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1990 Nicaraguan general election
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General elections were held in Nicaragua on 25 February 1990.[1] The result was a victory for the National Opposition Union (UNO), whose presidential candidate Violeta Chamorro surprisingly defeated incumbent president Daniel Ortega of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN).[2] Opinion polls leading up to the elections divided along partisan lines, with 10 of 17 polls analyzed in a contemporary study predicting an UNO victory while seven predicted the Sandinistas would retain power.[3][4]
1990 Nicaraguan presidential election
← 198425 February 19901996 →
 
CandidateVioleta ChamorroDaniel Ortega
PartyUNOFSLN
Popular vote777,552579,886
Percentage54.74%40.82%
President before election
President-elect
Possible explanations include that the Nicaraguan people were disenchanted with the Ortega government and/or calibrated their responses to polls to their perceptions of the pollsters' biases, as well as the fact that already in November 1989, the White House had announced that the economic embargo against Nicaragua would end if Violeta Chamorro won.[5] Also, there had been reports of intimidation from the side of the Contras,[6] with a Canadian observer mission claiming that 42 people were killed by the contras in "election violence" in October 1989.[7] This led many commentators to assume that Nicaraguans voted against the Sandinistas out of fear of a continuation of the Contra war and economic deprivation.[4]
Results
President
CandidatePartyVotes%
Violeta Barrios de ChamorroNational Opposition Union777,55254.74
Daniel OrtegaSandinista National Liberation Front579,88640.82
Erick Ramírez BeneventesSocial Christian Party16,7511.18
Issa Moisés Hassán MoralesRevolutionary Unity Movement11,1360.78
Bonifacio Miranda BengoecheaWorkers' Revolutionary Party8,5900.60
Isidro Téllez ToruñoMarxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement8,1150.57
Fernando Bernabé Agüero RochaSocial Conservative Party5,7980.41
Blanca Rojas EchaverryCentral American Unionist Party5,0650.36
Eduardo Molina PalaciosDemocratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua4,5000.32
Rodolfo Robelo HerreraIndependent Liberal Party for National Unity3,1510.22
Invalid/blank votes90,249
Total1,510,838100
Registered voters/turnout1,752,08886.23
Source: Nohlen
National Assembly
Parties and alliancesVotes%Seats
National Opposition Union764,74853.951
Sandinista National Liberation Front579,72340.839
Social Christian Party22,2181.61
Revolutionary Unity Movement13,9951.01
Workers' Revolutionary Party10,5860.70
Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement7,6430.50
Social Conservative Party6,3080.40
Central American Unionist Party5,5650.40
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua5,0830.40
Independent Liberal Party for National Unity3,5150.20
Invalid/blank votes92,723
Total1,512,10710092
Registered voters/turnout1,752,08886.3
Source: Nohlen
By region
RegionFSLNUNOOther
Boaco24.04%70.70%5.26%
Carazo51.62%44.55%3.84%
Chinandega41.71%54.26%4.03%
Chontales25.48%70.31%4.22%
Esteli51.07%44.45%4.47%
Granada37.52%58.63%3.85%
Jinotega37.44%54.81%7.74%
Leon45.67%50.45%3.87%
Madriz40.90%54.50%4.59%
Managua42.48%53.35%4.17%
Masaya41.84%54.65%3.50%
Matagalpa35.50%59.27%5.23%
Nueva Segovia49.51%46.60%3.89%
RAAN39.21%17.02%43.77%
RAAS34.37%58.70%6.93%
Rio San Juan57.72%39.47%2.81%
Rivas45.09%51.56%3.34%
Source: Constituency Level Elections Archive[8]
References
Nicaragua portal
  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p489 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
  2. ^ Uhlig, Mark A. (27 February 1990). "Turnover in Nicaragua; NICARAGUAN OPPOSITION ROUTS SANDINISTAS; U.S. PLEDGES AID, TIED TO ORDERLY TURNOVER". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  3. ^ Bischoping, Katherine; Schuman, Howard (May 1992). "Pens and Polls in Nicaragua: An Analysis of the 1990 Pre-election Surveys". American Journal of Political Science. 36 (2): 331–350. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b "After the Poll Wars-Explaining the Upset". Envio. March 1990.
  5. ^ "Bush Vows to End Embargo if Chamorro Wins", The Washington Post, 9 November 1989
  6. ^ "The policy of keeping the contras alive ... also has placed in jeopardy the holding of elections by encouraging contra attacks on the electoral process. Thus, while the Bush administration proclaims its support for human rights and free and fair elections in Nicaragua, it persists in sabotaging both." As seen at: "Nicaragua" Human Rights Watch, 1990
  7. ^ "U.S. trying to disrupt election in Nicaragua, Canadians report" The Toronto Star, 27 October 1989
  8. ^ "Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA)". www.electiondataarchive.org​. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
Last edited on 19 February 2021, at 07:34
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