Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area
With an estimated population of 8.36 million in 2019,
New York City is the most populous city
in the United States and the premier gateway for immigration to the United States
The New York City metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world.
A global city
New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters
and has been described as the cultural
capital of the world,
as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo
, and Syracuse
, while the state capital
Native American history
Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War
, a joint effort of many New England
tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet
, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki
and the Schaghticoke
. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s,
however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia
at an earlier time. They may have merged with the Shawnee.
The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic
. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes. The Mohawk were also known for refusing white settlement on their land and discriminating any of their people who converted to Christianity
They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock briefly conquered the Lenape in the 1600s. The most devastating event of the century, however, was the Beaver Wars
From approximately 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other. The aim was to control more land for animal trapping,
a career most natives had turned to in hopes of trading with whites first. This completely changed the ethnography of the region, and most large game was hunted out before whites ever fully explored the land. Still, afterward, the Iroquois Confederacy offered shelter to refugees of the Mascouten
, Erie, Chonnonton
, and Tuscarora
In the 1700s, they would also merge with the Mohawk during the French-Indian War
and take in the remaining Susquehannock of Pennsylvania after they were decimated in war.
Most of these other groups blended in until they ceased to exist. Then, after the American Revolution, a large group of them split off and returned to Ohio, becoming known as the Mingo
Seneca. The current six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy are the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Tuscarora and Mohawk. The Iroquois fought for both sides during the Revolutionary War
; afterwards many pro-British Iroquois migrated to Canada. Today, the Iroquois still live in several reservations in Upstate New York.
Meanwhile, the Lenape formed a close relationship with William Penn
. However, upon Penn's death, his sons managed to take over much of their lands and banish them to Ohio.
When the U.S. drafted the Indian Removal Act
, the Lenape were further moved to Missouri, whereas their cousins, the Mohicans, were sent to Wisconsin.
Also, in 1778, the United States relocated the Nanticoke
from the Delmarva Peninsula to the former Iroquois lands south of Lake Ontario, though they did not stay long. Mostly, they chose to migrate into Canada and merge with the Iroquois, although some moved west and merged with the Lenape.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano
, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown
, explored the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas
, including New York Harbor
and Narragansett Bay
. On April 17, 1524, Verrazzano entered New York Bay
by way of the strait now called the Narrows
into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's sister
. Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: "that it extends inland for a league and opens up to form a beautiful lake. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats." He landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazzano's stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Martha's Vineyard
In 1540, French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island
, within present-day Albany; it was abandoned the following year due to flooding. In 1614, the Dutch, under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau
, which they called Fort Nassau
Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in 1617,
and abandoned for good after Fort Orange (New Netherland)
was built nearby in 1623.
Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. Sailing for the Dutch East India Company
and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay
on September 11 of that year.
Word of his findings encouraged Dutch merchants to explore the coast in search for profitable fur trading with local Native American tribes.
During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts
established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois, and other tribes were founded in the colony of New Netherland
. The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albany
); Fort Orange (1624, on the Hudson River
just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement Beverwijck
(1647), and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdam
(1625, to develop into the town New Amsterdam
which is present-day New York City); and Esopus, (1653, now Kingston
). The success of the patroonship
(1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid-19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. The English captured the colony during the Second Anglo-Dutch War
and governed it as the Province of New York
. The city of New York was recaptured by the Dutch in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War
(1672–1674) and renamed New Orange. It was returned to the English under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster
a year later.
18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood
New York was the only colony not to vote for independence
, as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York then endorsed the Declaration of Independence
on July 9, 1776.
The New York State Constitution
was framed by a convention
which assembled at White Plains
on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, finished its work at Kingston
on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution
drafted by John Jay
was adopted with but one dissenting vote. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton
was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York
About a third of the battles of the American Revolutionary War
took place in New York; the first major one (and largest of the entire war) was the Battle of Long Island
, a.k.a. Battle of Brooklyn
, in August 1776. After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington
's intelligence network
. On the notorious British prison ships
of Wallabout Bay
, more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war combined. Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds. The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army
at the Battle of Saratoga
a success that influenced France
to ally with the revolutionaries.The state constitution was enacted in 1777. New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution
, on July 26, 1788.
In an attempt to retain their sovereignty
and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States and British North America, four of the Iroquois Nations
fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida
and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans.
In retaliation for attacks on the frontier led by Joseph Brant
and Loyalist Mohawk forces
, the Sullivan Expedition
of 1779 destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois villages, adjacent croplands and winter stores, forcing many refugees to British-held Niagara.
As allies of the British, the Iroquois were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. They resettled in Canada after the war and were given land grants by the Crown. In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes. New York put up more than 5 million acres (20,000 km2
) of former Iroquois territory for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in Upstate New York.
As per the Treaty of Paris
, the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies
—their troops in New York City—departed in 1783, which was long afterward celebrated as Evacuation Day
New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
, the first national government. That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton
advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention (1786)
that called for the Philadelphia Convention
, which drafted the United States Constitution, in which he also took part. The new government was to be a strong federal
national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation
of individual states. Following heated debate, which included the publication of the now quintessential constitutional interpretation—The Federalist Papers
—as a series of installments in New York City newspapers, New York was the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution
, on July 26, 1788.
New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790,
and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington,
the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights
, and the first session of the United States Supreme Court
Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery was extensive in New York City and some agricultural areas. The state passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery
soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until 1827.
Transportation in Western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic. Governor DeWitt Clinton
promoted the Erie Canal
, which connected New York City to the Great Lakes
by the Hudson River
, the new canal, and the rivers and lakes. Work commenced in 1817, and the Erie Canal
opened in 1825. Packet boats
pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight.
Farm products came in from the Midwest, and finished manufactured goods moved west. It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as Buffalo
to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. After 1850, railroads largely replaced the canal.
New York City was a major ocean port
and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the South
and exporting manufacturing goods. Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels.
At the same time, activism for abolitionism
was strong upstate, where some communities provided stops on the Underground Railroad
. Upstate, and New York City, gave strong support for the American Civil War
, in terms of finances, volunteer soldiers, and supplies. The state provided more than 370,000 soldiers to the Union
armies. Over 53,000 New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. However, Irish draft riots in 1862 were a significant embarrassment.
Scenes at the Immigration Depot and a nearby dock on Ellis Island
The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Garden
, a converted War of 1812
era fort located within what is now Battery Park
, at the tip of Lower Manhattan. The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine
. Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, 1890, when the federal government assumed control over immigration. During that period, more than eight million immigrants passed through its doors (two of every three U.S. immigrants).
When the federal government assumed control, it established the Bureau of Immigration
, which chose the three-acre Ellis Island in Upper New York Harbor
for an entry depot. Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey
, via a short ferry ride. While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation
, the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery.
Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892, and operated as a central immigration center until the National Origins Act
was passed in 1924, reducing immigration. After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons
or war refugees
. The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, 1954, when the last person detained on the island, Norwegian
seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the 10:15 a.m. Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship.
More than twelve million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954. More than a hundred million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry
to these immigrants. Ellis Island was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. The issue was settled in 1998 by the U.S. Supreme Court
which ruled that the original 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) island was New York State territory and that the balance of the 27.5 acres (11 ha) added after 1834 by landfill was in New Jersey.
The island was added to the National Park Service
system in May 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson
and is still owned by the federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument
. Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in 1990.
On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center
in Lower Manhattan
, and the towers collapsed. 7 World Trade Center
also collapsed due to damage from fires. The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2,753 victims, including 147 aboard the two planes. Since September 11, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored. In the years since, over 7,000 rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have died.
A memorial at the site, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum
, was opened to the public on September 11, 2011. A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, 2014. Upon its completion in 2014, the new One World Trade Center
became the tallest skyscraper
in the Western Hemisphere, at 1,776 feet (541 m), meant to symbolize the year America gained its independence
From 2006 to 2018, 3 World Trade Center
, 4 World Trade Center
, 7 World Trade Center, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub
, Liberty Park
, and Fiterman Hall
were completed. St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
and Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center
are under construction at the World Trade Center site
On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy
caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City, Long Island
, and southern Westchester with record-high storm surge
, with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages
for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline
shortages and disruption of mass transit
systems. The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls
and other coastal barriers
around the shorelines of New York City and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. Such risk is considered highly probable due to global warming
and rising sea levels
On March 1, 2020, New York had its first confirmed case of COVID-19
Since March 28, New York had the highest number of confirmed cases of any state in the United States
; California and Texas outpaced the state as of February 1, 2021.
Nearly 50 percent of known national cases were in the state as of March 2020,
with one-third of total known U.S. cases being in New York City.
From May 19–20, Western New York and the Capital Region
entered Phase 1 of reopening.
On May 26, the Hudson Valley began Phase 1,
and New York City partially reopened on June 8.
During July 2020, a federal judge ruled Cuomo and De Blasio exceeded authority by limiting religious gatherings to 25% when others operated at 50% capacity.
On Thanksgiving Eve, the U.S. Supreme Court blocked additional religious restrictions imposed by Cuomo for areas with high infection rates.
New York's government released a new seal, coat of arms, and flag in April during the pandemic, adding "E pluribus unum"
below the state's motto.
A bill utilizing newly designed flag, arms and seal went into effect in September.
In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows
, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau
, which extends from the southeastern United States
to the Catskill Mountains
; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier
. The rugged Adirondack Mountains
, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain Valley
. The Great Appalachian Valley
dominates eastern New York and contains Lake Champlain Valley as its northern half and the Hudson Valley
as its southern half within the state. The Tug Hill
region arises as a cuesta
east of Lake Ontario
The state of New York contains a part of the Marcellus shale
, which extends into Ohio and Pennsylvania.
are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State. The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention.
Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania,
and the North Country
, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canada–U.S. border to everything north of the Mohawk River.
Of New York State's total area, 13.6% consists of water.
Much of New York's boundaries are in water, as is true for New York City: four of its five boroughs
are situated on three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River
: Manhattan Island
; Staten Island
; and Long Island
, which contains Brooklyn
at its western end. The state's borders include a water boundary in (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes
and Lake Ontario
, which are connected by the Niagara River
); the provinces of Ontario
, with New York and Ontario sharing the Thousand Islands archipelago
within the Saint Lawrence River, while most of its border with Quebec is on land; it shares Lake Champlain
with the New England
state of Vermont
; the New England state of Massachusetts
has mostly a land border; New York extends into Long Island Sound
and the Atlantic Ocean
, sharing a water border with Rhode Island
, while Connecticut
has land and sea borders. Except for areas near the New York Harbor
and the Upper Delaware River
, New York has a mostly land border with two Mid-Atlantic
states, New Jersey
. New York is the only state that includes within its borders parts of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Hudson River
begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds
and flows south through the eastern part of the state, without draining Lakes George
. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River
and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River
. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River
and rivers of the Susquehanna
and Delaware River
systems. Niagara Falls
is shared between New York and Ontario as it flows on the Niagara River from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Delaware River Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware system.
In general, New York has a humid continental climate
, though under the Köppen climate classification
, New York City has a humid subtropical climate
Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest. Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather hot summers with some periods of high humidity and cold, damp winters which are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York due to the downstate region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude
Upstate New York experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows
, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario itself is covered by ice. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier. Buffalo and its metropolitan area are described as climate change havens for their weather pattern in Western New York.
Summer daytime temperatures range from the high 70s to low 80s (25 to 28 °C), over most of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of −13 °F (−25 °C) or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and 5 °F (−15 °C) or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier. New York had a record-high temperature of 108 °F (42.2 °C) on July 22, 1926.
Its record-lowest temperature during the winter was −52 °F (−46.7 °C) in 1979.
A map of Köppen climate types of New York shows that parts of the state are becoming humid-subtropical.
Climate change in New York
encompasses the effects of climate change
, attributed to man-made increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide
, in the U.S. state of New York. It is of concern due to its impact on the people, ecosystem, and economy
of the state. Many parts of the state are already experiencing weather changes, and sea-level rise, and threatening local communities.
New York State ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases
generated per person. This relative efficient energy usage
is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the high rate of mass transit
use in this area and between major cities.
The main sources of greenhouse gases per the state government are transportation, buildings, electricity generation, waste, refrigerants, and agriculture.
In 2019 the state pledged to eliminate net greenhouse gas emissions
Flora and fauna
Some species that can be found in this state are american ginseng
, starry stonewort
, water chestnut, eastern poison ivy
, poison sumac
, giant hogweed
, cow parsnip
and common nettle
There are more than 20 mammal species, more than 20 bird species, some species of amphibians, and several reptile species.
Species of mammals that are part of New York are white-footed mouse
, North American least shrew
, little brown bat
, eastern gray squirrel
, eastern cottontail
, striped skunk
, North American river otter
, red fox
, white-tailed deer
, and American black bear
Some species of birds in New York are the ring-necked pheasant
, northern bobwhite
, ruffed grouse
, wild turkey
, blue jay
, eastern bluebird
, American robin
, and black-capped chickadee
Birds of prey that are present in the state are great horned owls
, bald eagles
, red-tailed hawks
, American kestrels
, and northern harriers
. Waterfowl like mallards
, wood ducks
, American black ducks
, Canada geese
, and blue-winged teals
can be found in the region. Maritime or shore birds of New York are great blue heron
, northern cardinals
, American herring gulls
, and common terns
Reptiles species that can be seen in land areas of New York are queen snake
, diamondback terrapin
, spotted turtle
, and Blanding's turtle
. Species of turtles that can be found in the sea are green sea turtle
, loggerhead sea turtle
, leatherback sea turtle
and Kemp's ridley sea turtle
. New York Harbor
and the Hudson River
constitute an estuary
, making New York state home to a rich array of marine life
including shellfish—such as oysters
—as well as fish, microorganisms, and sea-birds.
Due to its long history, New York has several overlapping and often conflicting definitions of regions within the state. The regions are also not fully definable due to colloquial use of regional labels. The New York State Department of Economic Development
provides two distinct definitions of these regions. It divides the state into ten economic regions,
which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents:
- Western New York
- Finger Lakes
- Southern Tier
- Central New York
- North Country
- Mohawk Valley
- Capital District
- Hudson Valley
- New York City
- Long Island
The department also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes:
- Niagara Frontier
- Finger Lakes
- Thousand Islands
- Central-Leatherstocking Region
- Adirondack Mountains
- Capital District
- Catskill Mountains
- Hudson Valley
- New York City
- Long Island
New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park
, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United States and the first to be created via eminent domain
In 1892, Adirondack Park
, roughly the size of the state of Vermont
and the largest state park in the United States,
was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone
, and Grand Canyon
national parks combined.
It is larger than the Yellowstone
, Grand Canyon
, and Olympic National Parks
The Catskill Park
was protected in legislation passed in 1885,
which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of 700,000 acres (2,800 km2
) of land,
the park is a habitat for deer, minks
, and fishers. There are some 400 black bears
living in the region.
The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over 300 miles (480 km) of multi-use trails in the Park.
National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
New York State is well represented in the National Park System
with 22 national parks
, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are four national heritage areas
, 27 national natural landmarks
, 262 national historic landmarks
, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places
. Some major areas, landmarks, and monuments are listed below.
- The Statue of Liberty National Monument includes Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. The statue, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and formally named Liberty Enlightening the World, was a gift from France to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence; it was dedicated in New York Harbor on October 28, 1886. It has since become an icon of the United States and the concepts of democracy and freedom.
- The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan is the only national monument dedicated to Americans of African ancestry. It preserves a site containing the remains of more than 400 Africans buried during the late 17th and 18th centuries in a portion of what was the largest colonial-era cemetery for people of African descent, both free and enslaved, with an estimated tens of thousands of remains interred. The site's excavation and study were called "the most important historic urban archeological project in the United States".
- Fire Island National Seashore is a United States national seashore that protects a 26-mile (42 km) section of Fire Island, an approximately 30-mile (48 km) long barrier island separated from the mainland of Long Island by the Great South Bay. The island is part of Suffolk County.
- Gateway National Recreation Area is more than 26,000 acres (10,522 ha) of water, salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and shoreline at the entrance to New York Harbor, the majority of which lies within New York. Including areas on Long Island and in New Jersey, it covers more area than that of two Manhattan islands.
- General Grant National Memorial is the final resting place of President Ulysses S. Grant and is the largest mausoleum in North America.
- Hamilton Grange National Memorial preserves the home of Alexander Hamilton, Caribbean immigrant and orphan who rose to be a United States founding father and associate of George Washington.
- The Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, established in 1945, preserves the Springwood estate in Hyde Park, New York. Springwood was the birthplace, lifelong home, and burial place of the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- Niagara Falls National Heritage Area was designated by the U.S. Congress in 2008; it stretches from the western boundary of Wheatfield, New York to the mouth of the Niagara River on Lake Ontario, including the communities of Niagara Falls, Youngstown, and Lewiston. It includes Niagara Falls State Park and Colonial Niagara Historic District. It is managed in collaboration with the state.
- Saratoga National Historical Park preserves the site of the Battles of Saratoga, the first significant American military victory of the American Revolutionary War. In 1777, American forces defeated a major British Army, which led France to recognize the independence of the United States, and enter the war as a decisive military ally of the struggling Americans.
- Stonewall National Monument, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, is the first U.S. national monument dedicated to LGBTQ rights, designated on June 24, 2016. The monument comprises the Stonewall Inn, commonly recognized to be the cradle of the gay liberation movement as the site of the 1969 Stonewall Riots; the adjacent Christopher Park; and surrounding streets and sidewalks.
- Manhattan's Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is also the childhood home of President Theodore Roosevelt, the only president born in New York City until Donald Trump.
Map of the counties in New York
Cities and towns
There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough
, New York County (Manhattan
, Kings County (Brooklyn
), and Richmond County (Staten Island
). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany
, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. The smallest city is Sherrill, New York
, in Oneida County
is the most populous town
in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with more than 700,000 residents. New York contains 13 metropolitan areas
, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Major metro areas include New York City, Buffalo
, the Capital District
, and Troy
, and Binghamton
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City
and Long Island
The U.S.'s most populous state until the 1960s, New York is now the fourth most-populous state, behind, California
, and Florida
. The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City metropolitan area
is growing, along with Saratoga County
, while cities such as Buffalo
, and Syracuse
, among others, have been losing population for decades.
New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2018 (223,615) than any other U.S. city.
Conversely, outside of the Ithaca
area, population growth in much of Western New York
is nearly stagnant.
According to immigration
statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. In 2008 New York State had the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among the American states, at 4.2 million; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitan
culture. New York has a pro-sanctuary city
Two-thirds of New York State's population resides in the New York City metropolitan area. New York City is the most populous city in the United States,
with an estimated record high population of 8,622,698 in 2017,
incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States census.
At least twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles
and within a smaller area. Long Island
alone accounted for a census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population.
Of the total statewide population, 6.5% of New Yorkers were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older.
Race and ethnicity
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York had a racial and ethnic makeup of 55.1% non-Hispanic whites
, 14.2% Blacks or African Americans
, 0.2% American Indians or Alaska Natives
, 8.6% Asians
, 0.6% from some other race, 2.1% from two or more races
, and 19.3% Hispanics or Latin Americans
of any race. There were an estimated 3,725 Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders
in the state in 2019.
Hispanics or Latin Americans of any race were 17.6% of the population in 2010; 5.5% Puerto Rican
, 4.4% Dominican
, 2.4% were of Mexican
, 0.4% Cuban
, and 9.4% other Hispanic or Latin American origin. According to the American Community Survey
, the largest ancestry White American
groups were Italian
(5.4%), and English
The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010.
As of 2011, 55.6% of New York's population younger than age 1 were minorities.
New York's robustly increasing Jewish
population, the largest outside of Israel
was the highest among states both by percentage and by absolute number in 2012.
It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Jewish
particularly in Brooklyn
and communities of the Hudson Valley
New York is home to the second-largest Asian American
population and the fourth-largest Black or African American
population in the United States. New York's Black and African population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800.
In 2019, the Black and African American population increased to an estimated 3,424,002. The Black or African American population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa
while established Blacks and African Americans are migrating out of New York to the southern United States
The New York City neighborhood of Harlem
has historically been a major cultural capital for Blacks and African Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford-Stuyvesant
in Brooklyn has the largest such population in the United States. Meanwhile, New York's Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244;
in 2019, its population grew to an estimated 1,579,494. Queens
, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian American population and is the most ethnically diverse
county in the United States and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.
New York's growing Hispanic and Latin American population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010,
a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000.
In 2020, it numbered an estimated 3,811,000.
Queens is home to the largest Andean
, and Bolivian
) populations in the United States. In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican
, and Jamaican American
populations in the continental United States. The Chinese
population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State, which is the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration
continues into the state.
of the original Manhattan Chinatown
, in Brooklyn
, and around Flushing, Queens
, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County
on Long Island
Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Little Indias
(लघु भारत) and a large Koreatown
(롱 아일랜드 코리아타운), with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans
and Korean Americans
, respectively. Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian
immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants. The annual New York City India Day Parade, held on or approximately every August 15 since 1981, is the world's largest Indian Independence Day
parade outside of India.
In the 2000 U.S. census, New York had the largest Italian American
population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island
and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans
. Albany and the Mohawk Valley
also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. According to the American Community Survey
, New York had the largest Greek American
population too, which counts 148,637 people (0.7% of the state).
and Western New York, German Americans
comprise the largest ancestry. In the North Country
of New York, French Canadians
represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to Quebec
. Americans of English
ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants.
Most common non-English languages (2010)
In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau reported 69.5% of New York's population aged 5 years and older only spoke English
, with 30.6% speaking a language other than English. Spanish
remained the second most spoken non-English language with 2,758,925 speakers. Other Indo-European languages
were spoken by 1,587,798 residents, and Asian and Pacific Islander languages were spoken by 948,959 people.
At the American Community Survey's 2017 estimates, nearly six million residents spoke a language other than English. Approximately 1,249,541 New York residents spoke Spanish, 386,290 Chinese
, 122,150 Russian
, 63,615 Haitian Creole
, 62,219 Bengali
, and 60,405 Korean
In 2018, 12,756,975 aged 5 years and older spoke English alone and 10,415,395 aged 18 and older only spoke English. Spanish-speaking households by majority were not limited English-speaking.
An estimated 2.7 million households with residents aged 5 and older spoke Spanish. Chinese, Slavic, and French
languages were the following largest household languages spoken in 2018.
In 2010, 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese
), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian
, 0.79% (142,169) French Creole
, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish
, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish
was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English.
Sexual orientation and gender identity
Roughly 3.8 percent of the state's adult population self-identifies as lesbian
, or transgender
. This constitutes a total LGBT adult population of 570,388 individuals.
In 2010, the number of same-sex couple households stood at roughly 48,932.
New York was the fifth state to license same-sex marriages
, after New Hampshire. Michael Bloomberg
, the Mayor of New York City
, said "same-sex marriages in New York City have generated an estimated $259 million in economic impact and $16 million in City revenues" in the first year after enactment of the Marriage Equality Act. Same-sex marriages in New York
were legalized on June 24, 2011, and were authorized to take place beginning thirty days thereafter.
New York City is also home to the largest transgender
population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016.
The annual New York City Pride March
(or gay pride parade
) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue
in Manhattan, ending at Greenwich Village
, and rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade
as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.
The Stonewall riots
were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community
against a police raid
that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn
in the Greenwich Village
neighborhood within Lower Manhattan
. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation
and the modern fight for LGBT rights.
In June 2017, plans were announced for the first official monument to LGBT individuals commissioned by the State of New York, in contrast to the Stonewall National Monument
, which was commissioned by the U.S. federal government. The state monument was planned to be built in Hudson River Park
in Manhattan, near the waterfront Hudson River piers
which have served as historically significant symbols of New York's central role as a meeting place and a safe haven for LGBT communities.
Also as of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019
, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots.
In New York City, the Stonewall 50–WorldPride NYC 2019 events produced by Heritage of Pride
were enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY
program's LGBT division and included a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that was open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn took place throughout the city and the world
; Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest LGBT pride celebration
held in history, drawing an estimated five million people.
Brooklyn Liberation March, the largest transgender-rights
demonstration in LGBTQ history, took place on June 14, 2020 stretching from Grand Army Plaza
to Fort Greene, Brooklyn
, focused on supporting Black transgender lives, drawing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 participants.
The majority of New York's religious population are Christian (60%), followed by the irreligious (27%), Judaism
(2%), Buddhism and Hinduism
(1% each), and other faiths (0.5%).
Before the 1800s, Protestant sects dominated the religious life of New York, although religion did not play as large a role in the public life of New Netherland as it did in New England
, with its Puritan population.
Historically, New York served as the foundation for new Christian denominations
in the Second Great Awakening
. Non-Western Christian traditions and non-Christian religions did not grow for much of the state's history because immigration was predominantly from Western Europe
(which at the time was dominated by Western Christianity
and favored by the quotas in federal immigration law). The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
removed the quotas, allowing for the growth of other religious groups.
Non-Christian faiths accounted for 12% of the religious population.
Judaism is the second largest religion as of 2014. In 2010, 588,500 practiced Orthodox Judaism
A little over 392,953 professed Islam. The Powers Street Mosque
in New York City was the first Muslim organization in the state.
New York is also home to the oldest Zoroastrian fire temple
in the United States. Less than 1% of New York's population practice New Age
and contemporary paganism
. Native American religions
are also a prominent minority.
The irreligious are a growing community in the New York City metropolitan area. Statewide, 17% practice nothing in particular and 5% each are atheists
Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District
of Lower Manhattan
, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world.
Lower Manhattan is the third-largest central business district
in the United States and is home to the New York Stock Exchange
, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ
, at 165 Broadway
, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges
, respectively, as measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization
of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking
fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,
while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance
functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.
In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry
generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.
New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity
and debt capital markets
, driven in part by the size and financial development
of the U.S. economy
New York also leads in hedge fund
management; private equity
; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions
. Several investment banks
and investment managers
headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.:34–35
New York is also the principal commercial banking
center of the United States.
Many of the world's largest media conglomerates
are also based in the city. Manhattan
contained approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m2
) of office space in 2013,
making it the largest office market in the United States,
while Midtown Manhattan
is the largest central business district in the nation.
Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym
for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem
; in 2015, Silicon Alley generated over $7.3 billion in venture capital
investment. High tech
industries including digital media
, software development
, game design
, and other fields in information technology
are growing, bolstered by New York City's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines
its intellectual capital
, as well as its growing outdoor wireless connectivity
In December 2014, New York State announced a $50 million venture-capital fund to encourage enterprises working in biotechnology and advanced materials
; according to Governor Andrew Cuomo, the seed money
would facilitate entrepreneurs
in bringing their research into the marketplace.
On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University
and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
to build a two billion dollar graduate school
of applied sciences
on Roosevelt Island
in Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.
Albany, Saratoga County
, Rensselaer County
, and the Hudson Valley
, collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley
, have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware
side of the high-technology industry
, with great strides in the nanotechnology
sector, digital electronics
design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit
involving companies including IBM
and its Thomas J. Watson Research Center
and the three foreign-owned firms, GlobalFoundries
, and Taiwan Semiconductor
, among others.
The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions
including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
and the SUNY Polytechnic Institute
In 2015, Tech Valley, straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway
and the New York Thruway
, generated over $163 million in venture capital investment.
area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging
as well as incubating
an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields
, similarly in part the result of private startup enterprises
collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester
and Cornell University. Westchester County
has developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector
in the 21st century, with over a billion dollars in planned private investment as of 2016.
Media and entertainment
, which are concerned with generating and distributing knowledge
, such as new media, digital media, film
and television production
, advertising, fashion, design, and architecture, account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries.
As of 2014, New York State was offering tax incentives of up to $420 million annually for filmmaking
within the state, the most generous such tax rebate
among the U.S. states. New York has also attracted higher-wage visual-effects
employment by further augmenting its tax credit to a maximum of 35% for performing post-film production
work in Upstate New York.
The filmed entertainment industry
has been growing in New York, contributing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015.
I Love New York
New York exports a wide variety of goods such as prepared foods, computers
, cut diamonds
, and other commodities. In 2007, the state exported a total of $71.1 billion worth of goods, with the five largest foreign export markets being Canada ($15 billion), the United Kingdom
($6 billion), Switzerland
($5.9 billion), Israel
($4.9 billion), and Hong Kong
($3.4 billion). New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber. The state also has a large manufacturing sector
that includes printing and the production of garments
, mainly in New York City; and furs, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and bus line vehicles, concentrated in Upstate regions.
New York is the nation's third-largest grape
producing state, and second-largest wine
producer by volume, behind California. The southern Finger Lakes
hillsides, the Hudson Valley, the North Fork
of Long Island, and the southern shore of Lake Erie are the primary grape- and wine-growing regions in New York, with many vineyards
. In 2012, New York had 320 wineries
and 37,000 grape bearing acres, generating full-time employment for nearly 25,000 and annual wages over $1.1 billion, and yielding $4.8 billion in direct economic impact from New York grapes, grape juice, and wine and grape products.
The New York agriculture
industry is a major producer overall, ranking among the top five states for agricultural products including maple syrup
, apples, cherries, cabbage
, dairy products
, onions, and potatoes. The state is the largest producer of cabbage in the U.S. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced $3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils
for many apple, cherry, plum
, pear and peach orchards
. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. A moderately sized saltwater commercial fishery
is located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder
In 2017, New York State consumed 156,370-gigawatthours
(GWh) of electrical energy. Downstate regions (Hudson Valley, New York City, and Long Island) consumed 66% of that amount. Upstate regions produced 50% of that amount. The peak load in 2017 was 29,699 MW. The resource capability in 2017 was 42,839 MW.
market monitor described the average all-in wholesale electric price as a range (a single value was not provided) from $25 per MWh to $53 per MWh for 2017.
A number of selective private liberal arts institutions are located in New York. Among them are Bard College
, Barnard College
, Colgate University
, Hamilton College
, Hobart and William Smith Colleges
, Marist College
, Sarah Lawrence College
, Skidmore College
, Union College
, and Vassar College
. Two of these schools, Barnard and Vassar, are members of the elite Seven Sisters
, originally all women's colleges with ties to the Ivy League
. Barnard is affiliated with Columbia University
, its Manhattan neighbor, and Vassar became coeducational in 1969 after declining an offer to merge with Yale University
New York has one of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. Engineering challenges posed by the complex terrain of the state and the unique infrastructural issues of New York City brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome perennially. Population expansion of the state has followed the path of the early waterways, first the Hudson River
and Mohawk River
, then the Erie Canal
. In the 19th century, railroads were constructed along the river valleys, followed by the New York State Thruway
in the 20th century.
The New York State Department of Transportation
(NYSDOT) is the department of the government of New York
responsible for the development and operation of highways
, mass transit
, and aviation
facilities within New York State.
The NYSDOT is headquartered at 50 Wolf Road in Colonie
, Albany County
. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
(PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the states of New York and New Jersey and authorized by the U.S. Congress
, established in 1921 through an interstate compact
, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges
, and seaports
, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey
. This 1,500 sq mi (3,900 km2
) port district is generally encompassed within a 25 mi (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument
The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center
in Lower Manhattan.
The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles
(NYSDMV or DMV) is the governmental agency responsible for registering and inspecting automobiles
and other motor vehicles, as well as licensing drivers in the State of New York. As of 2008, the NYSDMV has 11,284,546 drivers licenses on file and 10,697,644 vehicle registrations in force.
All gasoline-powered vehicles registered in New York State are required to have an emissions inspection
every 12 months, in order to ensure that environmental quality
controls are working to prevent air pollution. Diesel-powered vehicles with a gross weight rating over 8,500 pounds that are registered in most Downstate New York counties must get an annual emissions inspection. All vehicles registered in New York State must get an annual safety inspection.
Portions of the transportation system are intermodal
, allowing travelers to switch easily from one mode of transportation to another. One of the most notable examples is AirTrain JFK
which allows rail passengers to travel directly to terminals
at John F. Kennedy International Airport
as well as to the underground New York City Subway system.
New York State Court of Appeals
The state is divided
into counties, cities, towns, and villages, all of which are municipal corporations
with respect to their own governments, as well as various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school districts, fire districts, and New York state public-benefit corporations
, frequently known as authorities
or development corporations
. Each municipal corporation is granted varying home rule
powers as provided by the New York Constitution. The state also has 10 Indian reservations
. There have been several movements regarding secession from the state of New York
. Proposals have included a state of Long Island
, consisting of everything on the island outside New York City; a state called Niagara, the western counties
of New York state; the northern counties of New York state called Upstate New York
; making the city of New York a state; a proposal for a new Peconic County
on eastern Long Island; and for the borough of Staten Island
to secede from New York City.
New York is represented by Chuck Schumer
and Kirsten Gillibrand
in the United States Senate
. There are twenty-seven congressional districts
, the nation's third equal highest number of congressional districts, equal with Florida and behind California's 53 and Texas's 36.
As of 2021, nineteen districts are represented by members of the Democratic Party, while eight are represented by Republicans. Representation was reduced from 29 in 2013 due to the state's slower overall population growth relative to the overall national population growth.
New York has 29 electoral votes
in national presidential elections, a drop from its peak of 47 votes from 1933 to 1953.
The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. According to the Office of the New York State Comptroller
, New York State received 91 cents in services for every $1 it sent in taxes to the U.S. federal government in the 2013 fiscal year
; New York ranked in 46th place in the federal balance of payments to the state on a per capita basis.
As of April 2016, Democrats
represented a plurality of voters in New York State, constituting more than twice as many registered voters
as any other political party affiliation or lack thereof
Since the second half of the 20th century, New York has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama
won New York State by over 25 percentage points in both 2012 and 2008. New York City, as well as the state's other major urban locales, including Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, are significant Democratic strongholds, with liberal politics
. Rural portions of upstate New York, however, are generally more conservative than the cities and tend to favor Republicans
. Heavily populated suburban areas downstate, such as Westchester County and Long Island, have swung between the major parties since the 1980s, but more often than not support Democrats.
New York State is geographically home to one National Football League
team, the Buffalo Bills
, based in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park
. Although the New York Giants
and New York Jets
represent the New York City metropolitan area
and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium
, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey
. New York also has two Major League Baseball
teams, the New York Yankees
(based in the Bronx
) and the New York Mets
(based in Queens
). Minor league baseball teams also play in the State of New York, including the Long Island Ducks
, and the Brooklyn Cyclones
, downstate, and the Rochester Red Wings
, the Binghamton Rumble Ponies
, the Syracuse Mets
, the Auburn Doubledays
, the Batavia Muckdogs
, the Hudson Valley Renegades
and the Buffalo Bisons
upstate. New York is home to three National Hockey League
franchises: the New York Rangers
, the New York Islanders
and Nassau County in Long Island, and the Buffalo Sabres
in Buffalo. New York has two National Basketball Association
teams, the New York Knicks
in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn Nets
in Brooklyn. New York is the home of a Major League Soccer
franchise, New York City FC
, currently playing in the Bronx. Although the New York Red Bulls
represent the New York City metropolitan area, they play in Red Bull Arena
in Harrison, New Jersey
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