; Spanish: [nikaˈɾaɣwa] (listen)
), officially the Republic of Nicaragua
: República de Nicaragua
)), is the largest country
in the Central American isthmus
, bordered by Honduras
to the northwest, the Caribbean
to the east, Costa Rica
to the south, and the Pacific Ocean
to the southwest. Managua
is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America
, behind Tegucigalpa
and Guatemala City
. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast
speak their own languages and English.
Originally inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the region was conquered by the Spanish Empire
in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821. The Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, being colonized by the English in the 17th century and later coming under British rule. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and its northernmost part was transferred to Honduras
in 1960. Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship, occupation and fiscal crisis, including the Nicaraguan Revolution
of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War
of the 1980s.
The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine, music, and literature, particularly the latter, given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers such as Rubén Darío
. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes",
Nicaragua is also home to the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve
, the second-largest rainforest of the Americas.
The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination
There are two prevailing theories on how the name "Nicaragua" came to be. The first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name Nicarao
who was the chieftain or cacique
of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila
during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522. This theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicarao and agua
(Spanish for "water"), to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country.
However, as of 2002, it was determined that the cacique's real name was Macuilmiquiztli, which meant "Five Deaths" in the Nahuatl
language, rather than Nicarao.
The second theory is that the country's name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words: nic-anahuac
, which meant "Anahuac
reached this far", or "the Nahuas
came this far", or "those who come from Anahuac came this far"; nican-nahua
, which meant "here are the Nahuas"; or nic-atl-nahuac
, which meant "here by the water" or "surrounded by water".
This article is missing information
about Mosquito Coast
. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page
. (December 2017)
At the end of the 15th century, western Nicaragua was inhabited by several different indigenous peoples related by culture to the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Toltec
, and by language to the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area
The Chorotegas were Mangue language
ethnic groups who had arrived in Nicaragua from what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas
sometime around 800 CE.:26–33
people were a branch of Nahuas
who spoke the Nahuat
dialect, and like the Chorotegas, they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in approximately 1200 CE.
Prior to that, the Pipil-Nicaraos had been associated with the Toltec
Both the Chorotegas and the Pipil-Nicaraos were originally from Mexico's Cholula
and had gradually migrated southward.:26–33
Additionally, there were trade-related colonies in Nicaragua that had been set up by the Aztecs starting in the 14th century.:26–33
In 1502, on his fourth voyage, Christopher Columbus
became the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed southeast toward the Isthmus of Panama
Columbus explored the Mosquito Coast
on the Atlantic side of Nicaragua
but did not encounter any indigenous people. 20 years later, the Spaniards returned to Nicaragua, this time to its southwestern part. The first attempt to conquer Nicaragua was by the conquistador Gil González Dávila
who had arrived in Panama in January 1520. In 1522, González Dávila ventured into the area that later became known as the Rivas Department
It was there that he encountered an indigenous Nahua tribe led by a chieftain named Macuilmiquiztli, whose name has sometimes been erroneously referred to as "Nicarao
" or "Nicaragua". At the time, the tribe's capital city was called Quauhcapolca.
González Dávila had brought along two indigenous interpreters who had been taught the Spanish language, and thus he was able to have a discourse with Macuilmiquiztli.
After exploring and gathering gold:35:55
in the fertile western valleys, González Dávila and his men were attacked and driven off by the Chorotega, led by the chieftain Diriangén
The Spanish attempted to convert the tribes to Christianity; the people in Macuilmiquiztli's tribe were baptized,:86
but Diriangén, however, was openly hostile to the Spaniards.
The clashes among Spanish forces did not impede their destruction of the indigenous people and their culture. The series of battles came to be known as the "War of the Captains".
Pedro Arias Dávila was a winner;:35
although he had lost control of Panama, he moved to Nicaragua and successfully established his base in León.
In 1527, León became the capital of the colony.:93
Through adroit diplomatic machinations, Arias Dávila became the colony's first governor.
Without women in their parties,:123
the Spanish conquerors took Nahua and Chorotega wives and partners, beginning the multiethnic mix of indigenous and European stock now known as "mestizo
", which constitutes the great majority of the population in western Nicaragua.
Many indigenous people died as a result of new infectious diseases
, compounded by neglect by the Spaniards, who controlled their subsistence.
Furthermore, a large number of other indigenous peoples were captured and transported to Panama and Peru between 1526 and 1540, where they were forced to perform slave labor.:193:104–105
Independent Nicaragua from 1821 to 1909
Rivalry between the Liberal
elite of León and the Conservative
elite of Granada characterized the early years of independence and often degenerated into civil war, particularly during the 1840s and 1850s. Managua
was chosen[by whom?]
as the nation's capital in 1852 to allay the rivalry between the two feuding cities.
Following the start (1848) of the California Gold Rush
, Nicaragua provided a route for travelers from the eastern United States
to journey to California
by sea, via the San Juan River
and Lake Nicaragua.:81
Invited by the Liberals in 1855 to join their struggle against the Conservatives, the United States adventurer and filibuster William Walker
set himself up as President of Nicaragua
after conducting a farcical election in 1856; his presidency lasted less than a year.
Military forces from Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua itself united to drive Walker out of Nicaragua in 1857,
after which a period of three decades of Conservative rule ensued.
Great Britain, which had claimed the Mosquito Coast
as a protectorate
since 1655, delegated the area to Honduras in 1859 before transferring it to Nicaragua in 1860. The Mosquito Coast remained an autonomous area
until 1894. José Santos Zelaya
, President of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909, negotiated the integration of the Mosquito Coast into Nicaragua. In his honor, the region became "Zelaya Department
Throughout the late 19th-century, the United States and several European powers considered various schemes to link the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic by building a canal across Nicaragua
United States occupation (1909–1933)
In 1909, the United States supported the conservative-led forces rebelling against President Zelaya. U.S. motives included differences over the proposed Nicaragua Canal
, Nicaragua's potential as a destabilizing influence in the region, and Zelaya's attempts to regulate foreign access to Nicaraguan natural resources. On November 18, 1909, U.S. warships were sent to the area after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) were executed by order of Zelaya. The U.S. justified the intervention by claiming to protect U.S. lives and property. Zelaya resigned later that year.
In August 1912, the President of Nicaragua, Adolfo Díaz
, requested the secretary of war, General Luis Mena
, to resign for fear he was leading an insurrection. Mena fled Managua with his brother, the chief of police of Managua, to start an insurrection. After steamers belonging to an American company were captured by Mena's troops, the U.S. delegation asked President Díaz to ensure the safety of American citizens and property during the insurrection. He replied he could not, and asked the United States to intervene in the conflict.
United States Marines
occupied Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933,:111, 197
except for a nine-month period beginning in 1925. In 1914, the Bryan–Chamorro Treaty
was signed, giving the U.S. control over a proposed canal through Nicaragua, as well as leases for potential canal defenses.
Following the evacuation of U.S. Marines, another violent conflict
between Liberals and Conservatives took place in 1926, which resulted in the return of U.S. Marines.
From 1927 until 1933, rebel general Augusto César Sandino
led a sustained guerrilla war first against the Conservative regime and subsequently against the U.S. Marines, whom he fought for over five years.
When the Americans left in 1933, they set up the Guardia Nacional
a combined military and police force trained and equipped by the Americans and designed to be loyal to U.S. interests.
After the U.S. Marines withdrew from Nicaragua in January 1933, Sandino and the newly elected administration of President Juan Bautista Sacasa
reached an agreement by which Sandino would cease his guerrilla activities in return for amnesty, a grant of land for an agricultural colony, and retention of an armed band of 100 men for a year.
However, due to a growing hostility between Sandino and National Guard director Anastasio Somoza García
and a fear of armed opposition from Sandino, Somoza García decided to order his assassination.
Sandino was invited by Sacasa to have dinner and sign a peace treaty at the Presidential House in Managua on the night of February 21, 1934. After leaving the Presidential House, Sandino's car was stopped by soldiers of the National Guard and they kidnapped him. Later that night, Sandino was assassinated by soldiers of the National Guard. Hundreds of men, women, and children from Sandino's agricultural colony were executed later.
Somoza dynasty (1927–1979)
Nicaragua has experienced several military dictatorships, the longest being the hereditary dictatorship
of the Somoza family
, who ruled for 43 nonconsecutive years during the 20th century.
The Somoza family came to power as part of a U.S.-engineered pact in 1927 that stipulated the formation of the Guardia Nacional
to replace the marines who had long reigned in the country.
Somoza García slowly eliminated officers in the national guard who might have stood in his way, and then deposed Sacasa and became president on January 1, 1937, in a rigged election
In 1941, during the Second World War
, Nicaragua declared war on Japan
(8 December), Germany
(11 December), Italy
(11 December), Bulgaria
(19 December), Hungary
(19 December) and Romania
(19 December). Out of these six Axis
countries, only Romania reciprocated, declaring war on Nicaragua on the same day (19 December 1941).
No soldiers were sent to the war, but Somoza García did seize the occasion to confiscate properties held by German Nicaraguan
In 1945, Nicaragua was among the first countries to ratify the United Nations Charter.
On September 21, 1956, Somoza García was shot to death by Rigoberto López Pérez
, a 27-year-old Liberal Nicaraguan poet. Luis Somoza Debayle
, the eldest son of the late president, was appointed president by the congress and officially took charge of the country.
He is remembered by some for being moderate, but was in power only for a few years and then died of a heart attack. His successor as president was René Schick Gutiérrez
, whom most Nicaraguans viewed "as nothing more than a puppet of the Somozas".
Somoza García's youngest son, Anastasio Somoza Debayle
, often referred to simply as "Somoza", became president in 1967.
An earthquake in 1972
destroyed nearly 90% of Managua, resulting in massive destruction to the city's infrastructure.
Instead of helping to rebuild Managua, Somoza siphoned off relief money. The mishandling of relief money also prompted Pittsburgh Pirates
star Roberto Clemente
to personally fly to Managua on December 31, 1972, but he died en route
in an airplane accident.
Even the economic elite were reluctant to support Somoza, as he had acquired monopolies in industries that were key to rebuilding the nation.
The Somoza family was among a few families or groups of influential firms which reaped most of the benefits of the country's growth from the 1950s to the 1970s. When Somoza was deposed by the Sandinistas in 1979, the family's worth was estimated to be between $500 million and $1.5 billion.
Nicaraguan Revolution (1960s–1990)
United States–supported anti-Sandinista "Contra
" rebels (ARDE Frente Sur) in 1987.
In 1961, Carlos Fonseca
looked back to the historical figure of Sandino, and along with two other people (one of whom was believed to be Casimiro Sotelo, who was later assassinated), founded the Sandinista National Liberation Front
After the 1972 earthquake and Somoza's apparent corruption, the ranks of the Sandinistas were flooded with young disaffected Nicaraguans who no longer had anything to lose.
In December 1974, a group of the FSLN, in an attempt to kidnap U.S. ambassador Turner Shelton, held some Managuan partygoers hostage (after killing the host, former agriculture minister, Jose Maria Castillo), until the Somozan government met their demands for a large ransom and free transport to Cuba. Somoza granted this, then subsequently sent his national guard out into the countryside to look for the perpetrators of the kidnapping, described by opponents of the kidnapping as "terrorists".
On January 10, 1978, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal
, the editor of the national newspaper La Prensa
and ardent opponent of Somoza, was assassinated.
It is alleged that the planners and perpetrators of the murder were at the highest echelons of the Somoza regime.
The Sandinistas forcefully took power in July 1979, ousting Somoza, and prompting the exodus of the majority of Nicaragua's middle class, wealthy landowners, and professionals, many of whom settled in the United States.
The Carter administration decided to work with the new government, while attaching a provision for aid forfeiture if it was found to be assisting insurgencies in neighboring countries.
Somoza fled the country and eventually ended up in Paraguay
, where he was assassinated in September 1980, allegedly by members of the Argentinian Revolutionary Workers' Party.
In 1980, the Carter administration provided $60 million in aid to Nicaragua under the Sandinistas, but the aid was suspended when the administration obtained evidence of Nicaraguan shipment of arms to El Salvadoran rebels.
In response to the coming to power of the Sandinistas, various rebel groups collectively known as the "contras
" were formed to oppose the new government. The Reagan
administration authorized the CIA
to help the contra rebels
with funding, armaments, and training.
The contras operated out of camps in the neighboring countries of Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south.
10th anniversary of the Nicaraguan revolution in Managua, 1989
They engaged in a systematic campaign of terror among the rural Nicaraguan population to disrupt the social reform projects of the Sandinistas. Several historians have criticized the contra campaign and the Reagan administration's support for it
, citing the brutality and numerous human rights violations of the contras. LaRamee and Polakoff, for example, describe the destruction of health centers, schools, and cooperatives at the hands of the rebels,
and others have contended that murder, rape, and torture occurred on a large scale in contra-dominated areas.
The United States also carried out a campaign of economic sabotage, and disrupted shipping by planting underwater mines in Nicaragua's port of Corinto
an action condemned by the International Court of Justice
The court also found that the U.S. encouraged acts contrary to humanitarian law by producing the manual Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare
and disseminating it to the contras.
The manual, amongst other things, advised on how to rationalize killings of civilians.
The U.S. also sought to place economic pressure on the Sandinistas, and the Reagan administration imposed a full trade embargo.
The Sandinistas were also accused of human rights abuses.
In the Nicaraguan general elections of 1984
, which were judged to have been free and fair, the Sandinistas won the parliamentary election and their leader Daniel Ortega
won the presidential election.
The Reagan administration criticized the elections as a "sham" based on the charge that Arturo Cruz
, the candidate nominated by the Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense
, comprising three right wing political parties, did not participate in the elections. However, the administration privately argued against Cruz's participation for fear his involvement would legitimize the elections, and thus weaken the case for American aid to the contras.
According to Martin Kriele, the results of the election were rigged.
After the U.S. Congress prohibited federal funding of the contras in 1983, the Reagan administration nonetheless illegally continued to back them by covertly selling arms to Iran
and channeling the proceeds to the contras (the Iran–Contra affair
), for which several members of the Reagan administration were convicted of felonies.
The International Court of Justice
, in regard to the case of Nicaragua v. United States
in 1984, found, "the United States of America was under an obligation to make reparation to the Republic of Nicaragua for all injury caused to Nicaragua by certain breaches of obligations under customary international law and treaty-law committed by the United States of America".
During the war between the contras and the Sandinistas, 30,000 people were killed.
in 1990 became the first woman president democratically elected in the Americas.
In the Nicaraguan general election, 1990
, a coalition of anti-Sandinista parties (from the left and right of the political spectrum) led by Violeta Chamorro
, the widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, defeated the Sandinistas. The defeat shocked the Sandinistas, who had expected to win.
Exit polls of Nicaraguans reported Chamorro's victory over Ortega was achieved with a 55% majority.
Chamorro was the first woman president of Nicaragua. Ortega vowed he would govern desde abajo
Chamorro came to office with an economy in ruins, primarily because of the financial and social costs of the contra war with the Sandinista-led government.
In the next election, the Nicaraguan general election, 1996
, Daniel Ortega and the Sandinistas of the FSLN were defeated again, this time by Arnoldo Alemán
of the Constitutional Liberal Party
In the 2001 elections
, the PLC again defeated the FSLN, with Alemán's Vice President Enrique Bolaños
succeeding him as president. Subsequently, however, Alemán was convicted and sentenced in 2003 to 20 years in prison for embezzlement
, money laundering
, and corruption;
liberal and Sandinista parliament members subsequently combined to strip the presidential powers of President Bolaños and his ministers, calling for his resignation and threatening impeachment
. The Sandinistas said they no longer supported Bolaños after U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell
told Bolaños to keep his distance from the FSLN.
This "slow motion coup d'état
" was averted partially by pressure from the Central American presidents, who vowed not to recognize any movement that removed Bolaños; the U.S., the OAS, and the European Union
also opposed the action.
Before the general elections on November 5, 2006
, the National Assembly
passed a bill further restricting abortion in Nicaragua
As a result, Nicaragua is one of five countries in the world where abortion is illegal with no exceptions.
Legislative and presidential elections took place on November 5, 2006. Ortega returned to the presidency with 37.99% of the vote. This percentage was enough to win the presidency outright, because of a change in electoral law which lowered the percentage requiring a runoff election from 45% to 35% (with a 5% margin of victory).
Nicaragua's 2011 general election resulted in re-election of Ortega, with a landslide victory and 62.46% of the vote. In 2014 the National Assembly approved changes to the constitution allowing Ortega to run for a third successive term.
In November 2016, Ortega was elected for his third consecutive term
(his fourth overall). International monitoring of the elections was initially prohibited, and as a result the validity of the elections
has been disputed, but observation by the OAS
was announced in October.
Ortega was reported by Nicaraguan election officials as having received 72% of the vote. However the Broad Front for Democracy
(FAD), having promoted boycotts of the elections, claimed that 70% of voters had abstained (while election officials claimed 65.8% participation).
In April 2018, demonstrations
opposed a decree increasing taxes and reducing benefits in the country's pension system. Local independent press organizations had documented at least 19 dead and over 100 missing in the ensuing conflict.
A reporter from NPR spoke to protestors who explained that while the initial issue was about the pension reform, the uprisings that spread across the country reflected many grievances about the government's time in office, and that the fight is for President Ortega and his vice president wife to step down.
April 24, 2018 marked the day of the greatest march in opposition of the Sandinista party. On May 2, 2018, university-student leaders publicly announced that they give the government seven days to set a date and time for a dialogue that was promised to the people due to the recent events of repression. The students also scheduled another march on that same day for a peaceful protest. As of May 2018, estimates of the death toll were as high as 63, many of them student protesters, and the wounded totalled more than 400.
Following a working visit from May 17 to 21, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights adopted precautionary measures aimed at protecting members of the student movement and their families after testimonies indicated the majority of them had suffered acts of violence and death threats for their participation.
In the last week of May, thousands who accuse Mr. Ortega and his wife of acting like dictators joined in resuming anti-government rallies after attempted peace talks have remained unresolved.
Geography and climate
Nicaragua map of Köppen climate classification.
Nicaragua occupies a landmass of 130,967 km2
(50,567 sq mi), which makes it slightly larger than England
. Nicaragua has three distinct geographical regions: the Pacific lowlands – fertile valleys which the Spanish colonists settled, the Amerrisque Mountains
(North-central highlands), and the Mosquito Coast (Atlantic lowlands/Caribbean lowlands
The low plains of the Atlantic Coast are 97 km (60 mi) wide in areas. They have long been exploited for their natural resources.
On the Pacific side of Nicaragua are the two largest fresh water lakes in Central America—Lake Managua
and Lake Nicaragua
. Surrounding these lakes and extending to their northwest along the rift valley
of the Gulf of Fonseca
are fertile lowland plains, with soil highly enriched by ash
from nearby volcanoes
of the central highlands. Nicaragua's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems
contribute to Mesoamerica
's designation as a biodiversity hotspot
. Nicaragua has made efforts to become less dependent on fossil fuels, and it expects to acquire 90% of its energy from renewable resources by the year 2020.
Nicaragua was one of the few countries that did not enter an INDC
Nicaragua initially chose not to join the Paris Climate Accord because it felt that "much more action is required" by individual countries on restricting global temperature rise.
However, in October 2017, Nicaragua made the decision to join the agreement.
It ratified this agreement on November 22, 2017.
In the west of the country, these lowlands consist of a broad, hot, fertile plain. Punctuating this plain are several large volcanoes of the Cordillera Los Maribios
mountain range, including Mombacho
just outside Granada, and Momotombo
near León. The lowland area runs from the Gulf of Fonseca
to Nicaragua's Pacific border with Costa Rica south of Lake Nicaragua
. Lake Nicaragua is the largest freshwater lake in Central America (20th largest in the world),
and is home to some of the world's rare freshwater sharks (Nicaraguan shark
The Pacific lowlands region is the most populous, with over half of the nation's population.
The eruptions of western Nicaragua's 40 volcanoes, many of which are still active, have sometimes devastated settlements but also have enriched the land with layers of fertile ash. The geologic activity that produces vulcanism also breeds powerful earthquakes. Tremors occur regularly throughout the Pacific zone, and earthquakes have nearly destroyed the capital city, Managua, more than once.
Peñas Blancas, part of the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve
is the second largest rainforest in the Western Hemisphere, after the Amazonian Rainforest in Brazil. Located northeast of the city of Jinotega
in Northeastern Nicaragua.
Most of the Pacific zone is tierra caliente
, the "hot land" of tropical Spanish America at elevations under 610 metres (2,000 ft). Temperatures remain virtually constant throughout the year, with highs ranging between 29.4 and 32.2 °C (85 and 90 °F). After a dry season lasting from November to April, rains begin in May and continue to October, giving the Pacific lowlands 1,016 to 1,524 millimetres (40 to 60 in) of precipitation. Good soils and a favourable climate combine to make western Nicaragua the country's economic and demographic centre. The southwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua lies within 24 kilometres (15 mi) of the Pacific Ocean. Thus the lake and the San Juan River were often proposed in the 19th century as the longest part of a canal route across the Central American isthmus. Canal proposals were periodically revived in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Roughly a century after the opening of the Panama Canal
, the prospect of a Nicaraguan ecocanal
remains a topic of interest.
In addition to its beach and resort communities, the Pacific lowlands contains most of Nicaragua's Spanish colonial architecture and artifacts. Cities such as León and Granada
abound in colonial architecture; founded in 1524, Granada is the oldest colonial city in the Americas.
North central highlands
Northern Nicaragua is the most diversified region producing coffee, cattle, milk products, vegetables, wood, gold, and flowers. Its extensive forests, rivers and geography are suited for ecotourism.
The central highlands are a significantly less populated and economically developed area in the north, between Lake Nicaragua and the Caribbean. Forming the country's tierra templada
, or "temperate land", at elevations between 610 and 1,524 metres (2,000 and 5,000 ft), the highlands enjoy mild temperatures with daily highs of 23.9 to 26.7 °C (75 to 80 °F). This region has a longer, wetter rainy season than the Pacific lowlands, making erosion a problem on its steep slopes. Rugged terrain, poor soils, and low population density characterize the area as a whole, but the northwestern valleys are fertile and well settled.
The area has a cooler climate than the Pacific lowlands. About a quarter of the country's agriculture takes place in this region, with coffee grown on the higher slopes. Oaks
are abundant in the cloud forests
of the region.
This large rainforest
region is irrigated by several large rivers and is sparsely populated. The area has 57% of the territory of the nation and most of its mineral resources. It has been heavily exploited, but much natural diversity remains. The Rio Coco
is the largest river in Central America; it forms the border with Honduras. The Caribbean coastline is much more sinuous than its generally straight Pacific counterpart; lagoons and deltas make it very irregular.
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve
is in the Atlantic lowlands, part of which is located in the municipality of Siuna
; it protects 7,300 square kilometres (1,800,000 acres) of La Mosquitia
forest – almost 7% of the country's area – making it the largest rainforest north of the Amazon
The municipalities of Siuna
, and Bonanza
, known as the "Mining Triangle", are located in the region known as the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region
, in the Caribbean lowlands. Bonanza still contains an active gold mine owned by HEMCO. Siuna and Rosita do not have active mines but panning for gold is still very common in the region.
Nicaragua's tropical east coast is very different from the rest of the country. The climate is predominantly tropical, with high temperature and high humidity. Around the area's principal city of Bluefields, English is widely spoken along with the official Spanish. The population more closely resembles that found in many typical Caribbean ports than the rest of Nicaragua.
Flora and fauna
Nicaragua is home to a rich variety of plants and animals. Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Americas and this privileged location has enabled the country to serve as host to a great biodiversity. This factor, along with the weather and light altitudinal variations, allows the country to harbor 248 species of amphibians and reptiles, 183 species of mammals, 705 bird species, 640 fish species, and about 5,796 species of plants.
The region of great forests is located on the eastern side of the country. Rainforests are found in the Río San Juan Department
and in the autonomous regions of RAAN
. This biome groups together the greatest biodiversity in the country and is largely protected by the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve
in the south and the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve
in the north. The Nicaraguan jungles, which represent about 9,700 square kilometres (2.4 million acres), are considered the lungs of Central America
and comprise the second largest-sized rainforest of the Americas.
There are currently 78 protected areas in Nicaragua, covering more than 22,000 square kilometres (8,500 sq mi), or about 17% of its landmass. These include wildlife refuges
and nature reserves
that shelter a wide range of ecosystems
. There are more than 1,400 animal species classified thus far in Nicaragua. Some 12,000 species of plants have been classified
thus far in Nicaragua, with an estimated 5,000 species not yet classified.
The bull shark
is a species of shark that can survive for an extended period of time in fresh water. It can be found in Lake Nicaragua
and the San Juan River
, where it is often referred to as the "Nicaragua shark".
Nicaragua has recently banned freshwater fishing of the Nicaragua shark and the sawfish
in response to the declining populations of these animals.
Between 2007 and 2009, Nicaragua's major political parties discussed the possibility of going from a presidential system to a parliamentary system. Their reason: there would be a clear differentiation between the head of government
(prime minister) and the head of state
(president). Nevertheless, it was later argued that the true reason behind this proposal was to find a legal way for President Ortega to stay in power after January 2012, when his second and last government period was expected to end. Ortega was reelected to a third term in November 2016.
The International Court of Justice
, in regard to the case of Nicaragua v. United States
in 1984, found that the United States was "in breach of its obligations under customary international law not to use force against another State", "not to intervene in its affairs", "not to violate its sovereignty", "not to interrupt peaceful maritime commerce".
The armed forces of Nicaragua
consists of various military contingents. Nicaragua has an army
and an air force
. There are roughly 14,000 active duty personnel, which is much less compared to the numbers seen during the Nicaraguan Revolution
. Although the army has had a rough military history, a portion of its forces, which were known as the national guard
, became integrated with what is now the National Police of Nicaragua
. In essence, the police became a gendarmerie
. The National Police of Nicaragua are rarely, if ever, labeled as a gendarmerie
. The other elements and manpower that were not devoted to the national police were sent over to cultivate the new Army of Nicaragua.
The age to serve in the armed forces is 17 and conscription
is not imminent. As of 2006, the military budget was roughly 0.7% of Nicaragua's expenditures.
The National Police of Nicaragua
Force (in Spanish: La Policía Nacional Nicaragüense) is the national police of Nicaragua. The force is in charge of regular police functions and, at times, works in conjunction with the Nicaraguan military, making it an indirect and rather subtle version of a gendarmerie.
However, the Nicaraguan National Police work separately and have a different established set of norms than the nation's military.
According to a recent US Department of State report, corruption is endemic, especially within law enforcement and the judiciary, and arbitrary arrests, torture, and harsh prison conditions are the norm.
Nicaragua is a unitary
republic. For administrative purposes it is divided into 15 departments
) and two self-governing regions (autonomous communities) based on the Spanish model. The departments are then subdivided into 153 municipios
(municipalities). The two autonomous regions are the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, often referred to as RACCN and RACCS, respectively.
A proportional representation of Nicaragua's exports.
Nicaragua is among the poorest countries in the Americas.
Its gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity
(PPP) in 2008 was estimated at US$17.37 billion.
Agriculture represents 15.5% of GDP, the highest percentage in Central America.
Remittances account for over 15% of the Nicaraguan GDP. Close to one billion dollars are sent to the country by Nicaraguans living abroad.
The economy grew at a rate of about 4% in 2011.
By 2019, given restrictive taxes and a civil conflict, it recorded a negative growth of - 3.9%; the International Monetary Fund forecast for 2020 is a further decline of 6% due to COVID-19.
The restrictive tax measures put in place in 2019 and a political crisis over social security negatively affected the country's weak public spending and investor confidence in sovereign debt. According to the update IMF forecasts from 14 April 2020, due to the outbreak of the COVID-19, GDP growth is expected to fall to -6% in 2020.[needs update]
According to the World Bank, Nicaragua ranked as the 123rd out of 190 best economy for starting a business.
In 2007, Nicaragua's economy was labelled "62.7% free" by the Heritage Foundation, with high levels of fiscal, government, labor, investment, financial, and trade freedom.
It ranked as the 61st freest economy
, and 14th (of 29) in the Americas.
In March 2007, Poland and Nicaragua signed an agreement to write off 30.6 million dollars which was borrowed by the Nicaraguan government in the 1980s.
Inflation reduced from 33,500% in 1988 to 9.45% in 2006, and the foreign debt was cut in half.
Nicaragua is primarily an agricultural country; agriculture constitutes 60% of its total exports which annually yield approximately US$300 million.
Nearly two-thirds of the coffee crop comes from the northern part of the central highlands, in the area north and east of the town of Estelí.
Tobacco, grown in the same northern highlands region as coffee, has become an increasingly important cash crop since the 1990s, with annual exports of leaf and cigars in the neighborhood of $200 million per year.
Soil erosion and pollution from the heavy use of pesticides have become serious concerns in the cotton district. Yields and exports have both been declining since 1985.
Today most of Nicaragua's bananas are grown in the northwestern part of the country near the port of Corinto; sugarcane is also grown in the same district. Cassava
, a root crop somewhat similar to the potato, is an important food in tropical regions. Cassava is also the main ingredient in tapioca pudding.
Nicaragua's agricultural sector has benefited because of the country's strong ties to Venezuela
. It is estimated that Venezuela will import approximately $200 million in agricultural goods.
In the 1990s, the government initiated efforts to diversify agriculture. Some of the new export-oriented crops were peanuts, sesame
, melons, and onions.
Fishing boats on the Caribbean side bring shrimp as well as lobsters into processing plants at Puerto Cabezas, Bluefields, and Laguna de Perlas.
A turtle fishery thrived on the Caribbean coast before it collapsed from overexploitation
Mining is becoming a major industry in Nicaragua,
contributing less than 1% of gross domestic product (GDP). Restrictions are being placed on lumbering due to increased environmental concerns about destruction of the rain forests. But lumbering continues despite these obstacles; indeed, a single hardwood tree may be worth thousands of dollars.
During the war between the US-backed Contras and the government of the Sandinistas
in the 1980s, much of the country's infrastructure was damaged or destroyed.
Transportation throughout the nation is often inadequate. For example, it was until recently impossible to travel all the way by highway from Managua to the Caribbean coast. A new road between Nueva Guinea and Bluefields is almost complete (February 2019), and already allows a regular bus service to the capital.[failed verification]
The Centroamérica power plant on the Tuma River
in the Central highlands has been expanded, and other hydroelectric projects have been undertaken to help provide electricity to the nation's newer industries.
Nicaragua has long been considered as a possible site for a new sea-level canal that could supplement the Panama Canal.
Nicaragua's minimum wage is among the lowest in the Americas and in the world.
Remittances are equivalent to roughly 15% of the country's gross domestic product.
Growth in the maquila
sector slowed in the first decade of the 21st century with rising competition from Asian markets, particularly China.
Land is the traditional basis of wealth in Nicaragua, with great fortunes coming from the export of staples such as coffee, cotton, beef, and sugar. Almost all of the upper class and nearly a quarter of the middle class are substantial landowners.
A 1985 government study classified 69.4 percent of the population as poor on the basis that they were unable to satisfy one or more of their basic needs in housing, sanitary services (water, sewage, and garbage collection), education, and employment. The defining standards for this study were very low; housing was considered substandard if it was constructed of discarded materials with dirt floors or if it was occupied by more than four persons per room.
Rural workers are dependent on agricultural wage labor, especially in coffee and cotton. Only a small fraction hold permanent jobs. Most are migrants who follow crops during the harvest period and find other work during the off-season. The "lower" peasants are typically smallholders without sufficient land to sustain a family; they also join the harvest labor force. The "upper" peasants have sufficient resources to be economically independent. They produce enough surplus, beyond their personal needs, to allow them to participate in the national and world markets.
The urban lower class is characterized by the informal sector of the economy. The informal sector consists of small-scale enterprises that utilize traditional technologies and operate outside the legal regime of labor protections and taxation. Workers in the informal sector are self-employed, unsalaried family workers or employees of small-enterprises, and they are generally poor.
Nicaragua's informal sector workers include tinsmiths, mattress makers, seamstresses, bakers, shoemakers, and carpenters; people who take in laundry and ironing or prepare food for sale in the streets; and thousands of peddlers, owners of small businesses (often operating out of their own homes), and market stall operators. Some work alone, but others labor in the small talleres (workshops/factories) that are responsible for a large share of the country's industrial production. Because informal sector earnings are generally very low, few families can subsist on one income.
Like most Latin American nations Nicaragua is also characterized by a very small upper-class, roughly 2% of the population, that is very wealthy and wields the political and economic power in the country that is not in the hands of foreign corporations and private industries. These families are oligarchical in nature and have ruled Nicaragua for generations and their wealth is politically and economically horizontally and vertically integrated.
Nicaragua is currently a member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas
, which is also known as ALBA. ALBA has proposed creating a new currency, the Sucre
, for use among its members. In essence, this means that the Nicaraguan córdoba will be replaced with the Sucre. Other nations that will follow a similar pattern include: Venezuela
, Ecuador, Bolivia
, Honduras, Cuba
, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica
and Antigua and Barbuda
Nicaragua is considering construction of a canal linking the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, which President Daniel Ortega has said will give Nicaragua its "economic independence."
Scientists have raised concerns about environmental impacts, but the government has maintained that the canal will benefit the country by creating new jobs and potentially increasing its annual growth to an average of 8% per year.
The project was scheduled to begin construction in December 2014,
however the Nicaragua Canal
has yet to be started.
By 2006, tourism had become the second largest industry in Nicaragua.
Previously, tourism had grown about 70% nationwide during a period of 7 years, with rates of 10%–16% annually.
The increase and growth led to the income from tourism to rise more than 300% over a period of 10 years.
The growth in tourism has also positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. President Daniel Ortega
has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country.
The results for Nicaragua's tourism-driven economy have been significant, with the nation welcoming one million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2010.
Every year about 60,000 U.S. citizens visit Nicaragua, primarily business people, tourists, and those visiting relatives.
Some 5,300 people from the U.S. reside in Nicaragua. The majority of tourists who visit Nicaragua are from the U.S., Central or South America, and Europe. According to the Ministry of Tourism of Nicaragua (INTUR),
the colonial cities of León
are the preferred spots for tourists. Also, the cities of Masaya
and the likes of San Juan del Sur
, El Ostional
, the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception
, Ometepe Island
, the Mombacho
volcano, and the Corn Islands
among other locations are the main tourist attractions. In addition, ecotourism
, sport fishing
attract many tourists to Nicaragua.
According to the TV Noticias
news program, the main attractions in Nicaragua for tourists are the beaches, the scenic routes, the architecture of cities such as León and Granada, ecotourism
, and agritourism
particularly in northern Nicaragua.
As a result of increased tourism, Nicaragua has seen its foreign direct investment
increase by 79.1% from 2007 to 2009.
Nicaragua is referred to as "the land of lakes and volcanoes"
due to the number of lagoons and lakes, and the chain of volcanoes that runs from the north to the south along the country's Pacific side.
Today, only 7 of the 50 volcanoes in Nicaragua are considered active. Many of these volcanoes offer some great possibilities for tourists with activities such as hiking
, and swimming
in crater lakes.
The Apoyo Lagoon Natural Reserve
was created by the eruption of the Apoyo Volcano about 23,000 years ago, which left a huge 7 km-wide crater that gradually filled with water. It is surrounded by the old crater wall.
The rim of the lagoon is lined with restaurants, many of which have kayaks
available. Besides exploring the forest around it, many water sports are practiced in the lagoon, most notably kayaking
aims to be ecologically and socially conscious; it focuses on local culture, wilderness, and adventure. Nicaragua's ecotourism is growing with every passing year.
It boasts a number of ecotourist tours and perfect places for adventurers. Nicaragua has three eco-regions (the Pacific, Central, and Atlantic) which contain volcanoes, tropical rainforests, and agricultural land. The majority of the eco-lodges and other environmentally-focused touristic destinations are found on Ometepe Island,
located in the middle of Lake Nicaragua just an hour's boat ride from Granada. While some are foreign-owned, others are owned by local families.
Nicaraguan women at a concert in Managua.
According to a 2014 research published in the journal Genetics and Molecular Biology
, European ancestry predominates in 69% of Nicaraguans, followed by African ancestry in 20%, and lastly indigenous ancestry
A Japanese research of "Genomic Components in America's demography" demonstrated that, on average, the ancestry of Nicaraguans is 58–62% European, 28% Native American, and 14% African, with a very small Near Eastern contribution.
Non-genetic data from the CIA World Factbook
establish that from Nicaragua's 2016 population of 5,966,798, around 69% are mestizo
, 17% white
, 5% Native American, and 9% black and other races
This fluctuates with changes in migration patterns. The population is 58% urban as of 2013.
The capital Managua
is the biggest city, with an estimated population of 1,042,641 in 2016.
In 2005, over 5 million people lived in the Pacific, Central and North regions, and 700,000 in the Caribbean region.
There is a growing expatriate community,
the majority of whom move for business, investment or retirement from across the world, such as from the US, Canada
, and European countries; the majority have settled in Managua, Granada
and San Juan del Sur
About 9% of Nicaragua's population is black and mainly resides on the country's Caribbean (or Atlantic) coast. The black population is mostly composed of black English-speaking Creoles who are the descendants of escaped or shipwrecked slaves; many carry the name of Scottish settlers
who brought slaves with them, such as Campbell
, and Hodgeson
. Although many Creoles supported Somoza because of his close association with the US, they rallied to the Sandinista cause in July 1979 only to reject the revolution soon afterwards in response to a new phase of 'westernization' and imposition of central rule from Managua.
There is a smaller number of Garifuna
, a people of mixed West African
descent. In the mid-1980s, the government divided the Zelaya Department
– consisting of the eastern half of the country – into two autonomous regions and granted the black and indigenous people of this region limited self-rule within the republic.
The remaining 5% of Nicaraguans are indigenous, the descendants of the country's original inhabitants. Nicaragua's pre-Columbian
population consisted of many indigenous groups. In the western region, the Nahua (Pipil-Nicarao) people were present along with other groups such as the Chorotega people and the Subtiabas (also known as Maribios or Hokan Xiu). The central region and the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua were inhabited by indigenous peoples who were Macro-Chibchan language
groups that had migrated to and from South America in ancient times, primarily what is now Colombia
. These groups include the present-day Matagalpas
, as well as Mayangnas and Ulwas who are also known as Sumos
In the 19th century, there was a substantial indigenous minority, but this group was largely assimilated culturally into the mestizo majority.
A sign in Bluefields in English (top), Spanish (middle) and Miskito (bottom)
has many indigenous influences and several distinguishing characteristics. For example, some Nicaraguans have a tendency to replace /s/
Although Spanish is spoken throughout, the country has great variety: vocabulary, accents and colloquial language can vary between towns and departments.
On the Caribbean coast, indigenous languages, English-based creoles
, and Spanish are spoken. The Miskito language
, spoken by the Miskito people
as a first language and some other indigenous and Afro-descendants people as a second, third, or fourth language, is the most commonly spoken indigenous language. The indigenous Misumalpan languages
of Mayangna and Ulwa are spoken by the respective peoples of the same names. Many Miskito, Mayangna, and Ulwa people also speak Miskito Coast Creole
, and a large majority also speak Spanish. Fewer than three dozen of nearly 2,000 Rama people
speak their Chibchan language
fluently, with nearly all Ramas speaking Rama Cay Creole
and the vast majority speaking Spanish. Linguists have attempted to document and revitalize the language over the past three decades.
The Garifuna people
, descendants of indigenous and Afro-descendant people who came to Nicaragua from Honduras in the early twentieth century, have recently attempted to revitalize their Arawakan language
. The majority speak Miskito Coast Creole as their first language and Spanish as their second. The Creole or Kriol people, descendants of enslaved Africans brought to the Mosquito Coast
during the British colonial period and European, Chinese, Arab, and British West Indian immigrants, also speak Miskito Coast Creole as their first language and Spanish as their second.
Religion plays a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and is afforded special protections in the constitution
. Religious freedom, which has been guaranteed since 1939, and religious tolerance are promoted by the government and the constitution.
Nicaragua has no official religion. Catholic bishops are expected to lend their authority to important state occasions, and their pronouncements on national issues are closely followed. They can be called upon to mediate between contending parties at moments of political crisis.
In 1979, Miguel D'Escoto Brockman, a priest who had embraced Liberation Theology
, served in the government as foreign minister when the Sandinistas came to power. The largest denomination, and traditionally the religion of the majority, is the Roman Catholic Church
. It came to Nicaragua in the 16th century with the Spanish conquest and remained, until 1939, the established faith
Popular religion revolves around the saints, who are perceived as intercessors between human beings and God. Most localities, from the capital of Managua to small rural communities, honour patron saints
, selected from the Roman Catholic calendar, with annual fiestas
. In many communities, a rich lore has grown up around the celebrations of patron saints, such as Managua's Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), honoured in August with two colourful, often riotous, day-long processions through the city. The high point of Nicaragua's religious calendar for the masses is neither Christmas nor Easter, but La Purísima, a week of festivities in early December dedicated to the Immaculate Conception
, during which elaborate altars to the Virgin Mary
are constructed in homes and workplaces.
Relative to its population, Nicaragua has not experienced large waves of immigration. The number of immigrants in Nicaragua, from other Latin American countries or other countries, never surpassed 1% of its total population before 1995. The 2005 census showed the foreign-born population at 1.2%, having risen a mere .06% in 10 years.
In the 19th century, Nicaragua experienced modest waves of immigration from Europe. In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Belgium immigrated to Nicaragua, particularly the departments in the Central and Pacific region.
The Civil War forced many Nicaraguans to start lives outside of their country. Many people emigrated during the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century due to the lack of employment opportunities and poverty. The majority of the Nicaraguan Diaspora
migrated to the United States and Costa Rica
. Today one in six Nicaraguans live in these two countries.
The diaspora has seen Nicaraguans settling around in smaller communities in other parts of the world, particularly Western Europe. Small communities of Nicaraguans are found in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom
. Communities also exist in Australia and New Zealand. Canada, Brazil and Argentina host small groups of these communities. In Asia, Japan hosts a small Nicaraguan community.
Due to extreme poverty at home, many Nicaraguans are now living and working in neighboring El Salvador
, a country that has the US dollar
as its currency.
Although Nicaragua's health outcomes have improved over the past few decades with the efficient utilization of resources relative to other Central American nations, healthcare in Nicaragua
still confronts challenges responding to its populations' diverse healthcare needs.
The Nicaraguan government
guarantees universal free health care
for its citizens.
However, limitations of current delivery models and unequal distribution of resources and medical personnel contribute to the persistent lack of quality care in more remote areas of Nicaragua, especially among rural communities in the Central and Atlantic region.
To respond to the dynamic needs of localities, the government has adopted a decentralized model that emphasizes community-based preventive and primary medical care.
Universidad Nacional De Ingeniería "National University of Engineering", Managua
The adult literacy rate in 2005 was 78.0%.
Primary education is free in Nicaragua. A system of private schools exists, many of which are religiously affiliated and often have more robust English programs.
As of 1979, the educational system was one of the poorest in Latin America.
One of the first acts of the newly elected Sandinista government in 1980 was an extensive and successful literacy campaign, using secondary school students, university students and teachers as volunteer teachers: it reduced the overall illiteracy rate from 50.3% to 12.9% within only five months.
This was one of a number of large-scale programs which received international recognition for their gains in literacy
, health care, education, childcare
, and land reform
The Sandinistas also added a leftist ideological content to the curriculum, which was removed after 1990.
In September 1980, UNESCO
awarded Nicaragua the Soviet Union
sponsored Nadezhda Krupskaya award
for the literacy campaign.
When it comes to gender equality in Latin America
, Nicaragua ranks high among the other countries in the region.
When it came to global rankings regarding gender equality, the World Economic Forum ranked Nicaragua at number twelve in 2015,
and in its 2020 report Nicaragua ranked number five, behind only northern European countries.
In 2009, a Special Ombudsman for Sexual Diversity position was created within its Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman. And, in 2014, the Health Ministry in 2014 banned discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation.
Nevertheless, discrimination against LGBTQ individuals is common, particularly in housing, education, and the workplace.
is a drama
and was the first literary work of post-Columbian Nicaragua. It is regarded as one of Latin America
's most distinctive colonial-era expressions and as Nicaragua's signature folkloric masterpiece combining music, dance and theatre.
has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by European culture
but also including Native American sounds and flavors. Nicaraguan culture can further be defined in several distinct strands. The Pacific coast has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by Europeans
. It was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. The indigenous groups that historically inhabited the Pacific coast have largely been assimilated into the mestizo
The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua was once a British protectorate. English is still predominant in this region and spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages
. Its culture is similar to that of Caribbean nations that were or are British possessions, such as Jamaica
, Belize, the Cayman Islands
, etc. Unlike on the west coast, the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean coast have maintained distinct identities, and some still speak their native languages as first languages.
is a mixture of indigenous and Spanish influences. Musical instruments include the marimba
and others common across Central America. The marimba of Nicaragua is played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees. He is usually accompanied by a bass fiddle
, guitar and guitarrilla (a small guitar like a mandolin
). This music is played at social functions as a sort of background music.
The marimba is made with hardwood plates placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths. It is played with two or four hammers
. The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is known for a lively, sensual form of dance music
called Palo de Mayo
which is popular throughout the country. It is especially loud and celebrated during the Palo de Mayo festival in May. The Garifuna
community (Afro-Native American) is known for its popular music called Punta
Nicaraguan women wearing the Mestizaje
costume, which is a traditional costume worn to dance the Mestizaje dance. The costume demonstrates the Spanish influence upon Nicaraguan clothing.
Nicaragua enjoys a variety of international influence in the music arena. Bachata
have gained prominence in cultural centres such as Managua, Leon and Granada
. Cumbia dancing has grown popular with the introduction of Nicaraguan artists, including Gustavo Leyton, on Ometepe Island
and in Managua. Salsa dancing
has become extremely popular in Managua's nightclubs. With various influences, the form of salsa dancing varies in Nicaragua. New York style and Cuban Salsa (Salsa Casino) elements have gained popularity across the country.
Dance in Nicaragua varies depending upon the region. Rural areas tend to have a stronger focus on movement of the hips and turns. The dance style in cities focuses primarily on more sophisticated footwork in addition to movement and turns. Combinations of styles from the Dominican Republic
and the United States can be found throughout Nicaragua. Bachata dancing
is popular in Nicaragua. A considerable amount of Bachata dancing influence comes from Nicaraguans living abroad, in cities that include Miami, Los Angeles and, to a much lesser extent, New York City. Tango
has also surfaced recently in cultural cities and ballroom dance occasions.
The origin of Nicaraguan literature
can arguably be traced to pre-Columbian
times. The myths and oral literature
formed the cosmogenic view of the world of the indigenous people. Some of these stories are still known in Nicaragua. Like many Latin American countries, the Spanish conquerors have had the most effect on both the culture and the literature. Nicaraguan literature has historically been an important source of poetry in the Spanish-speaking world, with internationally renowned contributors such as Rubén Darío
who is regarded as the most important literary figure in Nicaragua. He is called the "Father of Modernism" for leading the modernismo
literary movement at the end of the 19th century.
Other literary figures include Carlos Martinez Rivas
, Pablo Antonio Cuadra
, Alberto Cuadra Mejia, Manolo Cuadra, Pablo Alberto Cuadra Arguello, Orlando Cuadra Downing, Alfredo Alegría Rosales, Sergio Ramirez Mercado
, Ernesto Cardenal
, Gioconda Belli
, Claribel Alegría
and José Coronel Urtecho
, among others.
The satirical drama El Güegüense
was the first literary work of post-Columbian Nicaragua. Written in both Aztec Nahuatl
and Spanish it is regarded as one of Latin America's most distinctive colonial-era expressions and as Nicaragua's signature folkloric masterpiece, a work of resistance to Spanish colonialism that combined music, dance and theatre.
play was written by an anonymous author in the 16th century, making it one of the oldest indigenous
theatrical/dance works of the Western Hemisphere
. In 2005 it was recognized by UNESCO
as "a patrimony of humanity".
After centuries of popular performance, the play was first published in a book in 1942.
is a dish that is served with boiled yuca and chicharrones (fried pork with skin) and topped with a cabbage salad.
Nicaraguan cuisine is a mixture of Spanish food and dishes of a pre-Columbian origin.
Traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast. The Pacific coast's main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast cuisine makes use of seafood and the coconut.
is a traditional dish of Nicaragua made with rice and beans.
As in many other Latin American countries, maize
is a staple food
and is used in many of the widely consumed dishes, such as the nacatamal
, and indio viejo
. Maize is also an ingredient for drinks such as pinolillo
as well as sweets and desserts. In addition to corn, rice and beans are eaten very often.
, Nicaragua's national dish
, is made with white rice and small red beans that are cooked individually and then fried together. The dish has several variations including the addition of coconut milk
and/or grated coconut
on the Caribbean coast. Most Nicaraguans begin their day with gallo pinto. Gallo pinto is most usually served with carne asada
, a salad, fried cheese, plantains
Traditional street food snacks found in Nicaragua include "quesillo", a thick tortilla with soft cheese and cream, "tajadas", deep-fried plantain chips, "maduros", sautéed ripe plantain, and "fresco", fresh juices such as hibiscus and tamarind commonly served in a plastic bag with a straw.
Nicaraguans have been known to eat guinea pigs
known as cuy
. Tapirs, iguanas, turtle eggs, armadillos and boas are also sometimes eaten, but because of extinction threats to these wild creatures, there are efforts to curb this custom.
For most Nicaraguans radio and TV are the main sources of news. There are more than 100 radio stations and several TV networks. Cable TV is available in most urban areas.
is the most popular sport in Nicaragua. Although some professional Nicaraguan baseball teams have recently folded, the country still enjoys a strong tradition of American-style baseball.
Baseball was introduced to Nicaragua during the 19th century. In the Caribbean coast, locals from Bluefields were taught how to play baseball in 1888 by Albert Addlesberg, a retailer from the United States.
Baseball did not catch on in the Pacific coast until 1891 when a group of mostly college students from the United States formed "La Sociedad de Recreo" (Society of Recreation) where they played various sports, baseball being the most popular.
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