In USA he worked at first for the Westinghouse
Research Labs in Pittsburgh
where he focused on the theoretical physics modeling of the cell division and the mathematics of cell fission, a subject that was anecdotally said to have attracted fission-related defense interests.
Major scientific contributions
In 1938 he published one of the first books on mathematical biology and mathematical biophysics entitled: "Mathematical Biophysics: Physico-Mathematical Foundations of Biology
." This fundamental book was eventually published in three revised editions, the last revision appearing in two volumes in 1960. It was followed in 1940 by "Advances and applications of mathematical biology.
", and in 1947 by "Mathematical theory of human relations
", an approach to a mathematical model of society.
In the same year he established the World' s first
PhD program in Mathematical Biology
at the University of Chicago
In the early 1930s, Rashevsky developed the first model of neural networks
This was paraphrased in a Boolean context by his student Walter Pitts together with Warren McCulloch, in an article published in Rashevsky's Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics in 1943.
The Pitts-McCulloch article subsequently became extremely influential for research on artificial intelligence and artificial neural networks.
His later efforts focused on the topology of biological systems, the formulation of fundamental principles in biology, relational biology, set theory
and propositional logic
formulation of the hierarchical organization of organisms and human societies.
In the second half of the 1960s, he introduced the concept of "organismic sets" that provided a unified framework for physics, biology and sociology. This was subsequently developed by other authors
through applications of category theory
to relational biology, organismic supercategories
and Complex Systems Biology
Rashevsky's most notable students
Administrative and political obstacles
However, his more advanced ideas and abstract relational biology concepts found little support in the beginning amongst practicing experimental or molecular biologists, although current developments in complex systems biology
clearly follow in his footsteps.
In 1954 the budget for his Committee of Mathematical Biology
was drastically cut; however, this was at least in part politically imposed, rather than scientifically, motivated. Thus, the subsequent University of Chicago administration—notably represented by the genetics Nobel laureate George Wells Beadle
— who reversed in the 1960s the previous position and quadrupled the financial support for Rashevsky's Committee for Mathematical Biology research activities ("Reminiscences of Nicolas Rashevsky
." by Robert Rosen, written in late 1972).
There was later however a fall out between the retiring Nicolas Rashevsky and the University of Chicago president over the successor to the Chair of the Committee of Mathematical Biology; Nicolas Rashevsky strongly supported Dr. Herbert Landahl-his first PhD student to graduate in Mathematical Biophysics, whereas the president wished to appoint a certain US biostatistician. The result was Rashevsky's move to the University of Michigan
in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and his taking ownership of the well-funded "Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics
Formation of Mathematical Biology, Inc.
In his later years, after 1968, he became again very active in relational biology
and held, as well as Chaired, in 1970 the first international "Symposium of Mathematical Biology
" at Toledo, Ohio, in USA with the help of his former PhD student, Dr. Anthony Bartholomay
, who has become the Chairman of the first Department of Mathematical Medicine at Ohio University
. The meeting was sponsored by Mathematical Biology, Inc.
Final quest for principles of biology
Rashevsky was greatly influenced and inspired both by Herbert Spencer's book on the Principles of Biology (1898)
, and also by J. H. Woodger `axiomatic (Mendelian) genetics', to launch his own search and quest for biological principles, and also to formulate mathematically precise principles and axioms of biology. He then developed his own highly original approach to address the fundamental question of What is Life?
that another theoretical physicist, Erwin Schrödinger
, had asked before him from the narrower viewpoint of quantum theory
in biology.
He wished to reach this `holy grail' of (theoretical/ mathematical) biology, but his heavy work load during the late 1960s—despite his related health problems—took its toll, and finally prevented him in 1972 from reaching his ultimate goal. Rashevsky's relational approach represents a radical departure from reductionistic approaches, and it has greatly influenced the work of his student Robert Rosen.
In 1917, Nicolas Rashevsky joins the White Russian Navy and in 1920 he and his wife, Countess Emily had to flee for their lives to Constantinople where he taught at the American College. In 1921 they moved to Prague where he taught both special and general relativity
From Prague, he moved in the 1930s to Paris, France, and then to New York, Pittsburgh and Chicago, USA. His life has been dedicated to the science that he founded, Mathematical Biology, and his wife Emily was very supportive and appreciative of his scientific efforts, accompanying him at the scientific meetings that he either initiated or attended.
He cut a tall, impressive figure with a slight Russian accent, but a clear voice and thought to the very day when in 1972 he died from a heart attack caused by coronary heart disease
. His generosity was very well known and is often recognized in print by former associates or visitors. As the Chief Editor of BMB he had a declared policy of helping the authors to optimize their presentation of submitted papers, as well as proving many valuable suggestions to the submitting authors.
His suggested detailed changes, additions and further developments were like a real `gold mine' for the submitting authors. He managed to stay aloof of all science `politics' most of the time, even in very adverse circumstances such as those during the McCarthy
era when completely unfounded political accusations were made about one or two members of his close research group. Not unlike another American theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer
, he then had much to lose for his loyal support of the wrongly accused researcher in his group.
- Physico-mathematical aspects of Excitation and Conduction in Nerves., Cold Springs Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology.IV: Excitation Phenomena., 1936, p.90.
- Mathematical Biophysics:Physico-Mathematical Foundations of Biology. Univ. of Chicago Press. : Chicago Press, 1938/1948 (2nd ed.).
- Mathematical Theory of Human Relations: An Approach to Mathematical Biology of Social Phenomena. Bloomington, ID: Principia Press, 1947/1949 (2nd ed.)
- Topology and life: In search of general mathematical principles in biology and sociology. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics16 (1954): 317–348.
- Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course 16, Physico-Mathematical Aspects of Biology. : Academic Press, 1964
- Some Medical Aspects of Mathematical Biology. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1964
- The Representation of Organisms in Terms of Predicates, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics27 (1965): 477–491.
- Outline of a Unified Approach to Physics, Biology and Sociology., Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 31 (1969): 159–198.
- Looking at History through Mathematics, 1972
- Organismic Sets., William Clowes & Sons., London, Beccles and Cochester, 1972.
Notes and references
- ^https://web.archive.org/web/20060901224506/http://www1.appstate.edu/~marland/math_bio/Sunday_intro.ppt A Brief History of Mathematical Biology
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Nicolas Rashevky's Biography
- ^ http://www.smb.org/ The Society for Mathematical Biology
- ^ Robert Rosen Essays on Life (2004)
- ^ Evelyn Fox Keller Making Sense of Life pp. 82-89
- ^ Abraham, Tara H. (2002). "(Physio)logical circuits: The intellectual origins of the McCulloch-Pitts neural networks". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 38 (1): 3–25. doi:10.1002/jhbs.1094. ISSN 0022-5061. PMID 11835218.
- ^ Rashevsky, Nicolas (1936). "Mathematical biophysics and psychology". Psychometrika. 1: 1–26. doi:10.1007/BF02287920.
- ^ Rashevsky, Nicolas (1938). Mathematical Biophysics: Physicomathematical Foundations Of Biology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9781258398682.
- ^ McCulloch, W.S., and W. Pitts (1943) A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. Bull. Math. Biophys. 5, 115-133.
- ^ Rosen, Robert (2000) Essays on Life Itself. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 120-1.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Nicolas Rashevsk's biography
- ^ "Kryptowährungen und Physik – Planetphysics".[permanent dead link]
- ^ Planet Math page
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2010-03-17. Abstract Relational Biology and Category Theory Representations of Functional Organisms and Societies
- ^http://planetphysics.org/encyclopedia/OrganismicSupercategoriesAndSuperComplexSystemBiodynamics.html[permanent dead link] Organismic Supercategories and Complex Systems Biology
- Bartholomay, A. F., G. Karreman and H. D. Landahl (1972). "Obituary of Nicolas Rashevsky.", Bull. Math. Biophys. 34.
- Rosen, Robert. 1972. Tribute to Nicolas Rashevsky 1899–1972. Progress in Theoretical Biology 2.
- Tara H. Abraham. 2004. Journal of the History of Biology, 37: 333–385.Nicholas Rashevsky's Mathematical Biophysics[dead link]
- Rosen Robert. 1972. "Reminiscences of Nicolas Rashevsky", unpublished paper.
- Rosen, Robert. 1958. The representation of biological systems from the standpoint of the theory of categories. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 20: 317–341.
- Natural Transformations of Organismic Structures., Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 42: 431–446, Baianu, I.C.: 1980.
- Elsasser, M.W.: 1981, A Form of Logic Suited for Biology., In: Robert, Rosen, ed., Progress in Theoretical Biology, Volume 6, Academic Press, New York and London, pp 23–62.
- Rosen, Robert. 1985. The physics of complexity. Systems Research 2: 171–175.
- Rosen, Robert. 1985. Organisms as causal systems which are not mechanisms. In R. Rosen, Theoretical Biology and Complexity, 165–203.
- Rosen, Robert. 1979. Biology and system theory: An overview. In Klir, Proceedings of the System Theory Conference — Applied General Systems Research,
- Rosen, Robert. 1977. Complexity as a system property. International Journal of General Systems 3: 227–232.
- Rosen, Robert. 1977. Complexity and system description. In Hartnett, Systems, 169–175.
- Rosen, R. 1973. A unified approach to physics, biology, and sociology. In Rosen, Foundations of Mathematical Biology, 177–190.
- Rosen, R. 1972.Quantum genetics. In R. Rosen, Foundations of Mathematical Biology, 215–252.
- Rosen, R. 1972. Morphogenesis. In Rosen, Foundations of Mathematical Biology, 1–77.
- Rosen, R. 1972. Mechanics of epigenetic control. In R. Rosen, Foundations of Mathematical Biology, 79–140.
Last edited on 1 April 2021, at 09:31
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