National unity government
A national unity government
, government of national unity
), or national union government
is a broad coalition government
consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency
Some countries, such as Australia
and New Zealand
, have or have had a National Party
, which can lead to the use of the phrase "National government" when it is in power. Such governments are not national unity governments.
A national unity government in Greece
is often called ecumenical government
There are five periods in Hungary when national unity governments emerged:
Republic of Ireland
has had several national unity governments
, in which major rival parties formed a ruling coalition. Such coalitions were formed in the days leading up to the Six-Day War
, in the late 1980s and amidst the COVID-19 pandemic
During the Eurozone crisis
, the two main parties, The People of Freedom
and the Democratic Party
, along with other minor political forces, supported the Monti cabinet
, and eventually, after the 2013 general election
, formed a grand coalition
in support of the Letta Cabinet
, which, however, was opposed by a new major political force in parliament, the anti-establishment Five Star Movement
is a multireligious state and consensus democracy
, having a national unity government is more favorable in this country. Unlike other democracies, no group in Lebanon can govern alone.
In addition, Luxembourg had a Liberation Government
between November 1944 and November 1945, also under Dupong. It served a similar emergency role to a national government, but included only the two largest parties, the CSV
and the LSAP
On 16 April 2021, the committee announced the formation of a National Unity Government (Burmese: အမျိုးသား ညီညွတ်ရေး အစိုးရ), pursuant to the Federal Democracy Charter released on 31 March 2021. The National Unity Government re-introduced the position of Prime Minister, and consists of CRPH members and other ethnic leaders.
Following the devastating April 2015 Nepal earthquake
, top political parties in Nepal
have decided to form a national unity government in order to handle the crisis and draft a constitution that's been long overdue. The major political parties and unified political fronts have agreed to settle the disputed issues of the constitution drafting process by 3 June and to form a national unity government.
The Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014 was a national unity government of the Palestinian National Authority under Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas formed on 2 June 2014 following the Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation Agreement that had been signed on 23 April 2014. The ministers were nominally independent, but overwhelmingly seen as loyal to President Abbas and his Fatah movement or to smaller leftist factions, none of whom were believed to have close ties to Hamas. However, the Unity Government was not approved by the Legislative Council, leading to its legitimacy being questioned. The Unity Government dissolved on 17 June 2015 after President Abbas said it was unable to operate in the Gaza Strip.
The interim constitution negotiated by the multi-party negotiations that started in 1990 allowed all parties that gained more than 10% of the vote to participate in a Government of National Unity
. The new government that was elected in 1994 therefore had members from many political parties in the cabinet. This government of national unity lasted until the general election in 1999, although a reported lack of shared decision-making prompted the second-largest party to withdraw from the GNU in 1996.
Sweden has only had one national unity government; The Hansson III Cabinet
during World War II
. The government was made up of all parties in the parliament except the Communist party
which was considered to be pro-Soviet and hence unreliable (the Communist party lost their parliamentary representation in 1940 election). The government consisted of six ministers from the Social Democratic party
(including prime minister Per Albin Hansson
), three from the Right Wing party
, three from the Liberal People's party
, three from the Farmer's League
and two nonpartisan politicians. The ultimate goal of this government's policy was to keep Sweden out of the war, which they also succeeded with. The Hansson government introduced censorship
of press, literature and culture, which was applied to both pro-nazi and pro-communist propaganda. The government also approved departures from the neutrality policy to keep Sweden out of the war.
, the British electoral system, has long increased the likelihood of a single party gaining a majority of members of Parliament, who have run most departments and the government legislation of the country since the early 20th century.
After the formation of clear political parties in the Lords and Commons, the first national unity government in the country was the Ministry of All the Talents
that led the United Kingdom for about a year after the death of William Pitt the Younger
in 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars
. This ministry had cross-party support, ranging from very socially conservative Tories
, and the broad range of Whigs
(among them Charles James Fox
and his 'Foxites'), selected for their combined broad political support in both Houses of Parliament and known capabilities in a time of crisis. However, the ministry was frustrated in its attempts to make peace with France, and despite one major legislative success (banning the slave trade in Britain), it fell apart in 1807 over the question of Catholic Emancipation
and was replaced following a general election by a Tory ministry led by the Duke of Portland
It proved that major wars and the long recovery to Great Depression
would be the only further instances of National Governments.
Since the Civil War, there has never been a "national unity" government in the United States in the traditional sense. There have been several instances, however, during national disasters or wars, that the two parties have briefly "rallied around the President." Such instances include the attack on Pearl Harbor
, the assassination of John F. Kennedy
, and the September 11 attacks
, all of which not only had a worldwide effect, but preceded a massive spike in the approval rating of the sitting president.
The 2008–2009 Zimbabwean political negotiations between the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (led by Morgan Tsvangirai), its small splinter group, the Movement for Democratic Change – Mutambara (led by Arthur Mutambara), and the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (led by Robert Mugabe) created a framework for a power-sharing executive government between the two parties. These negotiations followed the 2008 presidential election, in which Mugabe was controversially re-elected, as well as the 2008 parliamentary election, in which the MDC won a majority in the House of Assembly. The new national unity government, including Tsvangirai, was sworn in on 11 February 2009.
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Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 17:11
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