, the nominative case
), subjective case
, straight case
or upright case
is one of the grammatical cases
of a noun
or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject
of a verb
or the predicate
noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object
or other verb arguments
. Generally, the noun "that is doing something" is in the nominative, and the nominative is often the form listed in dictionaries.
The reference form (more technically, the least marked
) of certain parts of speech is normally in the nominative case, but that is often not a complete specification of the reference form, as the number and the gender may need to be specified. Thus, the reference or least marked form of an adjective might be the nominative masculine singular.
The parts of speech that are often declined and therefore may have a nominative case are nouns, adjectives, pronouns and (less frequently) numerals and participles. The nominative case often indicates the subject of a verb but sometimes does not indicate any particular relationship with the other parts of a sentence. In some languages, the nominative case is unmarked, and it may then be said to be marked by a null morpheme
. Moreover, in most languages with a nominative case, the nominative form is the lemma
; that is, it is the reference form used to cite a word, to list it as a dictionary entry etc.
Nominative cases are found in Arabic
, Old English
, Old French
, among other languages. English still retains some nominative pronouns
, which are contrasted with the accusative
(comparable to the oblique
in some other languages): I
) and who
). A usage that is archaic in most current English dialects is the singular second-person pronoun thou
). A special case is the word you
: originally, ye
was its nominative form and you
the accusative, but over time, you
has come to be used for the nominative as well.
The term "nominative case" is most properly used in the discussion of nominative–accusative languages
, such as Latin, Greek and most modern Western European languages.
In active–stative languages
, there is a case, sometimes called nominative, that is the most
marked case and is used for the subject of a transitive verb
or a voluntary subject of an intransitive verb
but not for an involuntary subject of an intransitive verb. Since such languages are a relatively new field of study, there is no standard name for this case.
English is now often described as having a subjective case
, instead of a nominative, to draw attention to the differences between the "standard" generic nominative and the way that it is used in English.
The term objective case
is then used for the oblique case
, which covers the roles of accusative, dative and objects of a preposition. The genitive case
is then usually called the possessive
form, rather than a noun case per se
. English is then said to have two cases: the subjective and the objective.
The nominative case marks the subject of a verb. When the verb is active, the nominative is the person or thing doing the action (agent
); when the verb is passive, the nominative is the person or thing receiving the action.
- The boy saw her.
- She was seen by the boy.
Predicate noun or adjective
- Socrates was a wise man.
- Socrates was wise.
- ^ nominativus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
- ^ ὀνομαστικός. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- ^ ὀνομάζω
- ^ ὄνομα
- ^ Dionysius Thrax. τέχνη γραμματική (Art of Grammar), section ιβ´ (10b): περὶ ὀνόματος (On the noun). Bibliotheca Augustana.
- ^ "Personal pronoun". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- ^ "Grammar Handbook « Writers Workshop: Writer Resources « The Center for Writing Studies, Illinois". www.cws.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- ^ Shrives, Craig. "What Is the Subjective Case? (grammar lesson)". www.grammar-monster.com. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- ^ "What Is the Subjective (or Nominative) Case?". Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- ^ "Subjective and Objective Case @ The Internet Grammar of English". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
Last edited on 1 March 2021, at 03:27
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.