Najdi Arabic - Wikipedia
Najdi Arabic
Najdi Arabic (Arabic: اللهجة النجدية‎‎) is the group of Arabic varieties originating from the Najd region of Saudi Arabia. As a result of migration, several regions outside of Najd, including Eastern, Al Jawf, Najran, and Northern Borders Regions are now mostly Najdi-speaking.[citation needed] Outside of Saudi Arabia, it is also the main Arabic variety spoken in the Syrian Desert of Iraq, Jordan, and Syria (with the exception of Palmyra oasis and settlements dotting the Euphrates, where Mesopotamian Arabic is spoken) as well as the westernmost part of Kuwait.
Najdi Arabic
Native toSaudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria
Native speakers
4.05 million (2011-2015)[1]
Afro-Asiatic
Najdi Arabic
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3ars
Glottolognajd1235
Najdi Arabic can be divided into four region-based groups:
  1. Northern Najdi, spoken by the tribe of Shammar and surrounding tribes in Ha'il Region in Najd and the Syrian Desert.[2][3]
  2. Mixed northern-central Najdi of Al-Qassim, and the tribe of Dhafeer around Kuwait.[3][4]
  3. Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh and surrounding towns and farming communities, and by the tribe of Anazah in the Syrian Desert.[3][2]
  4. Southern Najdi, spoken by the tribes of Qahtan and Banu Yam, including in the Rub' al-Khali and Najran, as well as the branches of Banu Yam, Ajman and Al Murrah in Eastern Arabia.[3][4]
Phonology
Consonants
Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ‎⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ‎⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.[5]
Consonants[6][7]
Labial
Inter-
Dental
Denti-alveolarPalatalVelarPharyngealGlottal
 plain emphatic
Nasalmn
Stopvoiceless(p)tkʔ
voicedbdd͡ʒɡ
Fricativevoicelessfθsʃx~χħh
voiced(v)ðzðˤɣ~ʁʕ
Trillr
Approximantl(ɫ)jw
Phonetic notes:
Vowels
Vowels of Najdi Arabic[12][13]
FrontCentralBack
shortlongshortlongshortlong
Closeɪʊ
Mid
Opena
Unless adjacent to /ɣ x h ħ ʕ/, /a/ is raised in open syllables to [i], [ɨ], or [u], depending on neighboring sounds.[14] Remaining /a/ may become fronted to [æ~ɛ] in the context of front sounds, as well as adjacent to the pharyngeals /ħ ʕ/.[15]
Najdi Arabic exhibits the so-called gahawa syndrome, insertion of epenthetic /a/ after (/h x, ɣ ħ, ʕ/). For example, [gahwah] > [gahawah].
When short /a/ appears in an open syllable that is followed by a nonfinal light syllable, it is deleted. For example, /saħab-at/ is realized as [sˈħa.bat].[16] This, combined with the gahawa syndrome can make underlying sequence of /a/ and a following guttural consonant (/h x, ɣ ħ, ʕ/) to appear metathesized, e.g. /ʕistaʕʒal/ ('got in a hurry') [ʕistˈʕaʒal].[17]
Short high vowels are deleted in non-final open syllables, such as /tirsil-uːn/ ('you [m. sg.] send') [tirsˈluːn].[18]
There is both limited distributional overlap and free variation between [i] and [u], with the latter being more likely in the environment of bilabials, pharyngealized consonants, and /r/.[6]
The mid vowels /eː oː/ are typically monophthongs, though they can be pronounced as diphthongs when preceding a plosive, e.g. /beːt/ ('house') [beit].[15] [ei]
Morphology
Najdi Arabic sentence structure can have the word order VSO and SVO, however, VSO usually occurs more often.Ingham (1994:37-44) NA morphology is distinguished by three categories which are: nouns ism, verb fial, and particle harf. Ism means name in Arabic and it corresponds to nouns and adjectives in English. Fial means action in Arabic and it corresponds to verbs. Harf means letter and corresponds to pronouns, demonstratives, prepositions, conjunctions and articles.
Verbs are inflected for number, gender, person, tense, aspect and transitives. Nouns show number (singular and plural) and gender (masculine and feminine). [19]
Complementizers in NA have three different classes which are: relative particle, declarative particle, and interrogative particles. The three different complementizers that are used in Najdi Arabic are: illi, in, itha.[20]
Negation
Main article: Negation in Arabic
Two particles are used in negation, which are: ma and la. These particles come before the verb in verbal sentences.Ingham (1994:37-44) ma is used with all verbal sentences but la is used with imperative verb forms indicating present and future tense.[19]
See also
Footnotes
  1. ^ "Arabic, Najdi Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  2. ^ a b Ingham (1986), p. 274.
  3. ^ a b c d Al Motairi (2015), p. 4.
  4. ^ a b Ingham (1994), p. 5.
  5. ^ Al Motairi (2015:5)
  6. ^ a b c Ingham (1994), p. 14.
  7. ^ a b Al Motairi (2015), p. 6.
  8. ^ a b Al Motairi (2015), p. 7.
  9. ^ Ingham (1986), p. 274, 278.
  10. ^ a b Al-Rojaie (2013), p. 46.
  11. ^ Ingham (1994), p. 13.
  12. ^ INgham (1994), p. 15.
  13. ^ Al Motairi (2015), p. 8.
  14. ^ McCarthy (2007:177, 178), citing Al-Mozainy (1981:64ff)
  15. ^ a b Ingham (1994), p. 15.
  16. ^ McCarthy (2007), pp. 181.
  17. ^ McCarthy (2007), pp. 205.
  18. ^ McCarthy (2007), pp. 187.
  19. ^ a b Alothman, Ebtesam (2012). "Digital Vernaculars: An Investigation of Najdi Arabic in Multilingual Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication" (PDF). University of Manchester: 96–121.
  20. ^ Lewis Jr., Robert (2013). "Complementizer Agreement in Najdi Arabic" (PDF). University of Kansas: 22.
Bibliography
Further reading
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 05:55
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