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Near-open front unrounded vowel
The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨æ⟩, a lowercase of the ⟨Æligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".
Near-open front unrounded vowel
æ
IPA Number325
Encoding
Entity (decimal)æ
Unicode (hex)U+00E6
X-SAMPA{
Braille
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
æ
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
The rounded counterpart of [æ], the near-open front rounded vowel (for which the IPA provides no separate symbol) has been reported to occur allophonically in Danish;[2][3] see open front rounded vowel for more information.
In practice, ⟨æ⟩ is sometimes used to represent the open front unrounded vowel; see the introduction to that page for more information.
In IPA transcriptions of Hungarian and Valencian, this vowel is typically written with ⟨ɛ⟩.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[4]perd[pæːrt]'horse'Allophone of /ɛ/, in some dialects, before /k χ l r/. See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicStandard[5]كتاب‎ / kitāb[kiˈtæːb]'book'Allophone of /a/ in the environment of plain labial and coronal consonants as well as /j/ (depending on the speaker's accent). See Arabic phonology
Bashkir[6]йәй / yäy[jæj] (help·info)'summer'
Bengali[7]/ek[æk]'one'Allophone of /ɛ/ or /e/. See Bengali phonology
CatalanMajorcan[8]
tesi
[ˈt̪æzi]'thesis'Main realization of /ɛ/. See Catalan phonology
Valencian[8]
DanishStandard[2][9]
dansk
[ˈtænsk]'Danish'Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩ – the way it is realized by certain older or upper-class speakers.[10] See Danish phonology
Dutch[11]
pen
[pæn]'pen'Allophone of /ɛ/ before /n/ and the velarized or pharyngealized allophone of /l/. In non-standard accents this allophone is generalized to other positions, where [ɛ] is used in Standard Dutch.[12] See Dutch phonology
EnglishCultivated New Zealand[13]
cat
[kʰæt] (help·info)'cat'Higher in other New Zealand varieties. See New Zealand English phonology
General American[14]See English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[15]Fully open [a] in contemporary RP.[15] See English phonology
Estonian[16]
väle
[ˈvæ̠le̞ˑ]'agile'Near-front.[16] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[17]
mäki
[ˈmæki]'hill'See Finnish phonology
FrenchParisian[18]
bain
[bæ̃]'bath'Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ̃⟩. See French phonology
Quebec[19]
ver
[væːʁ]'worm'Allophone of /ɛ/ before /ʁ/ or in open syllables, and of /a/ in closed syllables.[19] See Quebec French phonology
GermanStandard Austrian[20]
erlauben
[æˈlɑɔ̯bm̩]'allow'Variant of pretonic [ɛɐ̯].[20] See Standard German phonology
West Central German accents[21]
oder
[ˈoːdæ]'or'Used instead of [ɐ].[21] See Standard German phonology
Northern accents[22]
alles
[ˈa̝ləs]'everything'Lower and often also more back in other accents.[22] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[23]
spät
[ʃpæːt]'late'Open-mid [ɛː] or close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the open-mid /ɛː/.[24] See Standard German phonology
GreekMacedonia[25]γάτα/gáta[ˈɣætæ]'cat'See Modern Greek phonology
Thessaly[25]
Thrace[25]
Pontic[26]καλάθια/kaláthia[kaˈlaθæ]'baskets'
Hungarian[27]
nem
[næm]'no'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Hungarian phonology
KurdishSorani (Central)گاڵته/ gältyä[gäːɫtʲæ]'joke'Equal to Palewani (Southern) front [a]. See Kurdish phonology
Lakon[28]rävräv[ræβræβ]'evening'
Limburgish[29][30][31]twelf[ˈtβ̞æ̠ləf]'twelve'Front[30][31] or near-front,[29] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect, in which the vowel is near-front.
Lithuanianjachtą[ˈjæːxt̪aː]'yacht' (accusative)See Lithuanian phonology
Luxembourgish[32]Käpp[kʰæpʰ]'heads'See Luxembourgish phonology
NorwegianUrban East[33][34]
lær
[læːɾ]'leather'See Norwegian phonology
Persian[35][36]هشت/hašt[hæʃt]'eight'
PortugueseSome dialects[37]
pedra
[ˈpædɾɐ]'stone'Stressed vowel. In other dialects closer /ɛ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[38]
também
[tɐˈmæ̃]'also'Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/.
RomanianBukovinian dialect[39]
piele
[ˈpæle]'skin'Corresponds to [je] in standard Romanian. Also identified in some Central Transylvanian sub-dialects.[39] See Romanian phonology
Russian[40][41]пять / pja[pʲætʲ] (help·info)'five'Allophone of /a/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-CroatianZeta-Raška dialect[42]дан/dan[d̪æn̪]'day'Regional reflex of Proto-Slavic *ь and *ъ. Sometimes nasalised.[42]
Sinhala[43]ඇය/æya[æjə]'she'
SlovakSome speakers[44]väzy[ˈʋæzi̞]'ligaments'Many speakers pronounce it the same as [ɛ̝]. See Slovak phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[45][46][47]
ära
[²æːɾä] (help·info)'hono(u)r'Allophone of /ɛː, ɛ/ before /r/. See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[47]
läsa
[²læːsä]'to read'Realization of /ɛː, ɛ/ for younger speakers. Higher [ɛː, ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] for other speakers
Turkish[48]
sen
[s̪æn̪]'you'Allophone of /e/ before syllable-final /m, n, l, r/. In a limited number of words (but not before /r/), it is in free variation with [].[48] See Turkish phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005:46)
  4. ^ Donaldson (1993:3)
  5. ^ Holes (2004:60)
  6. ^ Berta (1998:183)
  7. ^ "Bengali romanization table" (PDF). Bahai Studies. Bahai Studies. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  8. ^ a b Rafel (1999:14)
  9. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  10. ^ Basbøll (2005:32)
  11. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 129)
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 128–129, 131)
  13. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004:609)
  14. ^ Wells (1982:486)
  15. ^ a b Gimson (2014:119–120)
  16. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  17. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  18. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:226)
  19. ^ a b Walker (1984:75)
  20. ^ a b Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015:342)
  21. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:40)
  22. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:64)
  23. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:65)
  24. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 64–65)
  25. ^ a b c Newton (1972:11)
  26. ^ Revithiadou & Spyropoulos (2009:41)
  27. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  28. ^ François (2005:466)
  29. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  30. ^ a b Peters (2006:119)
  31. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007:221)
  32. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  33. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  34. ^ Popperwell (2010:16, 21–22)
  35. ^ Majidi & Ternes (1991)
  36. ^ Campbell (1995)
  37. ^ Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction – by Milton M. Azevedo Page 186.
  38. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  39. ^ a b Pop (1938), p. 29.
  40. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:50)
  41. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224–225)
  42. ^ a b Okuka 2008, p. 171.
  43. ^ Perera & Jones (1919:5)
  44. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  45. ^ Eliasson (1986:273)
  46. ^ Thorén & Petterson (1992:15)
  47. ^ a b Riad (2014:38)
  48. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
References
External links
List of languages with [æ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 20:21
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