: Español nicaragüense
) is geographically defined as the form of Spanish spoken in Nicaragua
. Affectionately, Nicaraguan Spanish is often called Nicañol.
The Spanish dialect in Nicaragua shares many similarities with that of its neighbors in the region, but it also has some stark differences in pronunciation and usage.
Nicaragua has the highest frequency, among Central American countries, of the use of voseo
—use of the pronoun vos
and its verb forms for the familiar second-person singular ("you"), in place of the tú
of Standard Spanish
. In this regard it is similar to the usage of Argentina
in the Río de la Plata
region of South America. Vos
is used frequently in colloquial and familiar settings, but Nicaraguans also understand tuteo
. The use of "vos" can be heard in television programs and can be seen in written form in publications.
The Nicaraguan accent, like most New World Spanish, dates back to the 16th century in Andalusia
. It shares later developments of Andalusian Spanish with that of Cuba
, the Dominican Republic
and the Caribbean/coastal regions of Venezuela
and Puerto Rico
. Nicaragua's relative isolation from Spain
, however, and, to an extent, from other nations, fostered the development of the Nicaraguan accent, which did not change in the same ways that the Andalusian, Canarian
, or other Spanish-American accents did.
During its history, Nicaraguan Spanish has acquired many indigenous influences and several distinguishing characteristics. Until the 19th century, a hybrid form of Nahuat-Spanish was the common language of Nicaragua. Today, Nahuat
words, along with their respective syntax
, can be found in everyday speech. Also, as Nicaragua was part of First Mexican Empire
, there are a number of words widely used in Nicaragua which have Nahuatl
or other native origins, in particular names for flora, fauna and toponyms
Notable characteristics of Nicaraguan phonology include the following:
- The presence of Seseo wherein /θ/ and /s/ are not distinguished. Seseo is common to Andalusian and Canarian Spanish varieties.
- Syllable-final /s/ is realized as glottal [h] (except in the southern departments of Rio San Juan and Rivas).
- /x/ is realized as glottal [h].
- The pronunciation of intervocalic /ʝ/ (orthographic y or ll) is "weak", without friction.
- Intervocalic /d/ often disappears; the ending -ado is often [ao].
- There is no confusion between /l/ and /r/, as in the Caribbean.
- Word-final /n/ is pronounced velar [ŋ].
- Word-final voiceless stops (/p/, /t/, /k/—rare in native Spanish words, but occurring in many words borrowed from English) are often merged in pronunciation as [k]. The Costa Rican ice cream shop Pops, with franchises in other Central American countries, is pronounced in certain regions of Nicaragua as Pocs. Internet is sometimes pronounced Internec; cenit is pronounced cenic; laptop is pronounced lactoc; and robot pronounced roboc. This is sometimes extended to native Spanish words where such stops are found at the end of a syllable. For example, aceptar is sometimes pronounced acectar.
- As Nicaragua was part of First Mexican Empire, Nicaraguan dialect adopted the voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡s] and the cluster [tl] (originally /tɬ/) represented by the respective digraphs <tz> and <tl> in loanwords of Nahuatl origin, like quetzal and tlapalería[t͡ɬapaleˈɾia] ('hardware store'). Even words of Greek and Latin origin with <tl>, such as Atlántico and atleta, are pronounced with the affricate: [aˈtlãn̪t̪iko̞], [aˈtle̞t̪a] (compare [aðˈlãn̪t̪iko̞], [aðˈle̞t̪a] in Spain and other dialects in Hispanic America).
Second person singular pronouns
Vos is the predominant second person singular pronoun used by most speakers in familiar or informal contexts to address people in the same age group. Vos is also used by adults in addressing children or juveniles, but children address adults with usted.
Conjugations with the vos pronoun
is both pronominal and verbal; that is, speakers use the pronoun vos
and the characteristic final-stressed verb forms. See Voseo
The affirmative imperative in Nicaraguan voseo
—like that of Rioplatense Spanish
—places stress on the last syllable. For example, ¡Ven acá!
or ¡Ven aquí!
is the formal second person singular pronoun in Nicaraguan Spanish, as in almost all modern varieties of Spanish. Usted
is used in addressing elderly people, authorities, foreigners formally and in business settings. In contrast to neighboring Costa Rica
, Nicaraguans are more inclined to address a casual acquaintance as vos
, rather than usted
is hardly used in Nicaraguan Spanish, except in addressing foreigners familiarly, in speech or in writing. Due in part to the influence of Mexican, Colombian, and Venezuelan television programming, Nicaraguans are familiar with tuteo
, and some television viewers, especially children, have begun to use it in limited contexts.
A number of words widely used in Nicaragua which have Nahuatl
or other native origins, in particular names for flora, fauna and toponyms
. Some of these words are used in most, or all, Spanish-speaking countries, like chocolate
("avocado"), and some are only used in Mexico and Nicaragua. The latter include guajolote
"turkey" < Nahuatl huaxōlōtl [waˈʃoːloːt͡ɬ]
is also used, as in other Spanish-speaking countries); papalote
"kite" < Nahuatl pāpālōtl [paːˈpaːloːt͡ɬ]
"butterfly"; and jitomate
"tomato" < Nahuatl xītomatl [ʃiːˈtomat͡ɬ]
. For a more complete list see List of Spanish words of Nahuatl origin
. Certain words that are present in Nicaraguan Spanish may not be immediately recognizable to non-Nicaraguans:
- ahuevado: (adj.) It means to be worried, . Similar to "preocupado" or "afligido".
- bicha: beer.
- boludo: lazy.
- broder: friend, brother, companion.
- cachipil/cachimbo: a lot, a large quantity.
- caite: form of leather shoe typically worn and made by campesinos.
- caponera: auto rickshaw, motorized tricycles.
- chavalo/a: adolescent or young person; child.
- chayul: gnat, fruit flies.
- chimbomba: balloon.
- chochada: something unimportant; nonsense (usually as a comment in regard to someone's words).
- chompipe: turkey.
- Chunche: An All-purpose word that's loosely translated to mean “that” or “thing”
- cipote/chigüin: brat, punk; small child.
- cuecho: gossip.
- cumiche: baby of the family, the youngest son or daughter.
- encachimbado: angry, furious, disgusted. Angrier than "arrecho".
- enturcado: angry as well. In the same intensity of "encachimbado".
- goma: hangover (estar de goma).
- guaro: liquor, usually rum.
- ideay: expression of surprise; means: What's up?.
- ipegüe: baker's dozen (13 items) .
- maje/mae: depending on context, it can refer to a friend, a third person (in a familiar manner), or be colloquially used to call someone a moron.
- nica, nicoya: (noun, colloquial) Nicaraguan.
- pajilla: drinking straw.
- pegue: workplace or any job.
- pinche: stingy, cheapskate
- pinolero/a: (noun, colloquial) a Nicaraguan person.
- pulpería/venta: grocery store.
- salvaje: (colloquial) awesome, impressive.
- tamal: thief, crook.
- tapudo: liar or bigmouth.
- tuani: very nice or pleasing, of high quality (often applied to clothing).
- zancudo: mosquito.
- ^ Spanish → Nicaragua at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- ^ "ISO 639-2 Language Code search". Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- ^ Nicaragua: Culture
- ^ "Diccionario panhispánico de dudas". buscon.rae.es.
- ^ a b c d e f D. Lincoln Canfield, Spanish Pronunciation in the Americas (University of Chicago Press, 1981), pp. 65-66.
- ^ a b c d e John M. Lipski, Latin American Spanish (Longman, 1994), pp. 290-291.
- ^ Navarro Tomás (2004)
- ^ John M. Lipski, Latin American Spanish (Longman, 1994), p. 292
- ^ John M. Lipski, Latin American Spanish (Longman, 1994), p. 293
Last edited on 31 January 2021, at 17:58
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