depending on the province.Lists of municipalities in Canada
Cambodiaក្រុង (krong)Phnom Penh1,446
ChilemunicipalidadTorres del Paineprovinces346Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more
China直辖市Beijing4Status equal to a provinceMunicipalities of China
Colombiamunicipioa department (departamento)1,102It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoods in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalitiesMunicipalities of Colombia
Costa RicaMunicipalidadProvince (Provinces of Costa Rica)Cantones of Costa Rica
Croatiaopćinacounty (županija)428Municipalities of Croatia
Czech RepublicobecKarlovy Varya kraj (kraj)6,254
DenmarkkommuneAabenraa Municipalitya region98Counties (amter) were abandoned in 2007Municipalities of Denmark
Dominican RepublicmunicipioprovinceMunicipalities of the Dominican Republic
El SalvadormunicipioZacatecolucadepartamentos262Municipalities of El Salvador
EstoniaomavalitsusAre vald (Are Parish)county (maakond)215Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald)Municipalities of Estonia
Finlandkunta (in Finnish), kommun (in Swedish)Helsinkiregion311Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki).Municipalities of Finland
Francecommunecanton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department (département) which is part of a region (région)36,600
GermanyGemeindedistrict (Kreis, literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities (Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde)12,013Municipalities of Germany
Georgiamunits'ipaliteti76self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi)Municipalities of Georgia
Greecedemos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)325Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populousMunicipalities and communities of Greece
GreenlandkommuneaKujalleq5First-level administrative divisionMunicipalities of Greenland
Haiticommunean arrondissement, which is part of a department (département).
Hondurasmunicipiowas in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento).298Municipalities of Honduras
Hungaryközséga county (megye).3,168 (in 2005)
IcelandsveitarfélagReykjavíkRegions74The country's only self-governing local administrative unitsMunicipalities of Iceland
IndiaSainthiaExcludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousandMunicipalities of India
IndonesiaKabupaten (regency) or Kotamadya (city)Provinces of IndonesiaList of regencies and cities of Indonesia
IraqQadhaaAl-Hamdaniya Districta district (Arabic: Qadhaa‎) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafatha).130Second-level, below the governorateMunicipalities of Iraq
IsraelIri'ya (עיריה, City Government), Moatsa (מועצה, Council)Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)
Italycomunea province (provincia) which is part of a region (regione).7,982Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)[14]List of municipalities of Italy
Japan市町村
Shichoson
1,719Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities), cho (towns), and son (villages)Municipalities of Japan
Kenyaa municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.
Latviasingular: novads, plural: novadiAglonas novads (Aglona Municipality)110A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti).Municipalities of Latvia
Lebanona district (Arabic: Qadaa‎) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafazah).
LibyaBaladiyahthe municipality level is that of the Basic People's Congress. Large cities are subdivided.Municipalities of Libya
LithuaniasavivaldybėKalvarijos savivaldybė (Kalvarija Municipality)a district (apskritis) and is subdivided into elderates (seniūnija).Municipalities of Lithuania
Luxembourgcommune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish)part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district105are the lowest divisions
MaltaKunsill Lokali (Local Council)Valletta Local Councilnone68established 1993, one new council created since then (Mtarfa)Local councils of Malta
Mauritiusa municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.
Mexicomunicipio / delegaciónAsientos Municipalitya state (estado) or the DF2,466a borough (delegación) is a subdivision of the Federal DistrictMunicipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District
MoldovamunicipiuMunicipiul Chișinău32is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level.Moldova#Administrative divisions
MontenegroopštinaAndrijevica Municipalitythe country (top-level)Municipalities of Montenegro
NepalNagarpalika and GaunpalikaPokharaProvinces of Nepal276 Municipalities (by Constitution of Nepal, 2015 and amendments thereafter)Nepal has 276 municipalities and 460 rural municipalities or gaunpalikas after federal division of country by Constitution of Nepal 2015. A municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.List of cities in Nepal
Netherlandsgemeentea province (provincie)388 + 3 special municipalitiesMunicipalities of the Netherlands
New Zealanda municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)
Nicaraguamunicipioa department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.Municipalities of Nicaragua
North MacedoniaopštinaAračinovo MunicipalityThe country (top-level) or the City of Skopje84 (2004)Current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996.Municipalities of North Macedonia
NorwaykommuneRøyken kommunea county (fylke)356 (2020)Municipalities of Norway
Palestinian National Authority105municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members.Municipality (Palestinian Authority)
Pakistanof a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district".149Local government in Pakistan
Paraguaymunicipalidada departament (departamento)
Perumunicipioa province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).1875is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.Districts of Peru
Philippinesbayan, munisipyo or munisipalidada province (lalawigan or probinsya, except for Pateros)1,488[15]A municipality is the official name for a town and is divided into barangays. Municipalities with a larger population and income may become a city through a city charter.[16]Municipalities of the Philippines
PolandgminaGmina Annopolcounty (powiat).
Portugalconcelho or municípioOeirasDistrict308Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo, however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts (distritos). In Portugal, a municipality (município/concelho) is the primary local administrative unit. Although part of a district (distrito) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias.Municipalities of Portugal
Puerto RicomunicipioArecibonone78municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.[17][18]Municipalities of Puerto Rico
Romaniamunicipiu / oraș / comunăDevaCounty (județ)103 + 217 + 2856A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" (orașe) or "communes" (comune).Municipalities of Romania
Cities of Romania
Communes of Romania
Russiaseveral types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia
San Marinothere are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.
Serbiaopštinaa district (okrug)
Slovakiaobecdistrict (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj)2,891
Sloveniaobčinaregion (regija)212a municipality (občina) is the primary local administrative unit. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy.Municipalities of Slovenia
South Africa249district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces, and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.
Spainmunicipio / municipi / concello / udalerriaBarcelona, Madrid8,122a municipality (municipio) is the primary local administrative unit. It is a part of a province (provincia) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, concellos, and in the Principality of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language) or a conceyu (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes).Municipalities of Spain
SwedenkommunStockholm Municipality
County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities.290is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016.[19]Municipalities of Sweden
Switzerlandcommune​/​Gemeinde​/​comunea canton (​canton/Kanton/cantone​) and defined by cantonal law.2,596Municipalities in Switzerland
ThailandthesabanNone1,602There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok and Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978.Thesaban
TurkeybelediyeIstanbul Metropolitan Municipalityil (province)2,920is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.
UkraineUkrainian: громада, hromadaTernopil City hromadaRaions of Ukraine1470In Ukraine executive power belongs to ispolkom (an executive committee) of the council of hromada. Functions of ispolkom in Kyiv and Sevastopol performs a state administration due to the status of those cities. For other populated places, there are mainly two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Their governing bodies are councils (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miska hromada) and town municipalities (selyshchna hromada).
United Arab Emiratesan emirateis defined by the law of the specific emirates.
Uruguaymunicipio89Municipalities of Uruguay
VenezuelamunicipioAnaco Municipalitya state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District (estado)Municipalities of Venezuela
VietnamDirect-controlled municipality - Thành phố trực thuộc trung ươngHo Chi Minh City (largest)5A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a provinceMunicipalities of Vietnam
In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.
See also
References
  1. ^ "Municipality". Merriam-Webster.
  2. ^ "municipality definition". Yourdictionary.com.
  3. ^ "Santiago de Chile – Comunas". Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux Ltda. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  4. ^ Andersen, Uwe. "Gemeinden/Kommunale Selbstverwaltung | bpb". bpb.de (in German). Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  5. ^ "Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  6. ^ "Municipal Government". The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government > Government, General > Municipal Government. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  8. ^ a b "List of Ontario Municipalities". Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  9. ^ "Municipal Government Act" (PDF). Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova Scotia House of Assembly. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  10. ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality
  11. ^ "Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law". FindLaw.
  12. ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia.
  13. ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama.
  14. ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana". Diritto&Giustizia Edizione Online.  – via Questia(subscription required)
  15. ^ "Philippine Standard Geographic Code – List of Municipalities". Philippine Statistics Authority. 31 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  16. ^ "Republic Act 7160 – Local Government Act of 1991". Official Gazette (Philippines). 11 October 1991. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  17. ^ Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio.Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  18. ^ Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish)Archived 5 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  19. ^ SFS 2015:493 Archived 30 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Svensk författningssamling: Förordning om distrikt.
External links
Look up municipality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Elton, Charles Isaac (1884). "Municipality" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (9th ed.).
Last edited on 27 April 2021, at 06:29
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