National Security Advisor (United States)
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA)[2][Note 1] is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President, based at the West Wing of the White House. The National Security Advisor serves as the principal advisor to the President of the United States on all national security issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require confirmation by the United States Senate. However, an appointment of a three or four-star General to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank.[3]
Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
Jake Sullivan
since January 20, 2021
Executive Office of the President
Member ofNational Security Council
Homeland Security Council
Reports toPresident of the United States
AppointerPresident of the United States
Constituting instrumentNational Security Presidential Memorandum[1]
First holderRobert Cutler
DeputyDeputy National Security Advisor (DNSA)
The National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the National Security Council (NSC) and usually chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense (those meetings not attended by the President). The NSA also sits on the Homeland Security Council (HSC).
The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce classified research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.
The influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but also on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent president.[4] Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the president in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda.[5]
The National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line or budget authority over either the Department of State or the Department of Defense, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments.[6] The National Security Advisor is able to offer daily advice (due to the proximity) to the president independently of the vested interests of the large bureaucracies and clientele of those departments.[4]
In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is likely to operate from the White House Situation Room or the Presidential Emergency Operations Center (as on September 11, 2001),[7] updating the president on the latest events in a crisis situation.
President George H. W. Bush meets in the Oval Office with his NSC about Operation Desert Shield, 1991
The National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War under the National Security Act of 1947 to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, and intelligence; this was part of a large reorganization that saw the creation of the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency.[8][9] The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff. In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President.[8]
Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953, and held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration.. The system has remained largely unchanged since then, particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff.[8]
President Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the president and meeting with him multiple times per day. Kissinger also holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975.[8][9] He holds the record for longest term of service (2,478 days), and Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term at just 24 days.
Brent Scowcroft held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: the Ford administration and the G.H.W. Bush administration.
List of National Security Advisors
No.PortraitNameTerm of office[10]President(s) served under
Robert Cutler (1895–1974)March 23, 1953April 2, 1955740Dwight D. Eisenhower
2Dillon Anderson (1906–1974)April 2, 1955September 1, 1956519
William Harding Jackson (1901–1971)[11][12][13]September 1, 1956January 7, 1957128
Robert Cutler (1895–1974)January 7, 1957June 24, 1958533
Gordon Gray (1909–1982)June 24, 1958January 13, 1961934
McGeorge Bundy (1919–1996)January 20, 1961February 28, 19661865John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Walt Whitman Rostow (1916–2003)April 1, 1966January 20, 19691025
Henry Kissinger (1923–)January 20, 1969November 3, 19752478Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
Brent Scowcroft (1925–2020)November 3, 1975
(first appointment)
January 20, 1977444
Zbigniew Brzezinski (1928–2017)January 20, 1977January 20, 19811461Jimmy Carter
Richard V. Allen (1936–)January 21, 1981January 4, 1982348Ronald Reagan
James W. Nance (1921–1999)[14]November 30, 1981January 4, 198237
William P. Clark Jr. (1931–2013)January 4, 1982October 17, 1983651
Robert McFarlane (1937–)October 17, 1983December 4, 1985779
John Poindexter (1936–)December 4, 1985November 25, 1986356
Frank Carlucci (1930–2018)December 2, 1986November 23, 1987356
Colin Powell (1937–)November 23, 1987January 20, 1989424
Brent Scowcroft (1925–2020)January 20, 1989
(second appointment)
January 20, 19931461George H. W. Bush
Anthony Lake (1939–)January 20, 1993March 14, 19971514Bill Clinton
Sandy Berger (1945–2015)March 14, 1997January 20, 20011408
Condoleezza Rice (1954–)January 22, 2001[15]January 25, 2005[15]1464George W. Bush
Stephen Hadley (1947–)January 26, 2005[15]January 20, 20091455
James L. Jones (1943–)[16]January 20, 2009October 8, 2010626Barack Obama
Thomas E. Donilon (1955–)[17]October 8, 2010July 1, 2013[18]997
Susan Rice (1964–)[18]July 1, 2013[18]January 20, 20171299
Michael Flynn (1958–)January 20, 2017February 13, 201724Donald Trump
Keith Kellogg (1944–)February 13, 2017February 20, 20177
H. R. McMaster (1962–)February 20, 2017April 9, 2018412
John Bolton (1948–)April 9, 2018September 10, 2019520
Charles Kupperman (1950–)September 10, 2019September 18, 20198
Robert O’Brien (1966–)September 18, 2019January 20, 2021490
Jake Sullivan (1976–)[19]January 20, 2021Incumbent109Joe Biden
  Denotes acting
See also
^ Abbreviated NSA, or sometimes APNSA or ANSA in order to avoid confusion with the abbreviation of the National Security Agency.
2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff (PDF). WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  1. ^ "National Security Presidential Memorandum–4 of April 4, 2017" (PDF).
  2. ^ The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
  3. ^ "McMaster will need Senate confirmation to serve as national security adviser". Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  4. ^ a b The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 17-21.
  5. ^ The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 10-14.
  6. ^ See 22 U.S.C. § 2651 for the Secretary of State and 10 U.S.C. § 113 for the Secretary of Defense.
  7. ^ Clarke, Richard A. (2004). Against All Enemies. New York: Free Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-7432-6024-4.
  8. ^ a b c d George, Robert Z; Harvey Rishikof (2011). The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth. Georgetown University Press. p. 32.
  9. ^ a b Schmitz, David F. (2011). Brent Scowcroft: Internationalism and Post-Vietnam War American Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–3.
  10. ^ "History of the National Security Council, 1947-1997". whitehouse.gov. August 1997. Archived from the original on February 22, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2008 – via National Archives.
  11. ^ Burke, John P. (2009). Honest Broker?: The National Security Advisor and Presidential Decision Making. Texas A&M University Press. p. 26. ISBN 9781603441025.
  12. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955–1957, National Security Policy, Volume XIX". Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  13. ^ Lay, James S.; Johnson, Robert H. (1960). Organizational history of the National Security Council during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. p. 40.
  14. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (January 2, 1982). "REAGAN REPLACING SECURITY ADVISER, OFFICIALS REPORT". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 33.
  16. ^ "Key members of Obama-Biden national security team announced" (Press release). The Office of the President Elect. December 1, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
  17. ^ "Donilon to replace Jones as national security adviser". CNN. October 2010. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
  18. ^ a b c Scott Wilson and Colum Lynch (June 5, 2013). "National security team shuffle may signal more activist stance at White House". Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 25, 2017.
  19. ^ "Biden to appoint Jake Sullivan as national security adviser". cbsnews.com.
Further reading
External links
Last edited on 4 May 2021, at 21:29
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