National Security Advisor (United States)
The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce classified research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.
The influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but also on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent president.
Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the president in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda.
The National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line
or budget authority over either the Department of State
or the Department of Defense
, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments.
The National Security Advisor is able to offer daily advice (due to the proximity) to the president independently of the vested interests of the large bureaucracies and clientele of those departments.
The National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War
under the National Security Act of 1947
to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, and intelligence; this was part of a large reorganization that saw the creation of the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency
The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff. In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President.
Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953, and held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration
.. The system has remained largely unchanged since then, particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff.
President Richard Nixon
's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger
, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the president and meeting with him multiple times per day. Kissinger also holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975.
He holds the record for longest term of service (2,478 days), and Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term at just 24 days.
List of National Security Advisors
, or sometimes APNSA
in order to avoid confusion with the abbreviation of the National Security Agency
- ^ "National Security Presidential Memorandum–4 of April 4, 2017" (PDF).
- ^ The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
- ^ "McMaster will need Senate confirmation to serve as national security adviser". Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- ^ a b The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 17-21.
- ^ The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 10-14.
- ^ See 22 U.S.C. § 2651 for the Secretary of State and 10 U.S.C. § 113 for the Secretary of Defense.
- ^ Clarke, Richard A. (2004). Against All Enemies. New York: Free Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-7432-6024-4.
- ^ a b c d George, Robert Z; Harvey Rishikof (2011). The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth. Georgetown University Press. p. 32.
- ^ a b Schmitz, David F. (2011). Brent Scowcroft: Internationalism and Post-Vietnam War American Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–3.
- ^ "History of the National Security Council, 1947-1997". whitehouse.gov. August 1997. Archived from the original on February 22, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2008 – via National Archives.
- ^ Burke, John P. (2009). Honest Broker?: The National Security Advisor and Presidential Decision Making. Texas A&M University Press. p. 26. ISBN 9781603441025.
- ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955–1957, National Security Policy, Volume XIX". Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- ^ Lay, James S.; Johnson, Robert H. (1960). Organizational history of the National Security Council during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. p. 40.
- ^ Weisman, Steven R. (January 2, 1982). "REAGAN REPLACING SECURITY ADVISER, OFFICIALS REPORT". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- ^ a b c The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 33.
- ^ "Key members of Obama-Biden national security team announced" (Press release). The Office of the President Elect. December 1, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
- ^ "Donilon to replace Jones as national security adviser". CNN. October 2010. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- ^ a b c Scott Wilson and Colum Lynch (June 5, 2013). "National security team shuffle may signal more activist stance at White House". Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 25, 2017.
- ^ "Biden to appoint Jake Sullivan as national security adviser". cbsnews.com.
- Falk, Stanley L. "The National Security Council under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy." Political Science Quarterly 79.3 (1964): 403–434. online
- George, Robert Z. and Harvey Rishikof, eds. The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth (2nd ed. Georgetown UP, 2017). Excerpt
- Preston, Andrew, "The Little State Department: McGeorge Bundy and the National Security Council Staff, 1961‐65." Presidential Studies Quarterly 31.4 (2001): 635–659. Online
- Rothkopf, David. Running the world: The inside story of the National Security Council and the architects of American power. (PublicAffairs, 2009).
Last edited on 4 May 2021, at 21:29
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