The Society of the Muslim Brothers
: جماعة الإخوان المسلمين
Jamāʿat al-Ikhwān al-Muslimīn
), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood
, is a transnational Sunni Islamist
organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar
and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna
Al-Banna's teachings spread far beyond Egypt, influencing today various Islamist movements from charitable organizations to political parties—not all using the same name.
Initially, as a Pan-Islamic
, religious, and social movement
, it preached Islam in Egypt, taught the illiterate, and set up hospitals and business enterprises. It later advanced into the political arena, aiming to end British colonial control of Egypt. The movement's self-stated aim is the establishment of a state ruled by Sharia law
–its most famous slogan worldwide being: "Islam is the solution". Charity is a major propellant to its work.
The group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one of its largest, organizations in Egypt despite a succession of government crackdowns starting in 1948 up until today, with accusations of planning assassinations and plots.
It remained a fringe group in politics of the Arab World
until the 1967 Six-Day War
, when Islamism managed to replace popular secular Arab nationalism
after a resounding Arab defeat by Israel.
The movement was also supported by Saudi Arabia, with which it shared mutual enemies like communism
The Arab Spring
brought it legalization and substantial political power at first, but as of 2013 it has suffered severe reversals.
The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was legalized in 2011 and won several elections,
including the 2012 presidential election
when its candidate Mohamed Morsi
became Egypt's first president to gain power through an election,
though one year later, following massive demonstrations and unrest, he was overthrown
by the military and placed under house arrest. The group was then banned in Egypt and declared as a terrorist organization. Persian Gulf
monarchies of Saudi Arabia
and the United Arab Emirates
followed suit, driven by the perception that the Brotherhood is a threat to their authoritarian rule.
The Brotherhood itself claims to be a peaceful, democratic organization, and that its leader "condemns violence and violent acts".
The Brotherhood's English-language website describes its principles as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Sharia
as "the basis for controlling the affairs of state and society" and secondly, working to unify "Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberate them from foreign imperialism
According to a spokesman on its English-language website, the Muslim Brotherhood believes in reform, democracy, freedom of assembly
We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people's will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc.
As Islamic Modernist
beliefs were co-opted by secularist rulers and official 'ulama
, the Brotherhood has become traditionalist and conservative, "being the only available outlet for those whose religious and cultural sensibilities had been outraged by the impact of Westernization".
Al-Banna believed the Quran
constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God
has set out for man. Islamic governments
must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate
. The Muslim Brotherhood's goal, as stated by its founder al-Banna was to drive out British colonial and other Western influences, reclaim Islam's manifest destiny—an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.
The Brotherhood preaches that Islam will bring social justice, the eradication of poverty, corruption and sinful behavior, and political freedom (to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam). Blended with methods of modern social sciences, some key thinkers of Brotherhood have also contemplated the Islamic perspective on bureaucratic effectiveness, mapping out solutions to problems of formalism and irresponsiveness to public concerns in public administration, which pertains to the pro-democratic tenets of Muslim Brotherhood.
Such variations of thoughts have also purportedly negated the realities of contemporary Muslim countries as their authors have proclaimed.
On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood interprets Islam conservatively. Its founder called for "a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior", "segregation of male and female students", a separate curriculum for girls, and "the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes ... "
The Brotherhood's "most frequently used slogan" (according to the BBC) is "Islam is the Solution" (الإسلام هو الحل).
According to academic Khalil Yusuf, its motto "was traditionally" "Believers are but Brothers."
Strategy and organization
The Muslim Brotherhood's position on political participation varied according to the "domestic situation" of each branch, rather than ideology. For many years its stance was "collaborationist" in Kuwait and Jordan; for "pacific opposition" in Egypt; "armed opposition" in Libya and Syria.
When it comes to its activity in the West, the Brotherhood's strategy may be linked to a 12-point document titled Towards a Worldwide Strategy for Islamic Policy
, commonly known as The Project
It was written on 1 December 1982, by Yusuf al-Qaradawi
at the culmination of a series of two meetings held in 1977 and 1982 in Lugano
The treaty instructs Brotherhood members to show "flexibility" when it comes to their activity outside the Islamic world, encouraging them to temporarily adopt Western values without deviating from their "basic [Islamic] principles."
The Muslim Brotherhood is a transnational organization as opposed to a political party, but its members have created political parties in several countries, such as the Islamic Action Front
and the West Bank
, and the former Freedom and Justice Party
in Egypt. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members, but are otherwise kept independent from the Muslim Brotherhood to some degree, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir
, which is highly centralized.
The Brotherhood has been described as a "combination of neo-Sufic tariqa
" (with al-Banna as the original murshid
i.e., guide of the tariqa) "and a political party".
The Egyptian Brotherhood has a pyramidal structure with "families" (or usra
, which consists of four to five people and is headed by a naqib, or "captain)
at the bottom, "clans" above them, "groups" above clans and "battalions" or "phalanxes" above groups.
Potential Brethren start out as Muhib
or "lovers", and if approved move up to become a muayyad
, or "supporter", then to muntasib
or "affiliated", (who are nonvoting members). If a muntasib "satisfies his monitors", he is promoted to muntazim
, or "organizer", before advancing to the final level—ach 'amal
, or "working brother".
With this slow careful advancement, the loyalty of potential members can be "closely probed" and obedience to orders assured.
At the top of the hierarchy is the Guidance Office (Maktab al-Irshad
), and immediately below it is the Shura Council. Orders are passed down through a chain of command:
- The Shura Council has the duties of planning, charting general policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group. It is composed of roughly 100 Muslim Brothers. Important decisions, such as whether to participate in elections, are debated and voted on within the Shura Council and then executed by the Guidance Office. Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organizational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group's policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms dedicated branch committees to assist in that.
- Executive Office or Guidance Office (Maktab al-Irshad), which is composed of approximately 15 longtime Muslim Brothers and headed by the supreme guide or General Masul (murshid) Each member of the Guidance Office oversees a different portfolio, such as university recruitment, education, or politics. Guidance Office members are elected by the Shura Council. Divisions of the Guidance/Executive Office include:
- Executive leadership
- Organizational office
- Secretariat general
- Educational office
- Political office
- Sisters office
The Muslim Brotherhood aimed to build a transnational organization
. In the 1940s, the Egyptian Brotherhood organized a "section for Liaison with the Islamic World" endowed with nine committees.
Groups were founded in Lebanon
(1936), in Syria
(1937), and Transjordan
(1946). It also recruited members among the foreign students who lived in Cairo
where its headquarters became a center and a meeting place for representatives from the whole Muslim world
In each country with an MB there is a Branch committee with a Masul (leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office. "Properly speaking" Brotherhood branches exist only in Arab countries of the Middle East where they are "in theory" subordinate to the Egyptian General Guide. Beyond that the Brotherhood sponsors national organizations in countries like Tunisia (Ennahda Movement
), Morocco (Justice and Charity party), Algeria (Movement of Society for Peace
Outside the Arab world it also has influence, with former President of Afghanistan, Burhanuddin Rabbani
, having adopted MB ideas during his studies at Al-Azhar University
, and many similarities between mujahideen groups in Afghanistan and Arab MBs. Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia
in Malaysia is close to the Brotherhood.
According to scholar Olivier Roy
, as of 1994 "an international agency" of the Brotherhood "assures the cooperation of the ensemble" of its national organizations. The agency's "composition is not well known, but the Egyptians maintain a dominant position".
founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia
in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal
Company, as a Pan-Islamic
, religious, political, and social movement
The Suez Canal Company helped Banna build the mosque in Ismailia that would serve as the Brotherhood's headquarters, according to Richard Mitchell's The Society of Muslim Brothers
According to al-Banna, contemporary Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia law based on the Qur'an
and the Sunnah
were seen as laws passed down by God that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems.
Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. Al-Banna held highly conservative views on issues such as women's rights, opposing equal rights for women, but supporting the establishment of justice towards women.
The Brotherhood grew rapidly going from 800 members in 1936, to 200,000 by 1938 and over 2 million by 1948.
As its influence grew, it opposed British rule in Egypt starting in 1936,
but it was banned after being accused of violent killings
including the assassination of a Prime Minister
by a young Brotherhood member.
In November 1948, following several bombings and alleged assassination attempts by the Brotherhood, the Egyptian government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhood's "secret apparatus" and banned the Brotherhood.
At this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2,000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathizers.
In succeeding months Egypt's prime minister was assassinated by a Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation.
In 1952, members of the Muslim Brotherhood were accused of taking part in the Cairo Fire
that destroyed some 750 buildings in downtown Cairo – mainly night clubs, theatres, hotels, and restaurants frequented by British and other foreigners.
In 1952 Egypt's monarchy was overthrown
by a group of nationalist military officers (Free Officers Movement
) who had formed a cell within the Brotherhood during the first war against Israel in 1948.
However, after the revolution Gamal Abdel Nasser
, the leader of the 'free officers' cell, after deposing the first President of Egypt, Muhammad Neguib
, in a coup, quickly moved against the Brotherhood, blaming them for an attempt on his life. The Brotherhood was again banned and this time thousands of its members were imprisoned, many being tortured and held for years in prisons and concentration camps
. In the 1950s and 1960s many Brotherhood members sought sanctuary in Saudi Arabia.
From the 1950s, Al-Banna's son-in-law Said Ramadan
emerged as a major leader of the Brotherhood and the movement's unofficial "foreign minister". Ramadan built a major center for the Brotherhood centered on a mosque in Munich, which became "a refuge for the beleaguered group during its decades in the wilderness".
In the 1970s after the death of Nasser and under the new President (Anwar Sadat
), the Egyptian Brotherhood was invited back to Egypt and began a new phase of participation in Egyptian politics.
Imprisoned Brethren were released and the organization was tolerated to varying degrees with periodic arrests and crackdowns until the 2011 Revolution
During the Mubarak era, observers both defended and criticized the Brotherhood. It was the largest opposition group in Egypt, calling for "Islamic reform", and a democratic system in Egypt. It had built a vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor Egyptians.
According to ex-Knesset
member and author Uri Avnery
the Brotherhood was religious but pragmatic, "deeply embedded in Egyptian history, more Arab and more Egyptian than fundamentalist". It formed "an old established party which has earned much respect with its steadfastness in the face of recurrent persecution, torture, mass arrests and occasional executions. Its leaders are untainted by the prevalent corruption, and admired for their commitment to social work".
It also developed a significant movement online.
In the 2005 parliamentary elections
, the Brotherhood became "in effect, the first opposition party of Egypt's modern era". Despite electoral irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of Brotherhood members, and having to run its candidates as independents (the organization being technically illegal), the Brotherhood won 88 seats (20% of the total) compared to 14 seats for the legal opposition.
During its term in parliament, the Brotherhood "posed a democratic political challenge to the regime, not a theological one", according to one The New York Times
while another report praised it for attempting to transform "the Egyptian parliament into a real legislative body", that represented citizens and kept the government "accountable".
But fears remained about its commitment to democracy, equal rights, and freedom of expression and belief—or lack thereof.
In December 2006, a campus demonstration by Brotherhood students in uniforms, demonstrating martial arts drills, betrayed to some such as Jameel Theyabi, "the group's intent to plan for the creation of militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of 'secret cells'".
Another report highlighted the Muslim Brotherhood's efforts in Parliament to combat what one member called the "current US-led war against Islamic culture and identity," forcing the Minister of Culture at the time, Farouk Hosny
, to ban the publication of three novels on the ground they promoted blasphemy and unacceptable sexual practices.
In October 2007, the Muslim Brotherhood issued a detailed political platform. Among other things, it called for a board of Muslim clerics to oversee the government, and limiting the office of the presidency to Muslim men. In the "Issues and Problems" chapter of the platform, it declared that a woman was not suited to be president because the office's religious and military duties "conflict with her nature, social and other humanitarian roles". While proclaiming "equality between men and women in terms of their human dignity", the document warned against "burdening women with duties against their nature or role in the family".
Internally, some leaders in the Brotherhood disagreed on whether to adhere to Egypt's 32-year peace treaty with Israel. A deputy leader declared the Brotherhood would seek dissolution of the treaty,
while a Brotherhood spokesman stated the Brotherhood would respect the treaty as long as "Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of the Palestinians".
2011 revolution and after
The Muslim Brotherhood's candidate for Egypt's 2012 presidential election was Mohamed Morsi
, who defeated Ahmed Shafiq
—the last prime minister under Mubarak's rule—with 51.73% of the vote.
Although during his campaign Morsi himself promised to stand for peaceful relations with Israel,
some high level supporters and former Brotherhood officials
reiterated hostility toward Zionism.
For example, Egyptian cleric Safwat Hegazi
spoke at the announcement rally for the Muslim Brotherhood's candidate Morsi and expressed his hope and belief that Morsi would liberate Gaza, restore the Caliphate of the "United States of the Arabs" with Jerusalem
as its capital, and that "our cry shall be: 'Millions of martyrs march towards Jerusalem.'"
Within a short period, serious public opposition developed to President Morsi. In late November 2012, he "temporarily" granted himself the power to legislate
without judicial oversight or review of his acts, on the grounds that he needed to "protect" the nation from the Mubarak-era power structure.
He also put a draft constitution to a referendum
that opponents complained was "an Islamist coup".
—and concerns over the prosecutions of journalists, the unleashing of pro-Brotherhood gangs on nonviolent demonstrators, the continuation of military trials, new laws that permitted detention without judicial review for up to 30 days,
brought hundreds of thousands of protesters
to the streets starting in November 2012.
By April 2013, Egypt had "become increasingly divided" between President Mohamed Morsi and "Islamist allies" and an opposition of "moderate Muslims, Christians and liberals". Opponents accused "Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood of seeking to monopolize power, while Morsi's allies say the opposition is trying to destabilize the country to derail the elected leadership".[dead link]
Adding to the unrest were severe fuel shortages and electricity outages, which raised suspicions among some Egyptians that the end of gas and electricity shortages since the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi was evidence of a conspiracy to undermine him, although other Egyptians say it was evidence of Morsi's mismanagement of the economy.
On 3 July 2013, Mohamed Morsi was removed from office and put into house arrest by the military,
that happened shortly after mass protests
against him began.
demanding the resignation of Morsi. There were also significant counter-protests in support of Morsi;
those were originally intended to celebrate the one-year anniversary of Morsi's inauguration, and started days before the uprising. On 14 August, the interim government declared a month-long state of emergency, and riot police cleared the pro-Morsi sit-in during the Rabaa sit-in dispersal of August 2013
. Violence escalated rapidly following armed protesters attacking police, according to the National Council for Human Rights
this led to the deaths of over 600 people and injury of some 4,000,
with the incident resulting in the most casualties in Egypt's modern history.
In retaliation, Brotherhood supporters looted and burned police stations and dozens of churches in response to the violence, though a Muslim Brotherhood spokesperson condemned the attacks on Christians and instead blamed military leaders for plotting the attacks.
The crackdown that followed has been called the worst for the Brotherhood's organization "in eight decades".
By 19 August, Al Jazeera
reported that "most" of the Brotherhood's leaders were in custody.
On that day Supreme Leader Mohammed Badie
crossing a "red line", as even Hosni Mubarak
had never arrested him.
On 23 September, a court ordered the group outlawed and its assets seized. Prime Minister
, Hazem Al Beblawi
on 21 December 2013, declared the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organisation after a car bomb ripped through a police building and killed at least 14 people in the city of Mansoura
, which the government blamed on the Muslim Brotherhood, despite no evidence and an unaffiliated Sinai-based terror group
claiming responsibility for the attack.
A group of pro-Brotherhood protesters holding the Rabia sign
and making the associated gesture during a pro-Brotherhood protest held in October 2013.
On 24 March 2014, an Egyptian court sentenced 529 members of the Muslim Brotherhood to death
following an attack on a police station, an act described by Amnesty International
as "the largest single batch of simultaneous death sentences we've seen in recent years […] anywhere in the world".
By May 2014, approximately 16,000 people (and as high as more than 40,000 by what The Economist
calls an "independent count"),
mostly Brotherhood members or supporters, have allegedly been arrested by police since the 2013 uprising.
On 2 February 2015, an Egyptian court sentenced another 183 members of the Muslim Brotherhood to death.
An editorial in The New York Times
claimed that "leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood, which became the leading political movement in the wake of Egypt's 2011 popular uprising, are languishing in prison, unfairly branded as terrorists. ... Egypt's crushing authoritarianism could well persuade a significant number of its citizens that violence is the only tool they have for fighting back".
Mohamed Morsi was sentenced to death on 16 May 2015, along with 120 others.
The Muslim Brotherhood claimed that Muslims did not carry out the Botroseya Church bombing
and claimed it was a false flag conspiracy by the Egyptian government and Copts, in a statement released in Arabic on the FJP's website,
but its claim was challenged by 100 Women
participant Nervana Mahmoud
and Hoover Institution and Hudson Institute fellow Samuel Tadros.
The Muslim Brotherhood released an Arabic-language statement claiming the attack was carried out by the Egyptian security forces working for the Interior Ministry
The Anti-Coup Alliance
said that "full responsibility for the crime" was on the "coup authority".
The Muslim Brotherhood released an English-language commentary on the bombing and said it condemned the terrorist attack.
Qatar-based Muslim Brotherhood members are suspected to have helped a Muslim Brotherhood agent carry out the bombing, according to the Egyptian government.
The Qatar-based supporter was named as Mohab Mostafa El-Sayed Qassem.
The terrorist was named as Mahmoud Shafiq Mohamed Mostaf.
The Arabic-language website of the Muslim Brotherhood commemorated the anniversary of the death of its leader, Hassan al-Banna, and repeated his words calling for the teachings of Islam to spread all over the world and to raise the "flag of Jihad", taking their land, "regaining their glory", "including diaspora Muslims" and demanding an Islamic State and a Muslim government, a Muslim people, a Muslim house, and Muslim individuals.
The Brotherhood cited some of Hassan al-Banna's sayings calling for brotherhood between Muslims.
The death of Omar Abdel Rahman
, a convicted terrorist, received condolences from the Muslim Brotherhood. Mekameleen TV
, a Turkey-based free-to-air satellite television channel run by exiled Brotherhood supporters, mourned his death and claimed it was "martyrdom". Mekameleen supports the Brotherhood.
Condolences were sent upon Omar Abdel Rahman's death by the website of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt.
How much of the blame for the fall from power in Egypt of the Brotherhood and its allied Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) can be placed on the Brotherhood, and how much of it can be placed on its enemies in the Egyptian bureaucracy, media and security establishment is disputed. The Mubarak government's state media portrayed the Brotherhood as secretive and illegal,
and numerous TV channels such as OnTV spent much of their air time vilifying the organization.
But the Brotherhood took a number of controversial steps and also acquiesced to or supported crackdowns by the military during Morsi's presidency.
Before the revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood's supporters appeared at a protest at Al-Azhar University wearing military-style fatigues, after which the Mubarak government accused the organization of starting an underground militia.
When it came to power, the Muslim Brotherhood indeed tried to establish armed groups of supporters and it sought official permission for its members to be armed.
Supreme guides or General leaders (G.L.) of the Muslim Brotherhood have been:
In the Middle East
Although Iran is a predominately Shi'ite Muslim country and the Muslim Brotherhood has never attempted to create a branch for Shi'ites,
Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had influence among Shia in Iran. Navab Safavi
, who founded Fada'iyan-e Islam
, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s, was, according to Abbas Milani
, "very much enamored of the Muslim Brotherhood".
Iranian Call and Reform Organization
, a Sunni Islamist group active in Iran, has been described as an organization "that belongs to the Muslim Brotherhood"
or "Iranian Muslim Brotherhood",
while it has officially stated that it is not affiliated with the latter.
Erdoğan performing the Rabaa
gesture (which is used by Muslim Brotherhood supporters in Egypt protesting against the post-Brotherhood authorities)
The Turkish AKP
, the ruling party of Turkey, publicly supported the Muslim Brotherhood during and a few months after the overthrow
of the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi
in July 2013.
Then-Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
claimed in an interview that this was because "Turkey would stand by whoever was elected as a result of legitimate elections."
According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
, each year after Morsi's overthrow has seen the AKP "significantly detach itself from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt."
The Iraqi Islamic Party
was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood,
but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule of Abd al-Karim Qasim
. As government repression hardened under the Baath Party
from February 1963, the group was forced to continue underground. After the fall
of the Saddam Hussein
government in 2003, the Islamic Party has reemerged as one of the main advocates of the country's Sunni community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical of the U.S.-led occupation
of Iraq, but still participates in the political process nevertheless.
Its leader is Iraqi Vice-President Tariq Al-Hashimi
Anti-infidel jihad was encouraged by Imams of the Muslim Brotherhood simultaneously while the US Army was having dialogues with them in Mosul. They pose as modern while encouraging violence at the same time. The role of political representatives of Sunnis was seized on by the Muslim Brotherhood in Mosul since 2003.
The Muslim Brotherhood was an active participation in the "Faith Campaign".
An ideology akin to the Brotherhood's was propagated in the faith campaign.
said that he received a death threat and was declared a non-Muslim by the Muslim Brotherhood.
A pro-Turkish demonstration was held in London by Muslim Brotherhood-sympathizing Iraqis.
Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements inspired by or part of the Muslim Brotherhood network. The Kurdistan Islamic Union
(KIU), a small political party holding 10 seats in the Kurdish parliament, was believed to be supportive of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 90's.
The group leaders and members have been continuously arrested by Kurdish authorities.
'Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, the brother of the Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, went to Mandatory Palestine
and established the Muslim Brotherhood there in 1935. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini
, eventually appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in hopes of accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine.
Another important leader associated with the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine was 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name of Palestine against the British in 1935.
In 1945, the group established a branch in Jerusalem
, and by 1947 twenty-five more branches had sprung up, in towns such as Jaffa
, and Tulkarm
, which total membership between 12,000 and 20,000.
Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948 Arab–Israeli war
, and, after Israel's creation, the ensuing Palestinian refugee
crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group's activity was mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good relations with Jordan during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank
. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian government that controlled the Gaza Strip until 1967.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood's goal was "the upbringing of an Islamic generation" through the restructuring of society and religious education, rather than opposition to Israel, and so it lost popularity to insurgent movements and the presence of Hizb ut-Tahrir
Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened by several factors:
- The creation of al-Mujamma' al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all religious organizations.
- The Muslim Brotherhood Society in Jordan and Palestine was created from a merger of the branches in the West Bank and Gaza and Jordan.
- Palestinian disillusion with the Palestinian militant groups caused them to become more open to alternatives.
- The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians. The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and avoid being dismantled like militant groups because it did not focus on the occupation. While militant groups were being dismantled, the Brotherhood filled the void.
Further information: Hamas
Between 1967 and 1987, the year Hamas was founded, the number of mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of "social institution building."
During that time, the Brotherhood established associations, used zakat
(alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians, promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf
(religious endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established mosques. Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to Fatah
, the Palestine Liberation Organization
and other secular nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on university campuses.
In 1987, following the First Intifada, the Islamic Resistance Movement
, or Hamas
was established from Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada
(1987–93), Hamas militarized and transformed into one of the strongest Palestinian militant groups.
The Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip
in 2007 was the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir
to power, that a Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic territory.
However, the 2013 overthrow of the Mohammad Morsi
government in Egypt significantly weakened Hamas's position, leading to a blockade of Gaza and economic crisis.
The Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan originates from the merging of two separate groups which represent the two components of the Jordanian public: the Transjordanian and the West Bank Palestinian.
On 9 November 1945 the Association of the Muslim Brotherhood (Jam'iyat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin) was officially registered and Abu Qura became its first General Supervisor.
Abu Qura originally brought the Brotherhood to Jordan from Egypt after extensive study and spread of the teachings of Imam Hasan al-Banna.
While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan such as Hizb ut-Tahrir
, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. In 1948, Egypt, Syria, and Transjordan offered "volunteers" to help Palestine in its war against Israel. Due to the defeat and weakening of Palestine, the Transjordanian and Palestinian Brotherhood merged.
The newly merged Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan was primarily concerned with providing social services and charitable work as well as with politics and its role in the parliament. It was seen as compatible with the political system and supported democracy without the forced implementation of Sharia law which was part of its doctrine.
However, internal pressures from younger members of the Brotherhood who called for more militant actions as well as his failing health, Abu Qura resigned as the leader of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood. On 26 December 1953, Muhammad 'Abd al-Rahman Khalifa, was elected by the movement's administrative committee as the new leader of the Transjordanian Brotherhood and he retained this position until 1994. Khalifa was different than his predecessor and older members of the organization because he was not educated in Cairo, he was educated in Syria and Palestine. He established close ties with Palestinian Islamists during his educational life which led him to be jailed for several months in Jordan for criticizing Arab armies in the war.
Khalifa also reorganized the Brotherhood and applied to the government to designate the Brotherhood as "a comprehensive and general Islamic Committee, instead of the previous basis of operation under the "Societies and Clubs Law". This allowed the Brotherhood to spread throughout the country each with slight socioeconomic and political differences although the majority of the members were of the upper middle class. The radicalization of the Brotherhood began to take place after the peace process between Egypt and Israel, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, as well as their open criticism towards the Jordan-US relationship in the 1970s. Support for the Syrian branch of the Brotherhood also aided the radicalization of the group through open support and training for the rebel forces in Syria. The ideology began to transform into a more militant one which without it would not have the support of the Islamic radicals.
The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front
. In 1989 they become the largest group in parliament, with 23 out of 80 seats, and 9 other Islamist allies.
A Brother was elected president of the National Assembly and the cabinet formed in January 1991 included several MBs.
Its radicalization which calls for more militant support for Hamas in Palestine has come into direct conflict with its involvement in the parliament and overall political process. The Brotherhood claimed its acceptance of democracy and the democratic process but only within their own groups. There is a high degree of dissent amongst Brotherhood leaders who do not share the same values therefore undermining its acceptance and commitment to democracy.
In 2011, against the backdrop of the Arab Spring
, the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood "mobilized popular protests on a larger, more regular, and more oppositional basis than ever before".
and had uniquely positioned themselves as "the only traditional political actor to have remained prominent during [the] new phase of post-Arab Spring activism"
which led King Abdullah II
and then-Prime Minister Marouf al-Bakhit
to invite the Muslim Brotherhood to join Bakhit's cabinet, an offer they refused.
The Muslim Brotherhood also boycotted the 2011 Jordanian municipal elections and led the 2011–12 Jordanian protests
demanding a constitutional monarchy and electoral reforms, which resulted in the firing of Prime Minister Bakhit
and the calling of early general elections in 2013
As of late 2013, the movement in Jordan was described as being in "disarray".
The instability and conflict with the monarchy has led the relationship between the two to crumble. In 2015, some 400 members of the Muslim Brotherhood defected from the original group including top leaders and founding members, to establish another Islamic group, with an allegedly moderate stance. The defectors said that they didn't like how things were run in the group and due to the group's relations with Hamas, Qatar and Turkey, which put suspicion on the group questioning if they are under the influence and working for the benefit of these states and organizations on the expense of the Jordanian state.
On 13 April 2016, Jordanian police raided and shut the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in Amman. This comes despite the fact that the Jordanian branch cut ties with the mother Egyptian group in January 2016, a designated terrorist organization, a move that is considered to be exclusively cosmetic by experts. Jordanian authorities state that the reason of closure is because that the Brotherhood is unlicensed and is using the name of the defectors' licensed group. This comes after the Jordanian senate passed a new legislation for the regulation of political parties in 2014, the Muslim Brotherhood did not adhere by the regulations of the new law and so they did not renew their membership.
In 2020, a Jordanian Court of Cassation decided that the local branch of the Muslim Brotherhood will be dissolved after the branch did not renew its license after a new law was issued on organizations.
Over the past two decades, Qatar has exerted a semi-formal patronage for the international movement of the Muslim Brotherhood. Former Qatari Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani
in particular has distinguished himself as one of the most dedicated supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood and of Islamist movements in general both in the Middle Eastern region and across the globe.
In 1999 the Muslim Brotherhood was disbanded in Qatar. The country's longstanding support for the group has been often explained as determined by a strategic calculus that limited the role played by religion in Qatar.
As the director of the Center for International and Regional Studies at the Doha-based branch of Georgetown University, Mehran Kamrava, posited, Qatar presenting itself as the state patron of the Muslim Brotherhood has caused religion in Qatar to not "play any role in articulating or forming oppositional sentiments."
Qatar's patronage has been primarily expressed through the ruling family's endorsement of Muslim Brotherhood's most representative figures, especially Yusuf al-Qaradawi
. Qaradawi is a prominent, yet controversial Sunni preacher and theologian who continues to serve as the spiritual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood. An Egyptian citizen, Qaradawi fled Egypt for Qatar in 1961 after being imprisoned under President Gamal Abdul Nasser
. In 1962 he chaired the Qatari Secondary Institute of Religious Studies, and in 1977 he founded and directed the Shariah and Islamic Studies department at the University of Qatar
. He left Qatar to return to Egypt shortly before the 2011 Egyptian Revolution
For twenty years, Qaradawi has hosted a popular show titled Shariah and Life on the Qatari-based media channel Al-Jazeera
, a government sponsored channel notoriously supportive of the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamism and often designated as a propaganda outlet for the Qatari government.
From that platform, he has promoted his Islamist—and often radical views—on life, politics, and culture.
His positions, as well as his controversial ties to extremist and terrorist individuals and organizations, made him persona non grata
to the U.S., UK and French governments respectively in 1999, 2008, and 2012.
Beyond the visibility and political protection granted to Yussuf al-Qaradawi, Qatar has historically hosted several Muslim Brothers especially after Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi
, a Muslim Brotherhood representative, was overthrown in July 2013.
Before 2013, however, Qatar had made a substantial investment on Morsi's leadership and had devolved about $10 million to Egypt since Morsi was elected, allegedly also to "buy political advantage" in the country.
Further information: Hadas
Egyptian Brethren came to Kuwait in the 1950s as refugees from Arab nationalism and integrated into the education ministry and other parts of the state. The Brotherhood's charity arm in Kuwait is called Al Eslah (Social Reform Society)
and its political arm is called the Islamic Constitutional Movement (ICM) or "Hadas".
Members of ICM have been elected to parliament and served in the government and are "widely believed to hold sway with the Ministry of Awqaf" (Islamic endowment) and Islamic Affairs
, but have never reached a majority or even a plurality—"a fact that has required them to be pragmatic about working with other political groups".
During the invasion of Kuwait
, the Kuwait MB (along with other MB in the Gulf States) supported the American-Saudi coalition forces against Iraq and "quit the brotherhood's international agency in protest" over its pro-Sadam stand.
However following the Arab Spring and the crackdown on the Egyptian Brotherhood, the Saudi government has put "pressure on other states that have Muslim Brotherhood adherents, asking them to decree that the group is a terrorist organization", and the local Kuwaiti and other Gulf state Brotherhoods have not been spared pressure from their local governments.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia helped the Brotherhood financially for "over half a century",
but the two became estranged during the Gulf War
, and enemies after the election of Mohamed Morsi
. Inside the kingdom, before the crushing of the Egyptian MB, the Brotherhood was called a group whose "many quiet supporters" made it "one of the few potential threats" to the royal family's control.
The Brotherhood first had an impact inside Saudi Arabia in 1954 when thousands of Egyptian Brethren sought to escape president Gamal Abdel Nasser's clampdown, while (the largely illiterate) Saudi Arabia was looking for teachers—who were also conservative pious Arab Muslims—for its newly created public school system.
The Muslim Brotherhood's brand of Islam and Islamic politics differs from the Salafi
creed called Wahhabiyya
, officially held by the state of Saudi Arabia, and MB members "obeyed orders of the ruling family and ulama to not attempt to proselytize or otherwise get involved in religious doctrinal matters within the Kingdom. Nonetheless, the group "methodically ... took control of Saudi Arabia's intellectual life" by publishing books and participating in discussion circles and salons held by princes.
Although the organization had no "formal organizational presence" in the Kingdom,
(no political groups or parties are allowed to operate openly)
MB members became "entrenched both in Saudi society and in the Saudi state, taking a leading role in key governmental ministries".
In particular, many established themselves in Saudi educational system. One expert on Saudi affairs (Stephane Lacroix) has stated: "The education system is so controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood, it will take 20 years to change—if at all. Islamists see education as their base" in Saudi Arabia.
Relations between the Saudi ruling family and the Brotherhood became strained with Saudi opposition to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and the willingness of Saudi government to allow US troops to be based in the Kingdom to fight Iraq.
The Brotherhood supported the Sahwah
("Awakening") movement that pushed for political change in the Kingdom.
In 2002, the then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef
denounced the Brotherhood, saying it was guilty of "betrayal of pledges and ingratitude" and was "the source of all problems in the Islamic world".
The ruling family was also alarmed by the Arab Spring
and the example set by the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, with president Mohamed Morsi
bringing an Islamist government to power by means of popular revolution and elections. Sahwa
figures published petitions for reform addressed to the royal government (in violation of Wahhabi quietist
doctrine). After the overthrow of the Morsi government in Egypt, all the major Sahwa figures signed petitions and statements denouncing the removal of Morsi and the Saudi government support for it.
In March 2014, in a "significant departure from its past official stance" the Saudi government declared the Brotherhood a "terrorist organization", followed with a royal decree announced that, from now on,
belonging to intellectual or religious trends or groups that are extremist or categorized as terrorist at the local, regional or international level, as well supporting them, or showing sympathy for their ideas and methods in whichever way, or expressing support for them through whichever means, or offering them financial or moral support, or inciting others to do any of this or promoting any such actions in word or writing
will be punished by a prison sentence "of no less than three years and no more than twenty years".
The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria was founded in the 1930s (according to lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France, (according to journalist Robin Wright
). In the first decade or so of independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961 parliamentary elections
it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But after the 1963 coup that brought the secular Ba'ath Party
to power it was banned.
It played a major role in the mainly Sunni
-based movement that opposed the secularist
Ba'ath Party. This conflict developed into an armed struggle
that continued until culminating in the Hama uprising
of 1982, when the rebellion was crushed by the military.
Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offense
in Syria in 1980 (under Emergency Law 49, which was revoked in 2011), but the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Palestinian group, Hamas
, was located in the Syria's capital Damascus, where it was given Syrian government support. This has been cited as an example of the lack of international centralization or even coordination of the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Brotherhood is said to have "resurrected itself" and become the "dominant group" in the opposition by 2012 during the Syrian Civil War
according to the Washington Post
But by 2013 another source described it as having "virtually no influence on the conflict".
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad
welcomed the fall of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and remarked that "Arab identity is back on the right track after the fall from power of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, which had used religion for its own political gain".
United Arab Emirates
Muslim Brotherhood presence in the United Arab Emirates began with the formation of the Al Islah
group in the United Arab Emirates in 1974 with the approval of Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum
Al Islah in the UAE has openly stated that it shares ideology with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.
Al Islah has criticized the UAE for the country's religious tolerance
and presence of community Christian churches
in the UAE.
Since its formation, its members have sought to impose control on state social issues, such as promoting several measures limiting the rights of women
Emirati Al Islah member Tharwat Kherbawi said the Muslim Brotherhood finds the present UAE government to be an "impediment", and the country itself to be a "treasure and a crucial strategic and economic prize".
Al Islah was reported to have been secretly forming a military wing that has sought to recruit retired military officers
and young Emiratis
and is alleged to have plotted the overthrow of the current government and the establishment of an Islamist
state in the UAE.
In March 2013, a trial began in Abu Dhabi
for 94 individuals linked to Al Islah for an attempted coup on the government.
Of the 94, 56 suspects received prison sentences ranging between three and ten years. Eight suspects were sentenced in absentia to 15 years in jail and 26 were acquitted.
On 7 March 2014, the Muslim Brotherhood was designated as a terrorist group by the UAE government.
The Muslim Brothers fought with North Yemen in the NDF rebellion as Islamic Front. The Muslim Brotherhood is the political arm of the Yemeni Congregation for Reform
, commonly known as Al-Islah
. Former President Ali Abdullah Saleh
made substantial efforts to entrench the accusations of being in league with Al Qaeda.
The Treasury Department of the US used the label "Bin Laden loyalist" for Abdul Majeed al-Zindani
, the Yemeni Muslim Brotherhood's leader.
Elsewhere in Africa
The Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962).
Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism.
Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 1954–1962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the government and calling for increased Islamization and Arabization of the country's politics.
When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early 1990s, the Muslim Brotherhood formed the Movement of Society for Peace
(MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by Mahfoud Nahnah
until his death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra Soltani
). The Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria did not join the Front islamique du salut
(FIS), which emerged as the leading Islamist group, winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a military coup d'état, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup uprising by FIS sympathizers and the Armed Islamic Groups
(GIA) against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for President of Algeria
finishing second with 25.38% of the popular vote. During the 2000s (decade), the party—led by Nahnah's successor Boudjerra Soltani
—has been a member of a three-party coalition backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
A group of the Muslim Brotherhood came to the Libyan kingdom in the 1950s as refugees escaping crackdown by the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser
, but it was not able to operate openly until after the First Libyan Civil War
. They were viewed negatively by King Idris of Libya
who had become increasingly wary of their activities. Muammar Gaddafi
forbade all forms of Islamism
in Libya and was an archenemy to the Muslim Brotherhood for long time. The group held its first public press conference on 17 November 2011, and on 24 December the Brotherhood announced that it would form the Justice and Construction Party
(JCP) and contest the General National Congress elections
the following year.
The Libyan Muslim Brotherhood has "little history of interactions with the masses."
Sallabi, the Head of Homeland Party, has close ties to Yusuf al-Qaradawi
, the spiritual leader of the international Muslim Brotherhood.
The Muslim Brotherhood in Libya has come under widespread criticism, particularly for their alleged ties with extremist organizations operating in Libya.
In fact, the text of the U.S. Congress Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015 directly accuses the militias of the Libyan Muslim Brotherhood of "joining forces with United States designated terrorist organizations, particularly Ansar al-Sharia" who the United States blames for the attack on its compound in Benghazi.
There have been similar reports that those tasked with guarding the Benghazi consulate on the night of the assault were connected to the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Libyan Muslim Brotherhood has lost much of its popular support since 2012 as the group was blamed for divisions in the country. Secular Libyan politicians have continued to voice concerns of the Brotherhood's ties to extremist groups. In October 2017, spokesman of the Libyan National Army (LNA) colonel Ahmed Al Masmary claimed that "branches of the Muslim Brotherhood affiliated to al-Qaeda" had joined forces with ISIS in Libya.
In the 2014 parliamentary elections, the Muslim Brotherhood won only 25 of the 200 available seats.
Changes to the demographic and political makeup of Mauritania in the 1970s heavily contributed to the growth of Islamism within Mauritanian society. Periods of severe drought
resulted in urbanization, as large numbers of Mauritanians moved from the countryside to the cities, particularly Nouakchott
, to escape the drought. This sharp increase in urbanization resulted in new civil associations being formed, and Mauritania's first Islamist organisation, known as Jemaa Islamiyya (Islamic Association) was formed by Mauritanians sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood.
There was increased activism relating to the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1980s, partially driven by members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
The Justice and Development Party
was the largest vote-getter in Morocco's 2011 election
, and as of May 2015, held the office of Prime Minister.
It is historically affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood,
however, despite this, the party has reportedly "ostentatiously" praised the King of Morocco, while "loudly insisting that it is in no sense whatsoever a Muslim Brotherhood party"
—a development one source (Hussein Ibish), calls evidence of how "regionally discredited the movement has become".
Somalia's wing of the Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or "Reform Movement".
Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the early 1960s, but Al-Islah movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s.
Al-Islah has been described as "a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of Islam to meet the challenges of the modern world", whose "goal is the establishment of an Islamic state
" and which "operates primarily in Mogadishu".
The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society.
Until the election of Hamas
, Sudan was the one country where the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members making up a large part of the government officialdom following the 1989 coup d'état by General Omar al-Bashir
However, the Sudanese government dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood affiliated National Islamic Front (NIF) has come under considerable criticism for its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in southern Sudan and Darfur.
In 1945, a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology.
Sudan has a long and deep history with the Muslim Brotherhood compared to many other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged.
However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in Egypt were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the 1940s, and the Brotherhood's main support base has remained to be college educated.
In order to unite them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan Al-banna.
An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front
grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi
becoming its Secretary general in 1964.[need quotation to verify]
The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times most recently being called the National Islamic Front
(NIF). The Muslim Brotherhood/NIF's main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society "from above" and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded. To that end the party infiltrated the top echelons of the government where the education of party cadre, frequently acquired in the West, made them "indispensable". This approach was described by Turabi himself as the "jurisprudence of necessity".[need quotation to verify]
Meeting resistance from non-Islamists, from already established Muslim organisations, and from non-Muslims in the south, the Sudanese NIF government under Turabi and the NIF organized a coup to overthrow a democratically elected government in 1989, organized the Popular Defense Force which committed "widespread, deliberate and systematic atrocities against hundreds of thousands of southern civilians" in the 1990s.
The NIF government also employed "widespread arbitrary and extrajudicial arrest, torture, and execution of labor union officials, military officers, journalists, political figures and civil society leaders".[need quotation to verify]
Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisian
One of the notable organization that was influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Ennahda
(The Revival or Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia's major Islamist political grouping. An Islamist[who?]
founded the organization in 1981.
While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi
embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated on his return to Tunisia.
The brotherhood's build-up in France started with Union des organisations islamiques en France [fr]
(UOIF) which later changed its name to Musulmans de France [fr]
. The organization primarily consisted of foreign students who entered France from Tunisia and Morocco. By 2020, there were 147 mosques and 18 Islamic schools associated with the brotherhood. UOIF has about 50 000 members distributed among 200 member organizations.
The Brotherhood pursues a communitarianist
philiosophy and works against Muslims adopting liberal lifestyles and becoming assimilated into French society. In the long term, they aim towards entering politics by increasing the number of Muslims until they can form a political party of their own.
The Islamic Community of Germany (de: Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V, IGD)
being constituent and founding organisation of the MB umbrella organisation FIOE, the MB is active in Germany with the IGD as a proxy. IGD members take care to not publicly declare their affiliation to the MB.
The first MB-affiliated organisations in the UK were founded in the 1960s, which comprised exiles and overseas students.
They promoted the works of Indian theologician Abu A'la Mawdudi
and represented the Jama'at-e-Islami
. In their initial phase they were politically inactive in the UK as they assumed they would return to their home countries and instead focused on recruiting new members and to support the MB in the Arab world
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the MB and its associated organisations changed to a new strategy of political activity in western countries with the purpose to promote the MB overseas but also preserve the autonomy of Muslim communities in the UK.
In the 1990s, the MB established publicly visible organisations and ostensibly "national" organisations to further its agenda, but membership in the MB was and remains a secret.
The MB dominated the Islamic Society of Britain
(ISB), the Muslim Association of Britain
(MAB) and founded the Muslim Council of Britain
(MCB). MAB became politically active in foreign policy issues such as Palestine and Iraq, while MCB established a dialogue with the then governments.
In 1996, the first representative of the Muslim Brotherhood in the UK, Kamal el-Helbawy, an Egyptian, was able to say that "there are not many members here, but many Muslims in the UK intellectually support the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood".
In September 1999, the Muslim Brotherhood opened a "global information centre" in London.
Since 2001, the ISB has distanced itself from Muslim Brotherhood ideology along with the MCB.
In a 2015 government report, the MB was found to not have been linked to terrorist related activity against in the UK and MAB has condemned Al-Qaeda
terrorist activity in the UK.
Several parties and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood, although none have a formal relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood. One of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked parties is the PKS
(Prosperous Justice Party),
which gained 6.79% of votes in the 2014 legislative election
, down from 7.88% in the 2009 election
. The PKS's relationship with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was confirmed by Yusuf al-Qaradawi
, a prominent Muslim Brotherhood leader.[need quotation to verify]
The PKS was a member of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
's government coalition with 3 ministers in the cabinet.
The Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)
, the oldest and largest mainstream Islamist party in Malaysia, has close personal and ideological ties with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
Founded in 1951, PAS's founders were exposed to the ideas and teachings while they were studying in Cairo during the 1940s. PAS is the main rival to the Malay nationalist United Malays National Organisation
, which dominated Malaysian politics until 2018. According to the think tank Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs
' CEO Wan Saiful Wan Jan, PAS is regarded by the Muslim Brotherhood as an electorally successful Islamic political party; PAS has governed the state of Kelantan
since 2002. PAS representatives are often invited to Muslim Brotherhood speaking engagements overseas. In 2012, PAS President Abdul Hadi Awang
spoke alongside Muslim Brotherhood scholar Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi
at a speaking event in London.
In April 2014, PAS leader Abdul Awang spoke out against Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates' decision to designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization.
According to a 2004 article by The Washington Post
, U.S. Muslim Brotherhood supporters "make up the U.S. Islamic community's most organized force" by running hundreds of mosques and business ventures, promoting civic activities, and setting up American Islamic organizations to defend and promote Islam.
In 1963, the U.S. chapter of Muslim Brotherhood was started by activists involved with the Muslim Students Association
U.S. supporters of the Brotherhood also started other organizations including: North American Islamic Trust
in 1971, the Islamic Society of North America
in 1981, the American Muslim Council
in 1990, the Muslim American Society
in 1992 and the International Institute of Islamic Thought
in the 1980s.
In addition, according to An Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America
, the "Understanding of the Role of the Muslim Brotherhood in North America", and a relatively benign goal of the Muslim Brotherhood in North America is identified as the following:
Establishing an effective and a stable Islamic movement led by the Muslim Brotherhood which adopts Muslims' causes domestically and globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at unifying and directing Muslims' efforts, presents Islam as a civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic state wherever it is.
The process of settlement is a 'Civilization-Jihadist Process' with all the word means. The Ikhwan [Muslim Brotherhood] must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and 'sabotaging' its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God's religion [Islam] is made victorious over all other religions. 
During the Holy Land Foundation trial
in 2007, several documents pertaining to the Brotherhood were unsuccessful in convincing the courts that the Brotherhood was involved in subversive activities. In one, dated 1984 called "Ikhwan in America" (Brotherhood in America), the author alleges that the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood in the US include going to camps to do weapons training (referred to as special work
by the Muslim Brotherhood),
as well as engaging in counter-espionage
against U.S. government agencies such as the FBI
(referred to as Securing the Group
Another (dated 1991) outlined a strategy for the Muslim Brotherhood in the United States that involved "eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within".
Penned in May of 1991 by a man named Mohamed Akram Adlouni, the 'Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America' was discovered during an FBI raid of a Virginia home in 2004. The document was admitted as an exhibit to the court during the 2007 Holy Land Foundation trial, in which that group was charged with laundering money. After the trial, the document became public. But, according to a 2009 opinion by the presiding judge, the memo was not considered 'supporting evidence' for that alleged money laundering scheme, nor any other conspiracy.
The documents continue to be widely publicized in American conservative circles.
U.S. Congress attempts to pass legislation criminalizing the group, put forward by the 114th Congress, were defeated. The Bill, called the Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015, was introduced to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
by Senator Ted Cruz
(R-TX). In it the bill states that the Department of State should designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. If passed, the bill would have required the State Department to report to Congress within 60 days whether or not the group fits the criteria, and if it did not, to state which specific criteria it had not met.
Senator Cruz announced the legislation along with Representative Mario Díaz-Balart
(R-FL) in November 2015. However, it did not pass.
This bill came after a handful of foreign countries made similar moves in recent years including Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and others, and after, according to Cruz, recent evidence emerged suggesting that the group supports terrorism. The senator further alleged that the group's stated goal is to wage violent jihad against its enemies, which includes the United States, and the fact that the Obama administration has listed numerous group members on its terror list. Cruz further stated that the bill would "reject the fantasy that [the] parent institution [of the Muslim Brotherhood] is a political entity that is somehow separate from these violent activities".
Conservatives in the Congress believe that the group is a breeding ground for radical Islam. Previous attempts were made in the previous year by Representative Michele Bachmann
(R-MN), but it failed largely due to her allegation that Huma Abedin
, Hillary Clinton
's aide, had links to the organization, a statement which was dismissed by establishment Democrats and Republicans.
In February 2016, the House Judiciary Committee
approved the legislation in a 17 to 10 vote, which if enacted could increase grounds for enforcing criminal penalties and give permission to the Secretary of Treasury
to block financial transactions and freeze assets of anyone who has showed material support for the group.
Scholars against this classification claim that the group simply promotes Islamism, or the belief that society should be governed according to Islamic values and Sharia law.
Past U.S. presidential administrations have examined whether to designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a Foreign Terrorist Organization and have decided not to do so.
During the George W. Bush
administration, the U.S. government investigated the Brotherhood and associated Islamist groups, but "after years of investigations, ... the U.S. and other governments, including Switzerland's, closed investigations of the Brotherhood leaders and financial group for lack of evidence, and removed most of the leaders from sanctions lists."
The Obama administration was also pressured to designate the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization, but did not do so.
During the Donald Trump
administration, there were serious steps towards designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization.
The Brotherhood was criticised by Ayman al-Zawahiri
in 2007 for its refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak government. Essam el-Erian
, a top Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood figure, denounced the al-Qaeda leader: "Zawahiri's policy and preaching bore dangerous fruit and had a negative impact on Islam and Islamic movements across the world".
police chief, Dhahi Khalfan accused Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood of an alleged plot to overthrow the UAE
government. He referred to the Muslim Brotherhood as "dictators" who want "Islamist rule in all the Gulf States".
Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the Muslim Brotherhood's pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to:
- Juan Zarate, former U.S. White House counterterrorism chief (quoted in the conservative publication, FrontPage Magazine): "The Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians".
- Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) under William Donovan, divulged the confessions of numerous members of the Muslim Brotherhood that resulted from the harsh interrogations done on them by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser for their alleged involvement in the assassination attempt made against him (an assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser himself). They revealed that the Muslim Brotherhood was merely a "guild" that fulfilled the goals of western interests: "Nor was that all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two are highly compatible".
- Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq Alawsat newspaper that the Muslim Brotherhood is a global, not a local organization, governed by a Shura (Consultative) Council, which rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.
- Sarah Mousa of Al Jazeera reported on the Muslim Brotherhood's highly improbable claim that opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Mohammad ElBaradei (who has had a "rocky" relationship with the US) was "an American agent", and observed that the since-defunct Muslim Brotherhood-controlled Shura Council's support of the slander demonstrated a lack of commitment to democracy.
- Scholar Carrie Rosefsky Wickham finds official Brotherhood documents ambiguous on the issue of democracy: "This raises the question of whether the Brotherhood is supporting a transition to democracy as an end in itself or as a first step toward the ultimate establishment of a political system based not on the preferences of the Egyptian people but the will of God as they understand it".
Status of non-Muslims
In 1997, Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Mustafa Mashhur
told journalist Khalid Daoud
that he thought Egypt's Coptic Christians and Orthodox Jews should pay the long-abandoned jizya
poll tax, levied on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, "we do not mind having Christian members in the People's Assembly
. ... [T]he top officials, especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim country. ... This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can facilitate our defeat by the enemy".
According to The Guardian
newspaper, the proposal caused an "uproar" among Egypt's 16 million Coptic Christians and "the movement later backtracked".
Response to criticisms
According to authors writing in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine Foreign Affairs
: "At various times in its history, the group has used or supported violence and has been repeatedly banned in Egypt for attempting to overthrow Cairo's secular government. Since the 1970s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics".
Jeremy Bowen, the Middle East editor for the BBC
, called it "conservative and non-violent".
The Brotherhood "has condemned" terrorism and the 9/11 attacks
The Brotherhood itself denounces the "catchy and effective terms and phrases" like "fundamentalist
" and "political Islam" which it claims are used by "Western media" to pigeonhole the group, and points to its "15 Principles" for an Egyptian National Charter, including "freedom of personal conviction ... opinion ... forming political parties ... public gatherings ... free and fair elections ..."
Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global Muslim Brotherhood leadership.
Some claim that the origins of modern Muslim terrorism are found in Wahhabi
ideology, not that of the Muslim Brotherhood.
According to anthropologist Scott Atran
, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood even in Egypt has been overstated by Western commentators. He estimates that it can count on only 100,000 militants (out of some 600,000 dues paying members) in a population of more than 80 million, and that such support as it does have among Egyptians—an often cited figure is 20 percent to 30 percent—is less a matter of true attachment than an accident of circumstance: secular opposition groups that might have countered it were suppressed for many decades, but in driving the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
, a more youthful constellation of secular movements has emerged to threaten the Muslim Brotherhood's dominance of the political opposition.
This has not yet been the case, however, as evidenced by the Brotherhood's strong showing in national elections. Polls also indicate that a majority of Egyptians and other Arab nations endorse laws based on "Sharia".
On 29 June 2011, as the Brotherhood's political power became more apparent and solidified following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
, the United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the Brotherhood's leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic overture.
In September 2014, Brotherhood leaders were expelled from Qatar
. The New York Times
reported: "Although the Brotherhood's views are not nearly as conservative as the puritanical, authoritarian version of Islamic law enforced in Saudi Arabia, the Saudis and other gulf monarchies fear the group because of its broad organization, its mainstream appeal and its calls for elections".
Designation as a terrorist organization
Countries and organizations below have officially listed the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization.
Outside the Middle East
In January 2017, during his confirmation hearing, the former U.S. Secretary of State
, Rex Tillerson
, referred to the Muslim Brotherhood, along with Al-Qaeda
, as an agent of radical Islam—a characterization that Human Rights Watch
member Sarah Leah Whitson
criticized on social media, disseminating a statement from the HRW Washington director saying that the conflation of the group with violent extremists was inaccurate.
The following month, The New York Times
reported that the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump
was considering an order designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a foreign terrorist organization.
The Muslim Brotherhood was criticized by Secretary Tillerson.
The terrorist designation for the Muslim Brotherhood is opposed by Human Rights Watch and The New York Times
, both liberal-leaning institutions.
The potential terrorist designation was criticized, in particular, by Human Rights Watch member Laura Pitter. The New York Times
set forth its opposition in an editorial that claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood is a collection of movements, and argued that the organization as a whole does not merit the terrorist designation: "While the Brotherhood calls for a society governed by Islamic law, it renounced violence decades ago, has supported elections and has become a political and social organization".
The designation of the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization is opposed by the Brennan Center for Justice
, Amnesty International
, Human Rights Watch
, Council on American-Islamic Relations
and American Civil Liberties Union
Gehad El-Haddad, a Muslim Brotherhood member, denied that terrorism was practiced by the Muslim Brotherhood in an editorial published by The New York Times
In a report by the Carnegie Middle East Center
, Nathan Brown and Michele Dunne argued that "designating the Muslim Brotherhood a foreign terrorist organization may actually backfire," writing: "The sweeping measure to declare the Brotherhood a foreign terrorist organization now being contemplated not only does not accord with the facts, but is also more likely to undermine than achieve its ostensible purpose and could result in collateral damage affecting other U.S. policy goals. The greatest damage might be in the realm of public diplomacy, as using a broad brush to paint all Muslim Brotherhood organizations as terrorists would be understood by many Muslims around the world as a declaration of war against non-violent political Islamists—and indeed against Islam itself."
The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt avoids directly implicating itself materially in terrorism while it supports terrorism with words and encourages it, according to WINEP
fellow Eric Trager, who advocated pushing them into a corner instead of designating them due to issues with materially connecting them to terrorism other than with their words.
Civil rights lawyer and adjunct professor of law Arjun Singh Sethi
wrote that the push to designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization was based on anti-Islamic conspiracy theories
, noting that "Two previous U.S. administrations concluded that it does not engage in terrorism, as did a recent report by the British government."
Ishaan Tharoor of The Washington Post
condemned the movement to designate the Brotherhood as a terrorist group.
A Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) intelligence report from January 2017 warned that designation of the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization "may fuel extremism" and harm relations with U.S. allies. The report noted that the Brotherhood had "rejected violence as a matter of official policy and opposed al-Qa'ida and ISIS" and that while "a minority of MB [Muslim Brotherhood] members have engaged in violence, most often in response to harsh regime repression, perceived foreign occupation, or civil conflicts", designation of the organization as a terrorist group would prompt concern from U.S. allies in the Middle East "that such a step could destabilize their internal politics, feed extremist narratives, and anger Muslims worldwide." The CIA analysis stated: "MB groups enjoy widespread support across the Near East-North Africa region and many Arabs and Muslims worldwide would view an MB designation as an affront to their core religious and societal values. Moreover, a US designation would probably weaken MB leaders' arguments against violence and provide ISIS and al-Qa'ida additional grist for propaganda to win followers and support, particularly for attacks against US interests."
An article in The Atlantic
against designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization was written by Shadi Hamid.
Relationship to diplomatic crises in Qatar
's relationship with Muslim Brotherhood has been a persistent point of contention between Qatar and other Arab states, including Saudi Arabia
, the United Arab Emirates
, and Egypt
, which view the Brotherhood as a serious threat to social stability in those countries.
Following the overthrow
of Mohamed Morsi in July 2013, Qatar allowed some Brotherhood members who fled Egypt to live in the country. The Qatar-based Al Jazeera
"housed them in a five-star Doha hotel and granted them regular airtime for promoting their cause"; the station also broadcast protests against the post-Brotherhood authorities in Egypt by the Brotherhood, "and in some cases allegedly paid Muslim Brothers for the footage."
Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Bahrain said that Qatar had violated the Gulf Cooperation Council
rule against interference in the internal affairs of other members, and in March 2014 all three countries withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar. After two months of diplomatic tensions the issue was resolved, with Brotherhood leaders departing from Doha
later in 2014.
However, "from Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the UAE's standpoint, Qatar never lived up to the 2014 agreement and continued to serve as the nexus of the Brotherhood's regional networks."
This led to the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis
, which is viewed as being precipitated in large part by a conflict over the Muslim Brotherhood. Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt made 13 demands of the government of Qatar
, six of which reflect the group's opposition to Qatar's relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood and demand that the country cut ties to the Brotherhood.
- ^ What is the Muslim Brotherhood?, Al Jazeera, 18 June 2017
- ^ The Muslim Brotherhood and the Future of Political Islam in Egypt, Ashraf El-Sherif, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace website, 21 October 2014
- ^ Rick Perry and the Muslim Brotherhood: Compare and Contrast - Mona Eltahawy on social conservatism in Egypt and the U.S., J.J. GOULD, 30 June 2013
- ^ Washington's Secret History with the Muslim Brotherhood, Ian Johnson, 5 February 2011
- ^ The Muslim Brotherhood's 'right-wing' politics game, Bassem Youssef, Al Arabiya English, Wednesday, 1 May 2013
- ^ What Is the Muslim Brotherhood, and Will It Take Over Egypt?, Robert Dreyfuss, Mother Jones, 11 February 2011
- ^ Kevin Borgeson; Robin Valeri (9 July 2009). Terrorism in America. Jones and Bartlett Learning. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7637-5524-9. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- ^ "Is the Muslim Brotherhood a Terrorist Group?". The New York Times. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- ^ Ghattas, Kim (9 February 2001). "Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". BBC.
- ^ Bruce Rutherford, Egypt After Mubarak (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2008), 99
- ^ "The end of Nasserism: How the 1967 War opened new space for Islamism in the Arab world". Brookings. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- ^ "Saudi and the Brotherhood: From friends to foes". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- ^ a b c Ibish, Hussein (5 October 2013). "Is this the end of the failed Muslim Brotherhood project?". The National. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ^ Wade, Nicholas (30 August 2013). "Egypt: What poll results reveal about Brotherhood's popularity". BBC News. the Brotherhood won Egypt's five democratic votes,
- ^ "Egypt's new president to pick woman, Christian VPs". CNN. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- ^ "President Morsi Ousted: First Democratically Elected Leader Under House Arrest". ABC News. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- ^ "Why Turkey Chose Qatar". The National Interest. 25 May 2017.
- ^ "Bahrain backs Saudi Arabia, UAE, Foreign Minister says". Bahrain News Agency. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- ^ "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood declared 'terrorist group'". BBC News. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- ^ a b "Resolution of the State Duma, 2 December 2003 N 3624-III GD "on the Application of the State Duma of the Russian Federation" on the suppression of the activities of terrorist organizations on the territory of the Russian Federation" (in Russian). Consultant Plus. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
- ^ a b "Assad says 'factors not in place' for Syria peace talks". Hurriyet (AFP). 21 October 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia declares Muslim Brotherhood 'terrorist group'". BBC. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- ^ a b c Alaa Shahine & Glen Carey, Bloomberg News (9 March 2014). "U.A.E. Supports Saudi Arabia Against Qatar-Backed Brotherhood". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- ^ a b "The Principles of The Muslim Brotherhood - Ikhwanweb". ikhwanweb.com.
- ^ "interview w/Dr. Mohamed El-Sayed Habib". Ikhwan Web. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- ^ a b c Ruthven, Malise (1984). Islam in the World (first ed.). Penguin. p. 311.
- ^ Paulo G. Pinto, "Sufism and the religious debate in Syria." Taken from Public Islam and the Common Good, pg. 184. Volume 95 of Social, economic, and political studies of the Middle East and Asia. Eds. Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Eickelman. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2004. ISBN 9789004136212
- ^ Carl W. Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World, pg. 180. Part of the Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks series. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. ISBN 9780807875803
- ^ Azuri, L. (27 April 2009). "Muslim Brotherhood Debates Its Position on the Shi'a". Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- ^ a b Elad-Altman, Israel. "The Brotherhood and the Shiite Question". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- ^ Ruthven, Malise (1984). Islam in the World (first ed.). Penguin. p. 317.
- ^ Davidson, Lawrence (1998) Islamic Fundamentalism Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., ISBN 0-313-29978-1 pp. 97–98;
- ^ Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (1995). "An Islamic Perspective on Organizational Motivation". The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 12 (2): 185–203. doi:10.35632/ajis.v12i2.2386.
- ^ Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman Ahmed (Fall 1996). "Administrative Efficiency and Effectiveness: An Islamic Perspective". The Islamic Quarterly. 40: 3: 139–154.
- ^ a b "Toward the Light" in Five Tracts of Hasan Al-Banna, trans. by Charles Wendell (Berkeley, 1978), ISBN 0-520-09584-7 pp. 126f.
- ^ The Salafist Movement, Frontline (PBS)
- ^ Mura, Andrea (2014). "The Inclusive Dynamics of Islamic Universalism: From the Vantage Point of Sayyid Qutb's Critical Philosophy". Comparative Philosophy. 5 (1): 29–54. doi:10.31979/2151-6014(2014).050106. ISSN 2151-6014.
- ^ "Muslim Brotherhood vs Al Qaeda" 19 January 2010
- ^ ""MB Chief Criticism" 30 December 2007"(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2010.
- ^ "Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". BBC. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- ^ Yusuf, Khalil (27 January 2014). "Does the Muslim Brotherhood still have a role to play in Egypt's revolutionary politics?". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 129. ISBN 9780674291416. Retrieved 2 April 2015. The Failure of Political Islam muslim world league.
- ^ Ehrenfeld, Rachel (2011). "The Muslim Brotherhood Evolution: An Overview". The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy. 33 (1): 74. doi:10.1080/10803920.2011.571059. S2CID 154020323.
- ^ Rubin, Barry (2010). The Muslim Brotherhood: The Organization and Policies of a Global Islamist Movement. Springer. p. 162. ISBN 9780230106871.
- ^ The Future of Political Islam, Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p. 138.
- ^ a b c d e Trager, Eric (September–October 2011). "The Unbreakable Muslim Brotherhood: Grim Prospects for a Liberal Egypt". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- ^ Rubin, Barry (July 2012). "Understanding the Muslim Brotherhood". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- ^ Another source divides the structure into nuclei, cells, families, and phalanxes (source: Jameelah, Maryam (1980). Shaikh Hassan al Banna and al Ikhwan al Muslimun (2nd ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Mohammad Ysuf Khan. pp. 16–17.)
- ^ a b c Mishal Fahm Sulami (2003). The West and Islam: Western Liberal Democracy Versus the System of Shura. Psychology Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-415-31634-7. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. translator Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 110.
- ^ Marshall, Katherine (2013). Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern Shakers. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 9781136673443. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- ^ a b c d e Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. translator Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 111.
- ^ *Mura, Andrea (2012). "A genealogical inquiry into early Islamism: the discourse of Hasan al-Banna". Journal of Political Ideologies. 17 (1): 61–85. doi:10.1080/13569317.2012.644986. S2CID 144873457.
- ^ a b Mitchell, Richard Paul, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 68–69
- ^ Husaini, Ishak Musa (1956). The Moslem Brethren. Beirut: Khayat's College Book Cooperative. pp. 62–3. [speech by l-Banna]The Brethren understand Islam in its fullest and most comprehensive implications, that it must have supervision over all affairs of individual and collective life and that everything must come under its rule and conform to its teachings. Whoever is a Muslim merely in his worship but imitates the non-believer in all other things is no better than an infidel.
- ^ Husain, Irfan; Cohen, Stephen P. (2012). Fatal Faultlines: Pakistan, Islam and the West. Arc Manor LLC. p. 60. ISBN 9781604504781. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- ^ Delanoue, G., "al-Ik̲h̲wānal-Muslimūn", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers
- ^ Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, 1995, p. 140.
- ^ THE WORLD AFTER 9/11 : The Muslim Brotherhood In America. The Washington Post.
- ^ Lia, Brynjar. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928–1942. Ithaca Press, 2006. p. 53
- ^ Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, 1995, p.140
- ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage 1985, p.179
- ^ Wright, Lawrence (2 June 2008)."The Rebellion Within, An Al Qaeda mastermind questions terrorism". The New Yorker
- ^ "أسرار حركة الضباط الأحرار والإخوان المسلمون". goodreads.com.
- ^ Commins, David, The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia, I. B. Tauris, 2006, p.152
- ^ Johnson, Ian (5 February 2011). "Washington's Secret History with the Muslim Brotherhood". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. One of the leaders, according to Eisenhower's appointment book, was "The Honorable Saeed Ramahdan, Delegate of the Muslim Brothers".* The person in question (in more standard romanization, Said Ramadan), was the son-in-law of the Brotherhood's founder and at the time widely described as the group's "foreign minister" (He was also the father of the controversial Swiss scholar of Islam, Tariq Ramadan).
- ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, p. 83
- ^ "ISocial programs bolster appeal of Muslim Brotherhood". IRIN. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ 'Our Muslim Brothers,'. CounterPunch, 22–24 June 2012.
- ^ Courtney C. Radsch. "Arab Media & Society". Arab media society. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- ^ Lynch, Marc (5 March 2007). "Brotherhood of the blog". The Guardian. London.
- ^ a b c Traub, James (29 April 2007). "Islamic Democrats?". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2011
- ^ "The Brotherhood Goes to Parliament". Archived from the original on 1 October 2006. Retrieved 7 June 2017. Samer Shehata from Georgetown University and Joshua Stacher from the British University in Egypt Middle East Report. Fall 2006. 29 November 2009
- ^ Fawzi, Sameh (8 December 2005). "Brothers and Others" Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Al Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 6 September 2011
- ^ The Brotherhood's Power display Dar Al-Hayat (18 December 2006)
- ^ Bradley, John R., Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution by John R. Bradley, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, p. 62
- ^ Bradley, John R., Inside Egypt, Palgrave MacMillan, (p. 65).
- ^ "Muslim Brotherhood seeks end to Israel treaty". The Washington Times.
- ^ "Live Blog: Egypt in Crisis, Day 8". CBS News. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
- ^ "'Shariah in Egypt is enough for us,' Muslim Brotherhood leader says". Hürriyet Daily News. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- ^ Interactive: Full Egypt election results, Al Jazeera, 1 February 2012
- ^ Souaiaia, Ahmed. "Egypt and the Islamists". FPIF. Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- ^ Freedom and Justice Party Open to Copt as Deputy, 11 May 2011
- ^ All Things Considered (19 June 2012). "A Look at Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood Candidate". NPR. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- ^ "Islamic presidential candidate promises democracy in Egypt". CNN. 15 June 2012. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012.
- ^ From the organization's 15-member Guidance Council
- ^ "Brotherhood of Hate: Muslim Brotherhood's Hatred for Jews and Israel Flourishes in "New" Egypt – Introduction". Anti-Defamation League. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- ^ Hendawi, Hamza (28 November 2012). "Egyptian courts suspend work to protest Morsi decrees". Salon. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ Dina Bishara (28 November 2012). "Egyptian Labor between Morsi and Mubarak". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ El Rashidi, Yasmine (7 February 2013). "Egypt: The Rule of the Brotherhood". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 24 September 2013. The Islamists' TV channels and press called the completion of the draft constitution an "achievement," "historic," "an occasion," "another step toward achieving the goals of the revolution." The independent and opposition press described it as "an Islamist coup."
- ^ "Egypt's Mursi annuls controversial decree, opposition says not enough". Al Arabiya. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012. The two issues – the decree and the referendum – were at the heart of anti-Mursi protests that have rocked Egypt in the past two weeks.
- ^ Williams, Daniel (15 August 2013). "Muslim Brotherhood abuses continue under Egypt's military". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (26 April 2012). "President Mohamed Morsi of Egypt Said to Prepare Martial Law Decree". The New York Times. Egypt. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ McCrumen, Stephanie; Hauslohner, Abigail (5 December 2012). "Egyptians take anti-Morsi protests to presidential palace". The Independent. London. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- ^ "Coptic pope's criticism of president marks trend in Egypt, where no one is above the fray". Associated Press. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- ^ Hubbard, Ben; Kirkpatrick, David D. (10 July 2013). "Sudden Improvements in Egypt Suggest a Campaign to Undermine Morsi". The New York Times.
- ^ Bowen, Jeremy (1 July 2013). "Egypt's army gives parties 48 hours to resolve crisis". BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- ^ El Rashidi, Yasmine (26 September 2013). "Egypt: The Misunderstood Agony". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 24 September 2013. ... 3.5 or 33 million Egyptians (the counts vary according to whom you choose to believe) who had taken to the streets on June 30 as part of the Tamarod movement. This protest was a symbolic vote of "no confidence" in President Morsi, urging him to step down, to call early elections, and to hand power to the chief justice in the interim.
- ^ "Counting crowds: Was Egypt's uprising the biggest ever?". BBC News. 16 July 2013
- ^ Protesters across Egypt call for Mohamed Morsi to go| World news. The Guardian.
- ^ "Top Weekend Links: Millions protest in Egypt to oust Morsi". MSNBC. (1 July 2013).
- ^ "Egyptians Want Morsi Removed as Massive Protests Continue in Tahrir Square". U.S. News & World Report, (1 July 2013).
- ^ Morsi Supporters Protest In Egypt's Capital. HuffPost.
- ^ "Egypt blames Morsi supporters for Rabaa massacre". worldbulletin.net.
- ^ "Death toll from Egypt violence rises to 638: Health ministry". Al-Ahram. 15 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (15 August 2013). "Islamists Debate Their Next Move in Tense Cairo". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- ^ "Memory of a Mass Killing Becomes Another Casualty of Egyptian Protests". The New York Times. 13 November 2013.
- ^ Allam, Hisham. "As Egypt Smoulders, Churches Burn". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- ^ Kirkpatrick, David; Mayy El Sheikh (20 August 2013). "An Egypt Arrest, and a Brotherhood on the Run". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- ^ "More top Brotherhood members arrested by Egypt prosecutors". Ahram Online. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- ^ "Egypt police arrest top Brotherhood leaders". The Jerusalem Post. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- ^ "Egyptian military police arrest Brotherhood supreme guide". Egypt Independent. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- ^ "Egypt arrests Muslim Brotherhood's top leader". Al Jazeera. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- ^ Egypt Shuts Down Muslim Brotherhood Newspaper| AP|25 September 2013
- ^ "Egypt PM labels Brotherhood 'terrorist' group after bomb kills 14". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- ^ "Egyptian Court ordered Death sentence to 529 Members". Dawn. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- ^ "Egypt: sentencing to death of more than 500 people is a 'grotesque' ruling". amnesty.org.uk. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- ^ A coronation flop: President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi fails to bring enough voters to the ballot box, The Economist.
- ^ "Egypt sentences to death 529 supporters of Mohamed Morsi". The Guardian. 24 March 2014.
- ^ "Egypt court sentences 183 Muslim Brotherhood supporters to death". Reuters. 2 February 2015.
- ^ "Reining in Egypt's Military Aid". The New York Times. 4 October 2014.
- ^ Hendawi, Hamza (16 May 2015). "Ousted Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi Sentenced to Death". Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- ^ نظمي, جميل (12 November 2016). "أهداف السيسي من تفجير الكاتدرائية.. قراءة في السيناريوهات المحتملة". بوابة الحرية والعدالة. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017.
- ^ Mahmoud, Nervana (13 December 2016). "Carnage at the Cathedral". nervana1.
- ^ "The #MuslimBrotherhood is equally complicit for the bombing of #Coptic church in #Cairo last Sunday, says @Nervana_1". 14 December 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2017 – via Twitter.[non-primary source needed]
- ^ Tadros, Samuel (11 December 2016). "The Muslim Brotherhood statement on today's bombing in Coptic Cathedral claims Sisi and Copts involved". Retrieved 7 June 2017 – via Twitter.[non-primary source needed]
- ^ "Statement from Muslim Brotherhood official concerning Cairo church bombings". Middle East Monitor. 16 December 2016.
- ^ Noueihed, Lin; Hassan, Mohammed (13 December 2016). "Egypt says church bomber linked to Muslim Brotherhood". Reuters. Cairo.
- ^ "Egypt accuses Muslim Brotherhood over church attack". FRANCE 24. 13 December 2016.
- ^ "The Tale of a Cairo-Based Terrorist Cell, a Suicide Attack, and International Reverberations". Stop Terror Finance. 23 December 2016. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017.
- ^ "Doha denies involvement in Cairo church attack". Arab News. DOHA. Agence France-Presse. 15 December 2016.
- ^ عطوان, عبد الباري (17 December 2016). "تلاسن حاد بالبيانات بين مصر ومجلس التعاون الخليجي بسبب اتهام قطر بالوقوف خلف تفجير الكنيسة البطرسية الاحد الماضي.. الزياني يشكك.. والخارجية المصرية تؤكد وتطالبه بتحري الدقة.. اين الحقيقة؟". راي اليوم.
- ^ "Egypt says church bomber linked to Muslim Brotherhood". The Nation. 13 December 2016.
- ^ Gryboski, Michael (13 December 2016). "22-Y-O Suicide Bomber Who Killed 24 at Cairo's Coptic Church Linked to Terror Group". The Christian Post.
- ^ صالح, صالح (12 February 2017). "في ذكرى استشهاد الإمام.. الإخوان على عهد الكفاح ماضون". إخوان أون لاين.
- ^ "Egyptian soldiers accused of killing unarmed Sinai men in leaked video". BBC News. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ "الإخوان المسلمون ينعون للأمة الشيخ عمر عبدالرحمن". 18 February 2017. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- ^ Wickham, Carrie (2013). The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 55.
- ^ Elmasry, Mohamed (28 June 2013). "Unpacking Anti-Muslim Brotherhood Discourse". Jadaliyya. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- ^ Iskandar, Adel (2013). Egypt in Flux: Essays on an Unfinished Revolution. Cairo: AUC Press. p. 114.
- ^ Wickham, Carrie (2013). The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 121.
- ^ Mekela, Juna (2014). "The Arab Spring's Impact on Egypt's Securitocracy". International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 27 (2): 227. doi:10.1080/08850607.2014.872531. S2CID 153839873.
- ^ "Gulf Daily News". Gulf Daily News. 9 March 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ "Middle East Roundtable". bitterlemons-international.org. Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ "PJ Media". Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- ^ Ali, Hadi (14 August 2015). "Kurdistan and the Challenge of Islamism" (Interview). Interviewed by Ali, Rebaz. Hudson Institute. In Iran, there is a big Islamic organization called "Islah and Dawa Group" that belongs to the Muslim Brotherhood. They are not registered as a political group because political activities are not allowed in Iran. Obviously, the regime in Iran is a sectarian regime and will always try to limit the activities of local Sunnis. Islah and Dawa are not happy with the regime's sectarian policies, but I think there is very little they can do if they want to stay away from serious trouble. Because of their Muslim Brotherhood ties, they have good relations with the KIU.
- ^ Rasoulpour, Khabat (2013) . Sociologic explanation of establishment of Iranian Call and Reform Organization (Iranian Muslim Brotherhood) and evolution of its discourse (M.A.) (in Persian). Tarbiat Moallem University. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- ^ Mohsen Ebadi (November 2014) [Aban–Azar 1393]. "A Glance at Muslim Brotherhood in Iran". Chesmandaz-e-Iran (in Persian) (88).
- ^ "Turkey's relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- ^ "Support for Muslim Brotherhood isolates Turkey". Die Weld. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- ^ "Türbülans seçimlere izin verilmeyecek". Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- ^ "The Seesaw Friendship Between Turkey's AKP and Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- ^ Alan Godlas (17 July 1968). "The Muslim Brotherhood in Iraq". Uga.edu. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ John Pike (13 May 2010). "Iraqi Islamic Party". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ Al Aqeedi, Rasha (February 2016). "Hisba in Mosul: Systematic Oppression in the Name of Virtue" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Program on Extremism at George Washington University: 3.
- ^ Al-Obeidi, Khalid (3 August 2016). "خالد العبيدي يرد على تهديدات الاخوان المسلمين باغتياله: لن نتهاون في كشف الفاسدين وحياتي ليست أغلى من اي مقاتل". Retrieved 7 June 2017 – via Twitter.[non-primary source needed]
- ^ "Profile: Kurdish Islamist movement". BBC News. 13 January 2003. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- ^ "Saudi newspaper slams Muslim Brotherhood as 'Nazis'". The Jerusalem Post. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- ^ Cohen, 1982, p. 144.
- ^ Shadid, Mohammed K (April 1988). "The Muslim Brotherhood Movement in the West Bank and Gaza". Third World Quarterly. 10 (2): 658–682. doi:10.1080/01436598808420076. JSTOR 3992661.
- ^ 0253208661
- ^ a b Ziad Abu-Amr (Summer 1993), "Hamas: A Historical and Political Background", Journal of Palestine Studies, 22 (4): 5–19, doi:10.1525/jps.1993.22.4.00p00027, JSTOR 2538077
- ^ "The Muslim Brotherhood". The Week. 18 February 2011. p. 13.
- ^ Strindberg, Anders, and Wärn, Mats (2011), Islamism, Polity, p. 87, ISBN 978-0745640624
- ^ Higgins, Andrew (24 January 2009). "How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- ^ "Hamas Charter". Mideastweb.org. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ "The Talibanization of Gaza: A Liability for the Muslim Brotherhood" Archived 29 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. by Jonathan Schanzer. 19 August 2009. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 9
- ^ Ibish, Hussein (5 October 2013). "Is this the end of the failed Muslim Brotherhood project?". The National. Retrieved 8 October 2013. Hamas in Gaza is undergoing an unprecedented crisis. It bizarrely made no effort to convince the new Egyptian government that it was not a hostile force, especially with regard to security in Sinai. It is therefore being treated like one. Egypt has imposed an unparalleled blockade, leaving the economy in shambles. For the first time since 2007, it is now possible to imagine a Gaza no longer under Hamas control.
- ^ a b c d e Bar, Shmuel (1998). The Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan. ISBN 9789652240309.
- ^ Freij, Hanna (2000). Jordan: The Muslim Brotherhood and the Kings of Jordan 1945-1993. Washington.
- ^ Leiken, Robert; Brooke, Steven (2007). "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood". Foreign Affairs. Vol. 86 no. 2. pp. 107–121.
- ^ Tore Kjeilen (20 September 2000). "Muslim Brotherhood / Jordan". Looklex Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780674291416. Retrieved 2 April 2015. The Failure of Political Islam muslim world league.
- ^ a b c Amis, Jacob. "The Jordanian Brotherhood in the Arab Spring". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- ^ Susser, Asher. "Jordan 2011: Uneasy Lies the Head" (PDF). Brandeis University. Retrieved 5 September 2017. the King himself had entered into dialogue with the organization in early February, just a few days after Bakhit's appointment and following years of estrangement. Bakhit even invited the Brotherhood to join his cabinet.
- ^ Ibish, Hussein (5 October 2013). "Is this the end of the failed Muslim Brotherhood project?". The National. Retrieved 8 October 2013. The Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, which seemed to be growing from strength to strength a mere year ago, is in utter disarray.
- ^ "Defections threaten Jordan's Brotherhood". 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- ^ "Jordan shuts down Muslim Brotherhood headquarters". BBC News. 13 April 2016.
- ^ "Jordan top court dissolves country's Muslim Brotherhood". MSN. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- ^ a b Pike, John. "Muslim Brotherhood in Qatar". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ a b Bryant, Christa Case (18 April 2014). "Behind Qatar's bet on the Muslim Brotherhood". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- ^ Kessler, Oren (1 January 2012). "The Two Faces of Al Jazeera". Middle East Quarterly.
- ^ "Why Egypt Hates Al Jazeera". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (7 September 2014). "Qatar's Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "Muslim cleric not allowed into UK". BBC. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "France election: Sarkozy vows ban on militant preachers". BBC News. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "Egypt crisis: Fall of Morsi challenges Qatar's new emir". BBC News. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ Kerr, Simeon (3 July 2013). "Fall of Egypt's Mohamed Morsi is blow to Qatari leadership". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ a b c Dickinson, Elizabeth (10 March 2014). "Saudi action puts Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait on spot". Al Monitor. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- ^ The Future of Political Islam, Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, 2003, p. 39.
- ^ "Charting the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood". Der Spiegel. 3 July 2007.
- ^ Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. translator Volk, Carol. Harvard University Press. p. 121.
- ^ a b c d Mintz, John; Farah, Douglas (10 September 2004). "In Search of Friends Among The Foes U.S. Hopes to Work With Diverse Group". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- ^ a b Dreyfuss, Bob (13 July 2012). "Saudi Arabia and the Brotherhood: What the 'New York Times' Missed". The Nation. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- ^ "No satisfaction". The Economist. 1 February 2014. Long fearful of the Muslim Brotherhood, whose many quiet supporters in the kingdom represent one of the few potential threats to their own control, the Al Sauds strongly backed their removal from government in Egypt.
- ^ House, Karen Elliott (2012). On Saudi Arabia: Its People, past, Religion, Fault Lines and Future. Knopf. p. 144. In the 1960s, when Faisal became king, he championed the creation of public schools across the kingdom for boys—and also girls. The largely illiterate nation had few qualified teachers, so the government dispatched emissaries abroad, mostly to Egypt and Jordan, to recruit teachers with substantive skills who also were devout Muslims. A hallmark of King Faisal's reign was an effort to create an Islamic alliance in the Middle East to counter the Arab nationalism of Egypt's president, Gamel Abdel Nasser. When Nasser, a nationalist strongman and sworn enemy of Saudi Arabia, turned on his country's conservative Muslim Brotherhood, King Faisal welcomed those religious conservatives into Saudi Arabia as scholars and teachers, reinforcing the fundamentalist hold on the young Ministry of Education, founded in 1954 under his predecessor and half-brother, King Saud.
- ^ Kepel, Gilles (2006). The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Belknap Press. pp. 173–74.
- ^ "The Muslim Brotherhood in Saudi Arabia (comments by Thomas Hegghammer)". GlobalMB.
- ^ a b c d Lacroix, Stéphane. "Saudi Arabia's Muslim Brotherhood predicament". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- ^ House, Karen Elliott (2012). On Saudi Arabia: Its People, past, Religion, Fault Lines and Future. Knopf. p. 156.
- ^ McCants, William (17 March 2014). "Islamist Outlaws". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- ^ Brian Katulis (4 June 2013). "Qatar Saudi Arabia Diverge in Battle to Shape Changing Middle East". The Paths of the Arab Spring. World Politics Review. ISBN 9781939907110.
- ^ Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows: the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, p. 241.
- ^ Tore Kjeilen (20 September 2000). "Muslim Brotherhood of Syria". Looklex encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- ^ Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows: the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press (2008), p. 248.
- ^ Syria's Muslim Brotherhood is gaining influence over anti-Assad revolt By Liz Sly, The Washington Post, 12 May 2012
- ^ Ibish, Hussein (5 October 2013). "Is this the end of the failed Muslim Brotherhood project?". The National. Retrieved 8 October 2013. The Syrian Brotherhood was the most influential political force in the opposition after the uprising against the Damascus dictatorship began. But now they seem to have virtually no influence on the conflict or its likely outcome.
- ^ Horovitz, David. (11 July 2013) Assad applauds fall of Egypt. The Times of Israel.
- ^ a b Kasolowsky, Raissa (20 September 2012). "UAE Islamists had military wing, planned Islamic state - papers". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- ^ "Gulf states must tackle Muslim Brotherhood threat: UAE". Yahoo News. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- ^ Gargash, Anwar (26 August 2012). "Amid challenges, UAE policies engage gradual reforms". The National. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- ^ Salem, Ola (5 October 2012). "Islah 'does not represent UAE interests'". The National. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- ^ Forstenlechner, Ingo (Winter 2012). "The UAE, The "Arab Spring" and Different Types of Dissent". Middle East Policy. 19 (XIX): 54–64. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4967.2012.00559.x.
- ^ Ibish, Hussein (8 January 2013). "Is the Muslim Brotherhood targeting the UAE?". NOW. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- ^ "Brotherhood 'sought Islamist state in UAE'". 21 September 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- ^ "UAE coup plot trial begins in Abu Dhabi". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- ^ Bayoumy, Yara (2 July 2013). "UAE court jails scores of Emiratis in coup plot trial: TV". Reuters. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- ^ "Yemen's President Saleh Speaks: The Interview Transcript". Time. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- ^ Vidino, Lorenzo (12 February 2017). "Why the United States Should Be as Circumspect as the British about the Muslim Brotherhood". Lawfare.
- ^ "Muslim Brotherhood goes public with Libya summit". Reuters. 17 November 2011.
- ^ "Muslim Brotherhood to Contest Libyan Elections as Independent Party". The Tripoli Post. 24 December 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
- ^ https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Libya_Ashour_FINALv.pdf
- ^ "National Congress party results". Libya Herald. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- ^ Wahab, Ashraf Abdul; Cousins, Michel (12 September 2012). "Abushagur elected as Prime Minister". Libya Herald. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- ^ "Libyan Prime Minister Nominates His Government Line-Up". Tripoli Post. 30 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
- ^ "National Congress elects two vice speakers". Libya Herald. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- ^ "First Islamist party emerges in Libya". Hürriyet Daily News. Tripoli. Agence France-Presse. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- ^ Guidere, Mathieu (2017). Historical dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 323. ISBN 9781538106709.
- ^ al-Batakoshi, Asmaa (23 October 2019). [theportal-center.com/2019/10/sallabi-and-qaradawi-two-sides-of-the-same-terrorism-coin/ "Sallabi and Qaradawi: Two sides of the same terrorism coin"] Check |url= value (help). The Portal. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- ^ "Roundtable: The Crisis of the Muslim Brotherhood". CSIS. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- ^ "Text - H.R.3892 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015". 24 February 2016.
- ^ "Libya's Ansar al-Sharia announces dissolution". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- ^ Bell, Larry. "Muslim Brotherhood Fox Was Hired To Protect Our Benghazi Consulate Henhouse - Interview". Forbes. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- ^ "Libyan army: Qatar transports armed ISIS militants from Syria to Libya". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- ^ "Libya's Islamists: Who They Are - And What They Want". Wilson Center. 8 August 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- ^ a b c Mauritania's Islamists-Carnegie Middle East Center. Carnegie-mec.org.
- ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004. Somalia". State.gov. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- ^ Natsios, Andrew S. (2012). Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. pp. 84–5. ISBN 9780199764198. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 179–180.
- ^ a b Natsios, Andrew S. (2012). Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–6. ISBN 9780199764198. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ "Omar al-Bashir: How Sudan's military strongmen stayed in power". BBC News. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- ^ a b "No 595 RAPPORT FAIT au nom de la commission d'enquête (1) sur les réponses apportées par les autorités publiques au développement de la radicalisation islamiste et les moyens de la combattre" (PDF). 7 July 2020.
- ^ Bayerischen Landesamts für Verfassungsschutz (2013). Verfassungsschutzbericht 2012 (PDF) (in German). Munich, Germany: Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern. pp. 34–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- ^ a b Решение ВС РФ о признании террористическими ряда иностранных организаций (in Russian). Справочно-информационный интернет-портал RELIGARE ("РЕЛИГИЯ и СМИ"). Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g Jenkins, J; Farr, C (2015). Muslim Brotherhood Review: Main Findings (PDF). London: Government of UK. p. bullet point 19 onwards. ISBN 9781474127127. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- ^ "David Cameron orders inquiry into activities of Muslim Brotherhood". Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- ^ Dhume, Sadanand (1 December 2005). "Indonesian Democracy's Enemy Within". YaleGlobal Online. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009.
- ^ Qaradhawi, DR. Yusuf (2001), Umat Islam Menyongsong Abad ke-21, Era Intermedia, Solo, ISBN 979-9183-56-1 pp. 92;
- ^ Müller, Dominik M. (2014). Islam, Politics and Youth in Malaysia: The Pop-Islamist Reinvention of PAS. Oxford: Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 9780415844758. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ^ Shukry, Anisah (28 January 2016). "Muslim Brotherhood influence not a problem in Malaysia". The Edge. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ^ Chew, Amy (11 February 2013). "The rising force in Malaysia's opposition". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ^ "PAS tegaskan pendirian bersama Ikhwanul Muslimin" (in Malay). PAS President. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- ^ Bubalo & Fealy 2005, p. 14–15.
- ^ In Search of Friends Among the Foes. The Washington Post.
- ^ a b q:Muslim Brotherhood
- ^ a b  Archived 4 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Zeid al-Noman, "Ikhwan in America", pp. 13, 16.
- ^ Zeid al-Noman, "Ikhwan in America", p. 13.
- ^ a b Elliott, Andrea (30 July 2011). "The Man Behind the Anti-Shariah Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- ^ "The Muslim Brotherhood in the United States" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- ^ Times), News Documents (The New York. "An Explanatory Memorandum". documentcloud.org.
- ^ "Civilization Jihad: Debunking the Conspiracy Theory". Bridge Initiative Team. 26 February 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- ^ "S.2230 - Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act of 2015". Congress.gov. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- ^ a b Hattem, Julian (4 November 2015). "Cruz bill would designate Muslim Brotherhood as terrorist group". The Hill. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- ^ "Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Designation Act | The Counter Jihad Report". counterjihadreport.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- ^ "House Judiciary Committee Advances Bill to Designate Muslim Brotherhood as Foreign Terrorist Organization". CNS News. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- ^ Lederman, Alexander (8 March 2016). "Should the U.S. Designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a Terrorist Group?". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- ^ "Is the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization?". The Conversation. 10 March 2017.
- ^ "Trump administration debates designating Muslim Brotherhood as terrorist group". Reuters. 29 January 2017.
- ^ Chiaramonte, Perry (4 August 2013). "Petition calls for White House to declare Muslim Brotherhood terrorist group". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- ^ a b Baker, Peter (7 February 2017). "White House Weighs Terrorist Designation for Muslim Brotherhood". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ "Trump weighs labeling Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group". Reuters. 30 April 2019.
- ^ Jones, Seth G. (2012). "Think Again: Al Qaeda". Foreign Policy. No. May/June 2012. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- ^ Muslim Brotherhood subversion in Gulf States. The Jerusalem Post.
- ^ Ehrenfeld, Rachel and Lappen, Alyssa A., (16 June 2006) "The Truth about the Muslim Brotherhood", FrontPage Magazine, citing Sylvain Besson, La Conquête De L'Occident: Le Projet Secret Des Islamistes, as quoted in Guitta, Olivier, (20 February 2006), "The Cartoon Jihad," Archived 18 October 2009 at the Stanford Web Archive. The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
- ^ "Revolutionary leader". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., "The Game of Nations: The Amorality of Power Politics", New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970. Page 184
- ^ Lufti, Manal (14 March 2007). "The Brotherhood and America Part III". Asharq Alawsat. Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- ^ Mousa, Sarah. "Egypt's parliamentary hypocrisy". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- ^ Wickham, Carrie (2011). "The Muslim Brotherhood and Democratic Transition in Egypt". Middle East Law and Governance. 3 (1–2): 204–233. doi:10.1163/187633711X591558.
- ^ article printed in Al Ahram Weekly 5–9 July 1997, quoted in Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, pp. 241, 330.
- ^ Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, by Caryle Murphy, Simon and Schuster, 2002, pp. 241, 330.
- ^ Shenker, Jack; Whitaker, Brian (8 February 2011). "The Muslim Brotherhood uncovered". The Guardian.
- ^ Crane, Mary. "Does the Muslim Brotherhood Have Ties to Terrorism". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009.
- ^ "Egypt unrest: What if Mubarak goes?". BBC News. 31 January 2011.
- ^ "Muslim Brother Hood Condemns 9/11 attack". Archived from the original on 15 February 2009.
- ^ "Morsi: 9/11 a global calamity, not only for U.S. - Ikhwanweb". ikhwanweb.com.
- ^ "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood". Archived from the original on 25 May 2012.
- ^ "The root of terrorism is Wahabism". Archived from the original on 16 March 2009.
- ^ "The root of terrorism". Archived from the original on 1 May 2011.
- ^ Atran, Scott (2 February 2011). "Egypt's Bumbling Brotherhood". The New York Times.
- ^ Want Shariah, End of Israel Treaty, Pew Poll Shows date: 26 April 2011
- ^ Arab Women As Likely As Men To Support Islamic Law In Middle East After Arab Spring, Says Survey Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Huffington Post, 25 June 2012
- ^ "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood Welcomes Idea of U.S. Contacts". Haaretz. Reuters. 30 June 2011.
- ^ "Muslim Brotherhood Says Qatar Ousted Its Members". The New York Times. 13 September 2014.
- ^ "Republic of Kazakhstan - АТЦ СНГ". eng.cisatc.org. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- ^ "The Commonwealth of Independent States Anti-terrorism Center". 2011–2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- ^ "Charges brought against 70 suspected Muslim Brotherhood members in Tajikistan". 21 January 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- ^ "الإرهابية"-مصر-والسعودية-وسوريا-وروسيا-و6-دول-بمنظمة/1597700 "خريطة حظر "الإرهابية"..مصر والسعودية وسوريا وروسيا و6 دول بمنظمة "الأمن الجماعى" تصنف "الإخوان" كتنظيم إرهابى.. وبريطانيا وكندا وفرنسا والإمارات والكويت فى الطريق". YOUM 7 (in Arabic). 6 April 2014.
- ^ "7 دول اعتبرت الإخوان "جماعة إرهابية"". alwafd.news (in Arabic).
- ^ Shadia Nasralla (25 December 2013). "Egypt designates Muslim Brotherhood as terrorist group". Reuters. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- ^ Salma Abdelaziz & Steve Almasy (25 December 2013). "Egypt's interim Cabinet officially labels Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group". CNN. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- ^ Staff Writer; Al Arabiya News (7 March 2014). "Saudi Arabia declares MB a terrorist group". Al Arabiya News. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- ^ "Bahrain backs Saudi Arabia, UAE, Foreign Minister says". Bahrain News Agency. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- ^ "Bahrain FM reiterates stance on Muslim Brotherhood". Anadolu Agency. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- ^ Ali, Walaa (14 May 2019). "Libyan parl't votes to ban Muslim Brotherhood, designates it 'terrorist group'". Egypt Today. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- ^ Russia's Reaction on the Egypt CrisisArchived 27 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Indian Council of World Affairs, 29 October 2013
- ^ Hicham Mourad (23 April 2013). "What next for Egypt and Russia?". Al-Ahram. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- ^ "US bill calling for designating Muslim Brotherhood as a 'terrorist organization'". Middle East Observer. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ a b Schwartz, Felicia; Solomon, Jay (8 February 2017). "U.S. Weighs Terror Label on Iran Revolutionary Guard, Muslim Brotherhood". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ Pintak, Lawrence (22 February 2017). "The Trump Administration's Islamophobic Holy Grail". Foreign Policy.
- ^ Harvard, Sarah (12 February 2017). "Trump's plan to declare the Muslim Brotherhood a terror group is about going after American Muslims". Mic. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ a b "All of Islam Isn't the Enemy". The New York Times. The Editorial Board. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ Mathias, Christopher (24 February 2017). "Muslim Brotherhood Terror Designation Will Lead To 'Witch-Hunt,' Rights Groups Say". HuffPost.
- ^ Roth, Kenneth (8 February 2017). "US: Don't Target Muslim Brotherhood". Washington, DC: Human Rights Watch.
- ^ El-Haddad, Gehad (22 February 2017). "I Am a Member of the Muslim Brotherhood, Not a Terrorist". The New York Times.
- ^ Brown, Nathan; Dunne, Michele (25 January 2017). "Black Label". Carnegie Middle East Center.
- ^ Trager, Eric (9 February 2017). "The U.S. Should Be Wary About Overplaying Its Hand". The Cipher Brief.
- ^ "A terrorism label that would hurt more than help". The Washington Post. Editorial Board. 9 February 2017.
- ^ Sethi, Arjun Singh (8 February 2017). "Calling the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group would hurt all American Muslims". The Washington Post.
- ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (10 February 2017). "Why listing the Muslim Brotherhood as a terror group is a bad idea". The Washington Post.
- ^ Hounshell, Blake; Toosi, Nahal (8 February 2017). "CIA Memo: Designating Muslim Brotherhood Could 'Fuel Extremism'". Politico Magazine.
- ^ Hamid, Shadi (12 February 2017). "The Muslim Brotherhood and the Question of Terrorism". The Atlantic.
- ^ a b c d e Eric Trager, The Muslim Brotherhood Is the Root of the Qatar Crisis, The Atlantic (2 July 2017).
- Abdullahi, Abdurahman (Baadiyow) (October 2008) "The Islah Movement: Islamic moderation in war-torn Somalia" Hiiraan Online Mogadishu, Somalia
- Ankerl, Guy (2000) Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INUPRESS, Geneva. ISBN 2-88155-004-5
- Baer, Robert (2002). See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-1-4000-4684-3.
- Bubalo, Anthony; Fealy, Greg (2005). Joining the Caravan? The Middle East, Islamism, and Indonesia. Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy. pp. viii–ix. ISBN 1921004118.
- Cohen, Amnon (1982). Political Parties in the West Bank under the Jordanian Regime, 1949–1967. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-1321-6.
- Cohen, Nick (9 July 2006) "The Foreign Office ought to be serving Britain, not radical Islam" The Observer London
- Dreyfuss, Robert (2006). Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Owl Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-7652-3.
- Mallmann, Klaus-Michael and Martin Cüppers (2006) Halbmond und Hakenkreuz: Das 'Dritte Reich', die Araber und Palästina Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. ISBN 978-3-534-19729-3
- Mayer, Thomas (1982) "The Military Force of Islam: The Society of the Muslim Brethren and the Palestine Question, 1945–1948", in Kedourie, Elie and Haim, Sylvia G. (1982) Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel. Frank Cass, London, pp. 100–117, ISBN 0-7146-3169-8
- Mura, Andrea (2015). The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism: A Study in Islamic Political Thought. London: Routledge.
- Zahid, Mohammed (2012) The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's Succession Crisis: The Politics of Liberalisation and Reform in the Middle East. I. B. Tauris ISBN 1780762178
- Leikrn, Robert S. and Steven Brooke (2007) "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood", Foreign Affairs.
- The Nazi Roots of Palestinian Nationalism and Islamic Jihad, by David Meir-Levi (2007).
Last edited on 4 April 2021, at 20:14
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.