National Progressive Front (Syria)
The National Progressive Front (Arabic: الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية‎‎, al-Jabha al-Waṭaniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF) is a political alliance of parties in Syria that supports the anti-imperialist and Arab nationalist orientation of the government and accepts the "leading role in society" of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, the largest party in the NPF.
National Progressive Front
الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية
PresidentBashar al-Assad
Vice-PresidentMohammad al-Shaar[1]
FounderHafez al-Assad
Founded1972; 49 years ago
IdeologyPro-Syrian government
Arab nationalism
Arab socialism
Political positionFactions:
Left-wing to far-left
People's Council177 / 250
Council of Ministers20 / 35
The Front was established in 1972 by Syrian president Hafez al-Assad to provide for a limited degree of participation in government by political parties other than the ruling Ba'ath Party.[2] Its constitution provides that the Ba'ath Party controls 50% plus one of the votes on its executive committee. A number of seats in the People's Council of Syria are reserved for members of NPF parties other than the Ba'ath Party. These minor parties are legally required to accept the leadership of the Ba'ath Party. The non-Ba'athist parties in the Progressive Front, for example, are not allowed to canvass for supporters in the army or the student body which are "reserved exclusively for the Ba'ath."[3]
From 1972 to 2011, only parties participating in the NPF had been legally permitted to operate in Syria. The Legislative Decree on Parties law of 2011,[4] Legislative Decree on General Elections Law of 2011[5] and the new Syrian constitution of 2012[6] introduced multi-party system in Syria.
After previously being a part of NPF, Syrian Social Nationalist Party joined the opposition, Popular Front for Change and Liberation, for the May 2012 election to the parliament. However, the SSNP supported the re-election of Bashar al-Assad in the June 2014 presidential election and subsequently rejoined the front.[7]
Constituent parties
The NPF is currently composed of the following political parties:
PartyLeaderIdeologyPeople's Council of SyriaGovernment
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party[8]Bashar al-AssadNeo-Ba'athism
167 / 250government
Syrian Social Nationalist Party[8]Fares al-SaadSyrian nationalism
3 / 250government
Arab Socialist Union Party[8]Safwan al-QudsiNasserism
Arab nationalism
3 / 250government
Syrian Communist Party[8]Ammar BakdashCommunism
2 / 250government
Socialist Unionist Party[8]Shaaban Shaheen[9]Nasserism
Arab socialism
2 / 250government
Syrian Communist Party (Unified)[8]Hanin NimirCommunism
2 / 250government
National Covenant Party[8]Ghassan OthmanArab socialism
Islamic socialism
2 / 250government
Arabic Democratic Union Party[8]Iyad Ghassan OsmanNasserism
Arab nationalism
1 / 250government
Democratic Socialist Unionist Party[8]Fadlallah NasreddineDemocratic socialism
Trade unionism
1 / 250government
Arab Socialist Movement[10]Omar Adnan al-AlawiNeo-Ba'athism
Arab socialism
0 / 250external support
Associated organisations
General Federation of Trade Unions[8]Yassin TulaimatTrade unionism
Workers' rights
0 / 250external support
General Union of Peasants[8]Ahmed Saleh IbrahimTrade unionism
0 / 250external support
Revolutionary Youth Union[11]Maan AbboudNeo-Ba'athism
Youth activism
0 / 250external support
Electoral history
Syrian People's Council elections
1973186 / 1861861st
1977195 / 19591st
1981195 / 1951st
1986195 / 1951st
1990250 / 250551st
1994250 / 2501st
1998250 / 2501st
2003250 / 2501st
2007250 / 2501st
2012168 / 250821st
2016200 / 250321st
2020177 / 250231st
See also
National Progressive Front (Iraq)
  1. ^ phpline@gmail.com - 00963 933 878 476, Mohannad Orfali-. "الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية". pnf.org.sy.
  2. ^ Elizabeth O'Bagy (7 June 2012). "Syria's Political Struggle: Spring 2012" (Backgrounder). ISW. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  3. ^ Seale, Patrick, Asad, the Struggle for the Middle East, University of California Press, 1989, p. 176
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
  6. ^ "SANA Syrian News Agency - Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic Approved in Popular Referendum on February 27, 2012, Article 8". Archived from the original on October 14, 2012.
  7. ^ "SSNP Supports Bashar al-Assad's Presidential Nomination". 7 May 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k phpline@gmail.com - 00963 933 878 476, Mohannad Orfali-. "الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية". pnf.org.sy.
  9. ^ phpline@gmail.com - 00963 933 878 476, Mohannad Orfali-. "حزب الوحدويين الاشتراكيين". pnf.org.sy.
  10. ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Quwat Muqatili al-Asha'ir: Tribal Auxiliary Forces of the Military Intelligence". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2019-08-30.
External links
Official website
Last edited on 23 March 2021, at 23:13
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