Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
: المملكة المتوكلية اليمنية
al-Mamlakah al-Mutawakkilīyah al-Yamanīyah
), also known simply as the Kingdom of Yemen
or as Yemen
, or, retrospectively, as North Yemen
, was a state that existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northwestern part of what is now Yemen
. Its capital was Sana'a
until 1948, then Taiz
. From 1962 to 1970, it maintained control over portions of Yemen (frequently most) until its final defeat in the North Yemen Civil War
. Yemen was admitted to the United Nations
on 30 September 1947.
religious leaders expelled forces of the Ottoman Empire
from what is now northern Yemen by the middle of the 17th century but, within a century, the unity of Yemen was fractured due to the difficulty of governing Yemen's mountainous terrain
In 1849, the Ottoman Empire occupied the coastal Tihamah
region to put pressure on the Zaiddiyah imam to sign a treaty recognizing Ottoman suzerainty
and allowing for a small Ottoman force to be stationed in Sana'a
. However, the Ottomans were slow to gain control over Yemen and never managed to eliminate all resistance from local Zaydis. In 1913, shortly before World War I
, the Ottoman Empire was forced to cede some power formally to highland
Instability and decline
Imam Yahya was assassinated in an unsuccessful coup d'état in 1948
but was eventually succeeded by a firm heir - Yahya's son, Imam Ahmad bin Yahya
, who regained power several months later. His reign was marked by growing development, openness and renewed friction with the United Kingdom
over the British presence in the south that stood in the way of his aspirations for the creation of Greater Yemen
. He was slightly more forward-thinking than his father and was more open to foreign contacts. Nonetheless, his regime, like his father's, was autocratic and semi-medieval in character; even the most mundane measures required his personal approval.
In March 1955, a coup by a group of officers and two of Ahmad's brothers briefly deposed the king but was quickly suppressed. Ahmad faced growing pressures, supported by the Arab nationalism
objectives of President of Egypt
, Gamal Abdel Nasser
and, in April 1956, he signed a mutual defense pact with Egypt. In 1958, Yemen joined the United Arab Republic
(a federation of Egypt and Syria
) in a confederation
known as the United Arab States
, but this confederation was dissolved soon after Syria withdrew from the United Arab Republic and the United Arab States in September 1961. Relations between Egypt and Yemen subsequently deteriorated.
Imam Ahmad died in September 1962 and was succeeded by his son, the Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr
, whose reign was brief. Egyptian-trained military officers inspired by Nasser and led by the commander of the royal guard, Abdullah as-Sallal
, deposed him the same year of his coronation, took control of Sana'a, and created the Yemen Arab Republic
(YAR). This fighting sparked the North Yemen Civil War
and created a new front in the Arab Cold War
, in which Egypt assisted the YAR with troops and supplies to combat forces loyal to the imamate, while the monarchies of Saudi Arabia
supported Badr's royalist forces opposing the newly formed republic. Conflict continued periodically until 1967 when Egyptian troops were withdrawn. By 1968, following a final royalist siege of Sana'a, most of the opposing leaders reached a reconciliation, and Saudi Arabia recognized the republic in 1970.
Flag of the Kingdom of Yemen (1918-1923)
Flag of the Kingdom of Yemen (1923-1927)
Flag of the Kingdom of Yemen (1927-1970)
- ^ Robert D. Burrowes: Historical Dictionary of Yemen, Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press 2000, p. 190.
- ^ Morris, Benny (2008), 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War, Yale University Press, p.205, New Haven, ISBN 978-0-300-12696-9.
- History of Arabia, Encyclopædia Britannica (Macropædia Vol. 1). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1979, pp. 1043–1051.
- Kingdom of Yemen at Flags of the World.
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 11:38
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