This article is about the prevention of flight in a region of airspace by the application or threat of military power. For information on prevention of flight ordinarily enforced by civil regulation or legal means, see Prohibited airspace
A no-fly zone
, also known as a no-flight zone
), or air exclusion zone
is a territory or area established by a military power over which certain aircraft
are not permitted to fly. Such zones are usually set up in an enemy power's territory during a conflict, similar in concept to a aerial demilitarized zone
, and usually intend to prohibit the country's military aircraft
from operating in the region. Aircraft that violate a no-fly zone may be shot down
by the enforcing state, depending on the terms of the NFZ. Air exclusion zones and anti-aircraft defences
are sometimes set up in a civilian context, for example to protect sensitive locations, or events such as the 2012 London Olympic Games
, against terrorist
No-fly zones are a modern phenomenon established in the 1990s. They can be distinguished from traditional air power missions by their coercive appropriation of another nation's airspace only, to achieve aims on the ground within the target nation. While the RAF
conducted prototypical air control operations over various contentious colonies
between the two World Wars of the 20th century, no-fly zones did not assume their modern form until the end of the Gulf War
During the Cold War
, the risk of local conflict escalating into nuclear showdown
dampened the appeal of military intervention as a tool of U.S. statecraft. Perhaps more importantly, air power was a relatively blunt instrument until the operational maturation of stealth
and precision-strike technologies. Before the Gulf War
of 1991, air power had not demonstrated the "fidelity" needed to perform nuanced attacks against transitory, difficult-to-reach targets—it lacked the ability to produce decisive political effects short of total war. However, the demise of the Soviet Union
and the rise in aerospace capabilities engendered by the technology revolution made no-fly zones viable in both political and military contexts.
Past no-fly zones
The United Nations
reported that in 1999 alone 144 civilians had been killed during Coalition bombing efforts.
Reports from Baghdad
claim that more than 1,400 civilians were killed.
An internal UN Security Sector report found that, in one five-month period, 41% of the victims were civilians.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1993–1995
Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia
A 2004 Stanford University
paper published in Journal of Strategic Studies
, "Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia on the Theory and Practice of No-fly Zones," reviewed the effectiveness of the air-based campaigns in achieving military objectives. The paper's findings were: 1) A clear, unified command structure is essential. In Bosnia and Herzegovina
, during "Operation Deny Flight," a confusing dual-key coordination structure provided inadequate authority and resulted in air forces not being given authority to assist in key situations; 2) To avoid a "perpetual patrol problem," states must know in advance their policy objectives and the exit strategy for no-fly zones; 3) The effectiveness of no-fly zones is highly dependent on regional support. A lack of support from Turkey for the 1996 Iraq no-fly zone ultimately constrained the coalition's ability to effectively enforce it.
2011 no-fly zone in Libya
A no-fly zone was declared by the Libyan National Army
(LNA) in the country's south during the LNA's offensive in the region in 2018.
It was later re-implemented for 10 days in 2019 as the LNA established control over oil fields in the region.
The LNA declared another no-fly zone in the country's west, during the 2019 Western Libya offensive
- ^ Long, Robert A. (June 2012). The Coercive Efficacy of Air Exclusion Zones Myth or Reality(PDF) (Thesis). United States Air Force School of Advanced Air and Space Studies. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Fortunately, a more complete concept, the Air Exclusion Zone (AEZ), will satisfy those seeking clarity.
- ^ a b "Air Exclusion Zones: An Instrument for Engagement in a New Century," Brig General David A. Deptula, in "Airpower and Joint Forces: The Proceeding of a Conference Held In Canberra by the RAAF, 8–9 May 2000," "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
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- ^ "No Fly Zones Over Iraq". CounterPunch.org. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
- ^ Guardian Staff (2000-03-04). "Squeezed to death". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
- ^ Beale, Michael (1997). Bombs over Bosnia – The Role of Airpower in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Air University Press (Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery, Alabama). p. 19. OCLC 444093978.
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- ^ Resolution (March 31, 1993). "Resolution 816 (1993) – Adopted by the Security Council at Its 3191st Meeting, on 31 March 1993". United Nations Security Council (via The UN Refugee Agency). Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- ^ "Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia on the Theory and Practice of No-fly Zones". Journalist's Resource.org.
- ^ Bilefsky, Dan; Landler, Mark (March 17, 2011). "U.N. Approves Airstrikes to Halt Attacks by Qaddafi Forces". The New York Times.
- ^ "Security Council Approves ‘No-Fly Zone’ over Libya, Authorizing ‘All Necessary Measures’ to Protect Civilians, by Vote of 10 in Favour with 5 Abstentions"
- ^ UN votes to end no-fly zone over Libya , Aljazeera, October 28, 2011.
- ^ "Southern region of Libya is no-fly zone, LNA declares". The Libyan Address Journal. 2019-02-08. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
- ^ "Haftar's forces confirm control of Libya's Sharara oilfield | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
- ^ "Haftar forces announce no-fly zone after being targeted by air strike". english.alarabiya.net. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
Last edited on 30 December 2020, at 01:14
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