A coup d'état in 1974
, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece
, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus
. This resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot
population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots
from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the north in 1983. Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for economic, political and military support.
Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute
have been unsuccessful. The Turkish Army
maintains a large force
in Northern Cyprus. While its presence is supported and approved by the TRNC government, the Republic of Cyprus, the European Union as a whole, and the international community regard it as an occupation force, and its presence has been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions
Northern Cyprus is a semi-presidential
, democratic republic with a cultural heritage
incorporating various influences and an economy
that is dominated by the services sector. The economy has seen growth through the 2000s and 2010s, with the GNP
per capita more than tripling in the 2000s, but is held back by an international embargo
due to the official closure of the ports in Northern Cyprus by the Republic of Cyprus. The official language is Turkish
, with a distinct local dialect
being spoken. The vast majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims
, while religious attitudes are mostly moderate and secular.
Northern Cyprus is an observer state of ECO
under the title "Turkish Cypriot State
", and of PACE
under the title "Turkish Cypriot Community".
A united Cyprus gained independence from British rule in August 1960, after both Greek and Turkish Cypriots agreed to abandon their respective plans for enosis
(union with Greece) and taksim
(Turkish for "partition"). The agreement involved Cyprus being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios
proposed unilateral changes to the constitution, via 13 amendments
. Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments, claiming that this was an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favour of the Greek Cypriots
and to demote Turkish status from co-founders of the state to one of minority status, removing their constitutional safeguards in the process. Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus (SCCC). Makarios announced that he would not comply with the decision of the SCCC, whatever it was,
and defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks" as opposed to the stance of the SCCC.
On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided that Makarios's 13 amendments were illegal. The Cyprus Supreme Court
's ruling found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to fully implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments.
On 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to Makarios's stance. On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC.
After the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist. The Supreme Court of Cyprus (SCC) was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus, and undertook the jurisdiction and powers of the SCCC and HCC.
On 30 November, Makarios legalised the 13 proposals. In 1963, the Greek Cypriot wing of the government created the Akritas plan
which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots from the government and ultimately lead to union with Greece. The plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots objected then they should be "violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene".
On 21 December 1963, shots were fired at a Turkish Cypriot crowd that had gathered as a Greek police patrol stopped two Turkish Cypriots, claiming to ask for identification; two Turkish Cypriots were killed.
Almost immediately, intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia
. Though the TMT
—a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim
(division or partition of Cyprus), in opposition to the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA
and its advocacy of enosis
(union of Cyprus with Greece)—committed a number of acts of retaliation; historian of the Cyprus conflict Keith Kyle
noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks".
Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson
, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita/Küçük Kaymaklı
and attacked the Turkish Cypriot population.
By the end of 1964, 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek Cypriots had been killed.
Turkish Cypriot members of the government had by now withdrawn, creating an essentially Greek Cypriot administration in control of all institutions of the state. After the partnership government collapsed, the Greek Cypriot led administration was recognised as the legitimate government of the Republic of Cyprus at the stage of the debates in New York in February 1964.
In September 1964, the then United Nations Secretary General
, U Thant
reported that "UNFICYP carried out a detailed survey of all damage to properties throughout the island during the disturbances; it shows that in 109 villages, most of them Turkish-Cypriot or mixed villages, 527 houses have been destroyed while 2,000 others have suffered damage from looting".
Widespread looting of Turkish Cypriot villages prompted 20,000 refugees to retreat into armed enclaves
, where they remained for the next 11 years,
relying on food and medical supplies from Turkey to survive. Turkish Cypriots formed paramilitary groups to defend the enclaves, leading to a gradual division of the island's communities into two hostile camps. The violence had also seen thousands of Turkish Cypriots attempt to escape the violence by emigrating to Britain, Australia and Turkey.
On 28 December 1967, the Turkish Cypriot Provisional Administration was founded.
, founder and former President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
On 6 July 1974, Makarios
accused the Greek government of turning the Cypriot National Guard into an army of occupation.
On 15 July 1974, the Greek military junta
and the Cypriot National Guard
backed a Greek Cypriot military coup d'état
in Cyprus. Pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson
replaced President Makarios as the new president.
The Greek Cypriot coupists proclaimed the establishment of the "Hellenic Republic of Cyprus".
Turkey claimed that under the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee
, the coup was sufficient reason for military action to protect the Turkish Cypriot populace, and thus Turkey invaded
Cyprus on 20 July. Turkish forces proceeded to take over the northern four-elevenths of the island (about 36% of Cyprus's total area). The coup caused a civil war filled with ethnic violence, after which it collapsed and Makarios returned to power.
On 2 August 1975, in the negotiations in Vienna, a population exchange agreement was signed between community leaders Rauf Denktaş
and Glafcos Clerides
under the auspices of United Nations.
On the basis of the Agreement, 196,000 Greek Cypriots living in the north were exchanged for 42,000 Turkish Cypriots living in the south
(the number of settlers was disputed
). The Orthodox Greek Cypriots in Rizokarpaso
, Agios Andronikos
and Agia Triada
chose to stay in their villages,
as did also Catholic Maronites
. Approximately 1,500 Greek Cypriots and 500 Turkish Cypriots remain missing.
The invasion led to the formation of the first sovereign administrative body of Northern Cyprus in August 1974, the Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration
In 1975, the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus
(Kıbrıs Türk Federe Devleti
) was declared as a first step towards a future federated Cypriot state, but was rejected by the Republic of Cyprus and the United Nations.
, North Nicosia in 2006, with the Northern Cyprus and Turkish flags.
In recent years, the politics of reunification has dominated the island's affairs. The European Union decided in 2000 to accept Cyprus as a member, even if it was divided. This was due to their view of Rauf Denktaş
, the pro-independence Turkish Cypriot President, as the main stumbling block, but also due to Greece threatening to block eastern EU expansion. It was hoped that Cyprus's planned accession into the European Union
would act as a catalyst towards a settlement. In the time leading up to Cyprus becoming a member, a new government was elected in Turkey and Rauf Denktaş lost political power in Cyprus. In 2004, a United Nations–brokered peace settlement was presented in a referendum
to both sides.
The proposed settlement was opposed by both the president of Cyprus, Tassos Papadopoulos
, and Turkish Cypriot president Rauf Denktaş
; in the referendum, while 65% of Turkish Cypriots accepted the proposal, 76% of Greek Cypriots rejected it. As a result, Cyprus entered the European Union divided, with the effects of membership
suspended for Northern Cyprus.
Denktaş resigned in the wake of the vote, ushering in the pro-settlement Mehmet Ali Talat
as his successor. However, the pro-settlement side and Mehmet Ali Talat lost momentum due to the ongoing embargo and isolation,
despite promises from the European Union that these would be eased.
As a result, the Turkish Cypriot electorate became frustrated. This led ultimately to the pro-independence side winning the general elections in 2009 and its candidate, former Prime Minister Derviş Eroğlu
, winning the presidential elections in 2010. Although Eroğlu and his National Unity Party
favours the independence of Northern Cyprus rather than reunification with the Republic of Cyprus, he is negotiating with the Greek Cypriot side towards a settlement for reunification.
Northern Cyprus is divided into six districts: Lefkoşa
. Lefke District was established by separation from the Güzelyurt District in 2016.
In addition there are further twelve sub-districts divided between the five larger districts and twenty-eight municipalities.
The president is elected for a five-year term and is currently Ersin Tatar
. The current Prime Minister is Ersan Saner. The legislature is the Assembly of the Republic, which has 50 members elected by proportional representation
from six electoral districts. In the elections of January 2018, the right-wing National Unity Party
won the most seats in the Assembly, and the current government is a coalition of the National Unity Party and the centrist People's Party
Due to Northern Cyprus's isolation and heavy reliance on Turkish support, Turkey has a high level of influence over the country's politics. This has led to some experts characterising it as an effective puppet state
Other experts, however, have pointed out to the independent nature of elections and appointments in Northern Cyprus and disputes between the Turkish Cypriot and Turkish governments, concluding that "puppet state" is not an accurate description for Northern Cyprus.
International status and foreign relations
London office of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Bedford Square
No nation other than Turkey
has officially recognised Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. The United Nations
recognises it as territory of the Republic of Cyprus under Turkish occupation.
Pakistan and Bangladesh had initially declared their recognition of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state shortly after its declaration of independence,
but they withdrew their recognition as a result of US pressure after the UN deemed the declaration illegal.
The United Nations considers the declaration of independence by Northern Cyprus as legally invalid, as enunciated in several of its resolutions.
In the wake of the April 2004 referendum on the United Nations Annan Plan
, and in view of the support of the Turkish Cypriot community for the plan, the European Union made pledges towards ending the isolation of Northern Cyprus. These included measures for trade and €259 million in aid.
A pledge by the EU to lift the embargo on Northern Cyprus in the wake of the Annan Plan referendums has been blocked by the Greek Cypriot government.
In 2004, the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation
upgraded the delegation of the Turkish Cypriot Muslim community from "observer community" (1979) to that of a constituent state
with the designation "Turkish Cypriot State
", making Northern Cyprus an observer member of the organisation.
A number of high-profile formal meetings have also taken place between Turkish Cypriot presidents and various foreign leaders and politicians.
In 2004, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
gave observer status to the representatives of Turkish Cypriot community.
Since then, Northern Cyprus's representatives have actively participated in all PACE activities without voting rights.
The European Union considers the area not under effective control of the Republic of Cyprus as EU territory under Turkish military occupation and thus indefinitely exempt from EU legislation
until a settlement has been found. The status of Northern Cyprus has become a recurrent issue especially during the recent talks for Turkey's membership of the EU
where the division of the island is seen as a major stumbling block in Turkey's road to membership.
The Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan
has issued a resolution recognising the independence of Northern Cyprus. As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh
issue, however, Azerbaijan itself has not recognised North Cyprus.
Turkish Cypriots have been applying for decades for passports issued by Cyprus
. When the entry points with the Republic of Cyprus were closed, the applications were made either through middlemen or through consulates and embassies of Cyprus in other countries. A yearly increase in the number of applications for such passports of 10–15% was observed in years prior to 2001, when the rate greatly increased and 817 were issued in the first eight months of 2001 as compared to 448 for the whole of 2000. After the opening of the borders with the Republic of Cyprus, Turkish Cypriots started line-ups applying for Cypriot passports by visiting the Republic of Cyprus and showing proof of their Cypriot ancestry.
There are seven border crossings between Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus.
Since May 2004 some tourists have taken to flying to the Republic of Cyprus directly then crossing the green line to holiday in Northern Cyprus.[needs update]
On 21 September 2011, Turkey
and Northern Cyprus signed an EEZ border agreement in New York.
The Security Forces Command consists of an 8,000 strong force primarily made up of conscripted Turkish Cypriot males between the ages of 18 and 40.
There is also an additional reserve force which consists of about 10,000 first-line and 16,000 second-line troops conscripted up to the age of 50. The Security Forces Command
is lightly armed and heavily dependent on its mainland Turkish allies, from which it draws much of its officer corps.
It is led by a Brigadier General drawn from the Turkish Army. It acts essentially as a gendarmerie
charged with protection of the border of Northern Cyprus from Greek Cypriot incursions and maintaining internal security within Northern Cyprus.
The presence of the mainland Turkish military in Cyprus is highly controversial, having been denounced as an occupation force by the Republic of Cyprus and the international community. Several United Nations Security Council
resolutions have called on the Turkish forces to withdraw.
In January 2011, The Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of Human Rights in Cyprus
noted that the ongoing division of Cyprus continues to affect human rights throughout the island "... including freedom of movement, human rights pertaining to the question of missing persons, discrimination, the right to life, freedom of religion, and economic, social and cultural rights."
has classified the perceived level of democratic and political freedom in Northern Cyprus as "free" since 2000 in its Freedom in the World
The 2016 ranking was "free" with the scores (1: most free, 7: least free) political rights: 2/7, civil liberties: 2/7 and aggregate score: 79/100. Reporters Without Borders
' World Press Freedom Index ranked Northern Cyprus 76th among 180 countries in 2015.
The Greek Cypriot
communities, numbering 343 and 118 respectively as of 2014, are denied the right to vote in presidential, parliamentary and municipal elections or run for office. Maronites do elect the leader of their village
, whilst Greek Cypriots have two appointed leaders, one by the Turkish Cypriot government and the other by the Republic of Cyprus.
World Happiness Report 2016 of United Nations' Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) ranked Northern Cyprus 62nd among 157 countries.
Gallup Healthways Well-Being Index of 2014 ranked Northern Cyprus 49th among 145 countries.
Northern Cyprus received 153 asylum applications during 2011–14 according to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
Northern Cyprus has an area of 3,355 square kilometres (1,295 sq mi), which amounts to around a third of the island. 75 kilometres (47 mi) to the north of Northern Cyprus lies Turkey
lying 97 kilometres (60.3 mi) to the east. It lies between latitudes 34° and 36° N, and longitudes 32° and 35° E.
The coastline of Northern Cyprus features two bays: the Morphou Bay
and the Famagusta Bay
, and there are four capes: Cape Apostolos Andreas
, Cape Kormakitis
, Cape Zeytin and Cape Kasa, with Cape Apostolos Andreas being the endpoint of the Karpaz Peninsula
. The narrow Kyrenia mountain range
lies along the northern coastline, and the highest point in Northern Cyprus, Mount Selvili, lies in this mountain range with an altitude of 1,024 metres (3,360 ft).
plain, extending from the Güzelyurt district
to the eastern coastline is another defining landscape. The Mesaoria plains consist of plain fields and small hills, and is crossed by several seasonal streams. The eastern part of the plain is used for dry agriculture, such as the cultivation of wheat and barley, and are therefore predominantly green in the winter and spring, while it turns yellow and brown in the summer.
56.7% of the land in Northern Cyprus is agriculturally viable.
Wild Cyprus donkeys inhabit the mainly remote northern region of the İskele District
A relatively unspoiled part of the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot
, Northern Cyprus has considerable ecological diversity, containing a variety of terrestrial habitats
Its flora includes around 1900 plant species, of which 19 are endemic to Northern Cyprus.
Even in the urban areas, there is a lot of diversity: a study conducted on the banks of the Pedieos
river around Nicosia found more than 750 different plant species.
Among these species are 30 of the orchid species that are endemic to Cyprus.
An endangered species that is the subject of folk tales and myths is the sea daffodil
, found on the sandy beaches and endangered due to the disruption of their habitats.
In the national park in the Karpaz Peninsula
around Cape Apostolos Andreas
, there is a population of around 1,000 wild Cyprus donkeys
. These donkeys, under the protection of the Turkish Cypriot government, are free to wander in herds over an area of 300 square kilometres (120 square miles
The donkeys have earned a strong image for the peninsula, which is also home to a rich fauna and relatively big forests.
The beaches of Northern Cyprus also include sites where hundreds of loggerhead turtles
and green turtles
lay eggs, which hatch at the end of the summer, followed by observers.
The winter in Northern Cyprus is cool and rainy, particularly between December and February, with 60% of annual rainfall.
These rains produce winter torrents that fill most of the rivers, which typically dry up as the year progresses. Snow has been known to fall on the Kyrenia Range, but seldom elsewhere in spite of low night temperatures. The short spring is characterised by unstable weather, occasional heavy storms and the "meltem
", or westerly wind. Summer is hot and dry enough to turn low-lying lands on the island brown. Parts of the island experience the "Poyraz", a north-westerly wind, or the sirocco
, a wind from Africa, which is dry and dusty. Summer is followed by a short, turbulent autumn.
Climate conditions on the island vary by geographical factors. The Mesaoria Plain, cut off from the summer breezes and from much of the humidity of the sea, may reach temperature peaks of 40 to 45 °C (104 to 113 °F). Humidity rises at the Karpaz Peninsula. Humidity and water temperature, 16 to 28 °C (61 to 82 °F), combine to stabilise coastal weather, which does not experience inland extremes. The Southern Range blocks air currents that bring rain and atmospheric humidity from the south-west, diminishing both on its eastern side.
(Girne) is one of the main tourist resorts in Northern Cyprus. Tourism is one of the dominant sectors of the Northern Cyprus' economy.
The economy of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007) which includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education. The revenues gained by the education sector in 2011 was $400 million.
Industry (light manufacturing) contributes 22% of GDP and agriculture 9%.
The economy of Northern Cyprus is based on a free market
and it became the top country in Europe in entrepreneurial intent to start a new business in 2014.
Economic development is adversely affected by the continuing Cyprus problem. Northern Cyprus is under an international embargo
as the Republic of Cyprus, as the internationally recognised authority, has declared airports and ports in the area not under its effective control closed. All UN member states other than Turkey respect the closure of those ports and airports.
As a result, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkish economic support,
and is still dependent on monetary transfers from the Turkish government.
Northern Cyprus uses the Turkish lira
as legal tender rather than the euro
which links its economy to that of Turkey's. Since the Republic of Cyprus joined the Eurozone
and the movement of peoples between the north and south has become more free, the Euro is also in wide circulation.
Exports and imports have to go via Turkey;
while European Union promised an opening up of the ports after the Annan plan, this was blocked by the Republic of Cyprus and exporting through the south, while technically possible, remains impractical.
Despite the constraints imposed by the lack of international recognition, the nominal GDP growth rates of the economy in 2001–2005 were 5.4%, 6.9%, 11.4%, 15.4% and 10.6%, respectively.
The real GDP growth rate in 2007 was estimated at 2%.
This growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish Lira and a boom in the education and construction sectors. Between 2002 and 2007, Gross National Product
per capita more than tripled, from US$4,409 in 2002 to US$16,158 (in current U.S. dollars).
The growth continued through the 2010s, with real growth rates of 3.7%, 3.9%, 1.8% and 1.1% respectively in 2010–2013.
The unemployment rate declined through the 2010s and was at 8.3% in 2014.
In 2011, North Cyprus sold electricity to the Republic of Cyprus following an explosion
in the southern part of the island which affected a large power station.
The Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project
, completed in 2015, is aimed at delivering water for drinking and irrigation from southern Turkey via a pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea.
Tourism is considered as one of the driving sectors of the Turkish Cypriot economy. The country received over 1.1 million tourists in 2012,
when hotels and restaurants generated an income of $328 million
and constituted 8.5% of the GDP.
Accommodation and catering created more than 10,000 jobs in the same year.
The tourism sector has seen great development in the 2000s and 2010s, with the number of tourists more than doubling, increased investment and hotel construction; official estimates of income derived from tourism were around 700 million US dollars in 2013 and the total bed capacity was estimated to be around 20,000.
Casino tourism is one of the major sectors of the North Cyprus economy.
Kyrenia is considered the capital of tourism in Northern Cyprus, with its numerous hotels, entertainment facilities, vibrant nightlife and shopping areas.
In 2012, 62.7% of the visitors in Northern Cyprus stayed in the Girne District
during their visit.
Out of the 145 hotels in Northern Cyprus, 99 were in the Girne District in 2013.
Northern Cyprus has traditionally been an attraction for beach holidays, partly thanks to its reputation as an unspoiled area. Its mild climate, rich history and nature are seen as sources of attraction. A significant sector of eco-tourism
has been developed in Northern Cyprus, as tourists visit it for bird watching, cycling, walking and observing flowers in the wild. It is praised for its relative safety, and especially for the Karpass Peninsula
, its well-preservation.
The peninsula is home to several sorts of tourism: it hosts the Bafra
Tourism Area as a center for beach-goers, where four luxurious and large hotels were built until 2014, several facilities and regular festivals that highlight its rural qualities and exhibit local traditions, a remote natural park, the Kantara Castle
attracting sightseers, and a marina that was built to host international yachts and boats, along with large facilities.
Casino tourism has also grown to become a significant contribution to the economy in Northern Cyprus. They were first opened in the 1990s, and have since become very popular with visitors from Turkey and the rest of the island, where casinos are banned. This has led to huge investments in the casino sector.
However, the sector has been criticised due to claims of its lack of benefits for the small and middle-scale business and shop owners.
The "nightclubs" that have been established for prostitution
attract sex tourism
to Northern Cyprus and the industry has been described as a "civilized one", despite the sex workers being described as "vulnerable to abuse".
The share of the transport and communications industry in the GDP of Northern Cyprus is constantly varying; it decreased from 12.1% in 2008 to 8.5% in 2011, but rose again to 9.3% in 2012.
Air transport is a major route of entry into Northern Cyprus. The country is home to two airports, the Ercan International Airport
and the Geçitkale Airport
, of which only Ercan is currently functioning.
The Ercan airport saw an important renovation in the 2010s that greatly increased its passenger traffic, it was used by 1.76 million passengers in the first seven months of 2014 alone.
Non-stop flights are only available from multiple points in Turkey through a number of Turkish carriers. Direct
scheduled and charter flights
take place from other countries, but with mandatory stopovers in Turkey. 600 charter flights were scheduled for 2013. Scheduled destinations include cities such as London
while charter flight destinations include cities such as Berlin
Direct flights to Northern Cyprus and the trade traffic through the Northern Cypriot ports are restricted as part of the embargo on Northern Cypriot ports.
The airports of Geçitkale
are only recognised as legal ports of entry by Turkey and Azerbaijan
Direct charter flights between Poland
and North Cyprus started on 20 June 2011.
The seaports in Famagusta
have been declared closed to all shipping by the Republic of Cyprus since 1974.
By agreement between Northern Cyprus and Syria
, there was a ship tour between Famagusta and Latakia
, Syria before the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War
. Since the opening of the Green Line Turkish Cypriot residents are allowed to trade through ports recognized by the Republic of Cyprus.
With the lack of a railway system, the country's highways are used for transport between major cities. In the 21st century, these highways were upgraded into dual carriageways
, with some roads in the Karpass area still being upgraded as of 2015. Northern Cyprus has around 7,000 kilometres (4,300 miles) of roads, with two thirds of these roads paved.
Recent constructions included the construction of a Northern Coast Highway, which was hailed as a major incentive for economic development.
Ethnic groups of Northern Cyprus (2006 census)
Turkish Cypriot children in the walled part of North Nicosia
Northern Cyprus's first official census was performed in 1996. The population recorded was 200,587.
The second census, carried out in 2006, revealed the population of Northern Cyprus to be 265,100,
of which majority is composed of indigenous Turkish Cypriots
(including refugees from Southern Cyprus
) and settlers from Turkey
. Of the 178,000 Turkish Cypriot citizens, 82% are native Cypriots (145,000). Of the 45,000 people born to non-Cypriot parentage, nearly 40% (17,000) were born in Cyprus. The figure for non-citizens, including students, guest workers and temporary residents stood at 78,000 people.
The third official census of Northern Cyprus was carried out in 2011, made under the auspices of UN observers. It returned a total population of 294,906.
These results were disputed by some political parties, labour unions and local newspapers. The government was accused of deliberately under-counting the population, after apparently giving an estimate of 700,000 before the census, in order to demand financial help from Turkey.
One source claims that the population in the north has reached 500,000,
split between 50% Turkish Cypriots and 50% Turkish settlers or Cypriot-born children of such settlers.
Researcher Mete Hatay has written that such reports are "wildly speculative" and are picked up by opposition parties for political benefit, which resulted in reports in the south. Such reports have never been scientifically or statistically scrutinised, despite opportunities of opposition parties to do so using the electoral rolls in their possession, thereby continuing a "war of numbers".
The Government of Northern Cyprus estimates that the 1983 population of Northern Cyprus was 155,521.
Estimates by the government of the Republic of Cyprus
from 2001 place the population at 200,000, of which 80–89,000 are Turkish Cypriots and 109,000–117,000 are designated as Turkish settlers by the Republic of Cyprus.
An island-wide census in 1960 indicated the number of Turkish Cypriots as 102,000 and Greek Cypriots as 450,000.
As of 2005, the settlers constituted no more than 25% of the electorate in Northern Cyprus. The degree of the integration of mainland Turks to the Turkish Cypriot community varies; some identify as Turkish Cypriots and have culturally integrated, while some embrace a Turkish identity.
Northern Cyprus is almost entirely Turkish-speaking. English, however, is widely spoken as a second language.
There are 644 Greek Cypriots
living in Rizokarpaso
(Dipkarpaz) and 364 Maronites
Greek Cypriots were forcibly evicted from their homes in the North by the invading force of the Turkish army.
Rizokarpaso is the home of the biggest Greek-speaking population in the north. The Greek-Cypriot inhabitants are still supplied by the UN, and Greek-Cypriot products are consequently available in some shops.
Northern Cyprus Religions
The majority of Turkish Cypriots (99%) are Sunni Muslims
Northern Cyprus is a secular state.
Alcohol is frequently consumed within the community and most Turkish Cypriot women do not cover their heads; however headscarves are still worn on occasion by public figures as a symbol of the inhabitants' Turkish culture, or simply as a conservative form of dress.
However, some religious traditions still play a role within the community. Turkish Cypriot males are generally circumcised
in accordance with religious beliefs.
The education system in Northern Cyprus consists of pre-school education, primary education, secondary education and higher education. Five years of primary education is mandatory.
Higher Education Planning Evaluation Accreditation and Coordination Council (YÖDAK) of Northern Cyprus is a member of International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE).
In 2013 there were 63,765 university students from 114 countries in nine universities in Northern Cyprus. In 2014, the number of students increased to 70,004, (15,210 Turkish Cypriots; 36,148 from Turkey; 18,646 international students): Near East University
(NEU), Girne American University
, Middle East Technical University-TRNC
, European University of Lefke
, Cyprus International University
, Eastern Mediterranean University
(EMU), Istanbul Technical University-TRNC
, University of Mediterranean Karpasia
, and University of Kyrenia
, all established since 1974. EMU is an internationally recognised institution of higher learning with more than 1000 faculty members from 35 countries. There are 15,000 students in EMU representing 68 nationalities. The 8 universities have been approved by the Higher Education Council of Turkey. Eastern Mediterranean University
and Near East University
are full individual members of the European University Association
EMU is a full member of the Community of Mediterranean Universities, Federation Universities of Islamic World, International Association of Universities and International Council of Graphic Design Associations,
and was ranked as the best university in the island and among the top 500 in Europe by Webometrics
. Girne American University
, in the northern coastal city of Kyrenia
, opened a campus in Canterbury
, United Kingdom
and was accredited by the British Accreditation Council in 2010.
Northern Cyprus regularly participates in international Robocup competition, and took 14th place out of 20 in 2013.
The country has supercomputers with which it participates in CERN experiments that led to the discovery of the Higgs boson
Northern Cyprus is among participant countries of Solar Challenge of solar powered vehicles in South Africa in 2014.
Music and dance
children, dressed in traditional clothing, preparing for a folk-dance show
Turkish Cypriot folk music consists of a rich variety of local tunes, influenced by the mainland Turkish music to a limited extent. Historically, it was shaped around the tradition of weddings, the primary social gatherings at the time. Violin, goblet drum
, known locally as "darbuka", zurna
and other drums were heavily used in these gatherings, and a large number of traditional songs developed based on this legacy.
Turkish Cypriot culture also incorporates a great diversity of folk dances with various influences, including different versions of karsilamas
The Northern Cyprus State Symphony Orchestra has been active since 1975. The Bellapais Abbey
in Kyrenia hosts international festivals of classical music, and is considered in important platform of classical music.
North Nicosia has its own Nicosia Municipal Orchestra that performs at open spaces, such as parks and squares, and is also home to the annual Walled City Jazz Festival. Rüya Taner
is a Turkish Cypriot pianist who has achieved international acclaim.
Turkish Cypriot cities and towns regularly organise festivals that include performances of local and international singers and bands.
Some Turkish Cypriot singers, such as Ziynet Sali
and Işın Karaca
, have achieved fame in Turkey. The Turkish Cypriot band Sıla 4
produced music that is considered essential for the Turkish Cypriot identity, and also acquired fame in Turkey.
Rock and pop music are popular with the public in Northern Cyprus, important singers and bands include SOS
and Fikri Karayel
Poetry is the most widely published form of literature in Northern Cyprus. Turkish Cypriot poetry is based on both the effects of Turkish literature and the culture of the island of Cyprus, along with some reflection of the British colonial history.
The first era of Turkish Cypriot poetry after the introduction of the Latin alphabet, characterised by poets such as Nazif Süleyman Ebeoğlu
, Urkiye Mine Balman
, Engin Gönül
, Necla Salih Suphi
and Pembe Marmara
, had strong nationalistic elements due to the political attitudes of Turkish Cypriots at the time and stylistically reflected the poetry of the Turkish mainland. Meanwhile, other poets, such as Özker Yaşın
, Osman Türkay
, who was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
and Nevzat Yalçın
sought to write in more original styles, with the influence of nascent poetic styles in Turkey and those in Britain. This group of poets were very prolific and increased the popularity of poetry in the Turkish Cypriot community, and are seen as key figures in Turkish Cypriot literature.
The nationalism gave way to a notion of Cypriotness in the 1970s, with the influence of Yaşın, Türkay and Yalçın. During this period, the so-called "1974 generation of poets" arose, led by poets including Mehmet Yaşın
, Hakkı Yücel
, Nice Denizoğlu
, Neşe Yaşın
, Ayşen Dağlı
and Canan Sümer
. The poetry of this generation was characterised by the appreciation of the Turkish Cypriot identity as distinct from Turkish identity and the identification of Cyprus as the Turkish Cypriot homeland instead of Turkey, in contrast to the previous nationalist poetry. This approach is often called the "Cypriot poetry of rejection" as it resists the influence of Turkey, highlighting the cultural rift between Turkey and Cyprus due to the recent experience of war and therefore the independence of the Turkish Cypriot poetry and identity. This was followed by an increased adoption of the Mediterranean identity in the 1980s, accompanied by the effects of the liberalisation of the Turkish Cypriot society, as reflected in the feminist elements, of which a particular example is Neriman Cahit
The documentary film Kayıp Otobüs
(The Missing Bus
), directed by Turkish Cypriot journalist Fevzi Tașpınar, was aired on the TRT TV
as well as participating in the Boston Film Festival
in 2011. The film tells the story of eleven Turkish Cypriot workers who left their homes in a bus in 1964 that never came back. Their remains were found in a well in Cyprus in October 2006.
Theatre in Northern Cyprus is mostly carried out by the Turkish Cypriot State Theatre, municipal theatres and a number of private theatrical companies. Cyprus Theatre Festival, organised by the Nicosia Turkish Municipality
is a large organisation with institutions from Turkey participating as well. There are no major halls built specifically for theatre in Northern Cyprus, so plays often take place in conference halls.
The origins of Turkish Cypriot theatre lie in Karagöz and Hacivat
, a shadow play that was popularised in the island as a form of entertainment during the Ottoman era. This form of theatre has lost its popularity nowadays, but remains to be televised during religious festivals.
After the 1840s, as the Ottoman Empire started modernising, theatre with greater European elements met with the Turkish Cypriot public. However, the inception of Turkish Cypriot theatre in the modern sense is considered the staging of the play "Vatan Yahut Silistre" ("Homeland vs. Silistra") by Turkish playwright Namık Kemal
This was followed by a proliferation of theatrical activity in the Turkish Cypriot community as local plays were written and staged and theatrical companies from Turkey took the stage in Cyprus by the 1920s, all the major towns in Cyprus had Turkish Cypriot plays that were performed regularly.
In the 1960s, Turkish Cypriot theatre started to be institutionalised. A leading theatre group named "İlk Sahne" (First Stage), founded in 1963, was renamed the Turkish Cypriot State Theatre in 1966, and has since performed more than 85 plays.
Theatre is currently a very popular form of art in Northern Cyprus, with long queues forming for tickets of the plays in the Cyprus Theatre Festival, and the number of theatre-goers constantly increasing.
There are five stadiums in Northern Cyprus, with each holding a capacity ranging anywhere from 7,000 to 30,000. The most popular sport in Northern Cyprus is football. There are over 29 sport federations in Northern Cyprus with a total registered membership of 13,950 6,054 been registered practitioners for, taekwondo
, with shooting
having 1,150 (registered) and hunting
having 1,017 (registered) members.
Northern Cyprus' national football team
currently ranks 109th in the Elo Ratings.
Several of sport clubs participate in leagues in Turkey
. These include the Fast Break Sport Club in Turkey's Men's Basketball Regional League; the Beşparmak Sport Club in Turkey
's Handball Premier League; and the Lefke European University Turkey
Table-tennis Super League. Water sports such as windsurfing, jetskiing, waterskiing and sailing are also available at beaches throughout the coastline of Northern Cyprus. Sailing is especially found at Escape Beach Club, near Kyrenia
Northern Cyprus is also well known for several dishes; among them are kebabs made of skewered lamb (şiş kebab) or ground with herbs and spices and made into a kofte
or şeftali kebab. Other dishes are based on meat wrapped in flat bread such as lahmacun
. Vegetarian cuisine includes stuffed vegetable based dishes "yalancı dolma" or many other dishes made with a bean or pulse such as börülce which consists of Swiss chard cooked with black-eyed peas. There are also plant based foods such as molohiya
or root based stews such as kolokas.
- ^ "The Constitution of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus". www.cypnet.co.uk.
- ^ a b "Historical Background". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- ^ "KKTC". Turkish Ministry of Economy. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- ^ a b 
- ^ Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights / Annuaire de la convention européenne des droits de l'homme. Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe. 1996. p. 153. ... that despite the fact that it has not been recognised de iure by any other State than Turkey, the TRNC exist de facto as an independent State exercising all branches of State power on its territory.
- ^ Central Intelligence Agency (8 October 2013). "Northern Cyprus". The CIA World Factbook 2014. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 691. ISBN 978-1-62873-451-5. The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Ankara directly finances about one-third of the Turkish Cypriot "administration's" budget.
- ^ Gideon Boas (1 January 2012). Public International Law: Contemporary Principles and Perspectives. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-85793-956-2. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. For example, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, located in the northern portion of the island of Cyprus, came about through ... from only one state — Turkey, upon which it is entirely dependent for economic, political and military support.
- ^ Yael Navaro-Yashin (12 March 2012). The Make-Believe Space: Affective Geography in a Postwar Polity. Duke University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8223-5204-4. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. Economic embargoes have been imposed on the TRNC, making northern Cyprus almost completely dependent on Turkey.
- ^ a b UN Security Council resolutions 353, 357, 358, 359, 360, and 365, all from 1974.
- ^ Langfield, Michele; Logan, William; Craith, Mairead Nic, eds. (2010). Cultural Diversity, Heritage and Human Rights: Intersections in Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-135-19070-5. The tradition for Turkish Cypriots is one of secularism, not of mosque attendance.
- ^ a b "The Cyprus Conflict". Archived from the original on 17 February 2007.
- ^ "Pre-Rejection of SCCC decision by Makarios" (PDF). Eastern Mediterranean University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014. The fact that the decision of the SCCC would not be implemented by Makarios was made quite clear. Non-implementation of the decision of a Constitutional Court is sufficient reason to compel the resignation of its President
- ^ "Majority rule means war". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011.
- ^ Stephen, Michael (1987). "Cyprus: Two Nations in One Island". Bow Educational Briefing №5. London. pp. 1–7. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.
- ^ "FAQ" (in Greek). Supreme Court of Cyprus. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "HUDOC Search Page". European Court of Human Rights. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Cyprus — The Republic of Cyprus". Country Studies. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- ^ Solsten, Eric. "Cyprus — Intercommunal Violence". Country Studies. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- ^ Borowiec, Andrew (2000). Cyprus: A troubled island. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 56.
- ^ Oberling, Pierre (1982). The road to Bellapais. Social Science Monographs. p. 120. ISBN 9780880330008. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018. According to official records, 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek Cypriots were killed during the 1963–1964 crisis.
- ^ "UNFICYP: a living fossil of the Cold War". Cyprus-Mail. 9 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- ^ "UN SG S/5950 Report" (PDF). 10 September 1964. paragraph 180. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- ^ Hadar, Leon (16 November 2005). "In Praise of 'Virtual States'". Antiwar.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
- ^ Quoted in Andrew Borowiec, 2000. Cyprus: A troubled island. Praeger/Greenwood p.58
- ^ Carment, David; James, Patrick; Taydas, Zeynep (2006). Who Intervenes?: Ethnic Conflict and Interstate Crisis. Ohio State University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-8142-1013-0. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- ^ Cyprus Mail, 06 July 1974, "Greek Regime Accused by Makarios" Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine "...President Makarios said yesterday the Athens regime bears great responsibility for what has been in Cyprus, and accused the Greek government of trying to introduce dictatorship and turning the national guard into an army of occupation"
- ^ Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1997). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-century History. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 1-85728-533-6.
- ^ Strategic Review, Volume 5. United States Strategic Institute. 1977. p. 48.
- ^ Allcock, John B. (1992). Border and territorial disputes. Longman Current Affairs. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-582-20931-2.
- ^ "Links to documents". United Nations. 9 September 2002. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ Murat Metin Hakki (2007). The Cyprus Issue: A Documentary History, 1878–2006. I.B.Tauris. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-1-84511-392-6.
- ^ Euromosaic III: Presence of Regional and Minority Language Groups in the New Member States (PDF). Research Centre on Multilingualism, Catholic University of Brussels. 2004. p. 18.
- ^ Bahcheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry Felix (2004). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Psychology Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7146-5476-8. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. ...the number of settlers was disputed between Turkish and ...
- ^ "Weekly UNFICYP trip to enclaved Cypriots a respite from daily hardships". Famagusta Gazette. 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- ^ Rainsford, Sarah (21 November 2006). "Bones of Cyprus missing unearthed". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ a b c "Immovable object". The Economist. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ Ker-Lindsay, James; Faustmann, Hubert (2008). The Government and Politics of Cyprus. Political Science. p. 253. ISBN 978-3-03911-096-4.
- ^ Yesilada, Birol (2013). EU–Turkey Relations in the 21st Century. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-135-12680-3.
- ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2014). Western Europe. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 307. ISBN 978-1-4758-1230-5.
- ^ "Lefke 6. ilçe oldu!". Kıbrıs Postası. 27 December 2016. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- ^ "The new North Cyprus coalition". Hürriyet. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- ^ a b Kurtulus, Ersun N. (27 November 2005). State Sovereignty: Concept, Phenomenon and Ramifications. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-4039-7708-3. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. It may be argued that the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which was declared in 1983 and which was only recognized as a state by Turkey and for a short period by Pakistan, is at the moment of writing the only existent puppet state in the world.
- ^ Focarelli, Carlo (24 May 2012). International Law as Social Construct: The Struggle for Global Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-19-958483-3. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. In the 1995 and 1996 Loizidou Judgments the ECtHR treated the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) as a sort of puppet government whose acts fall within the jurisdiction of (and are attributable to) Turkey as an (unlawful) occupier.
- ^ Panara, Carlo; Wilson, Gary (9 January 2013). The Arab Spring: New Patterns for Democracy and International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-90-04-24341-5. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. The situation with the South African homelands was similar and so was collective non-acceptance of the Turkish puppet-government in northern Cyprus which has resulted in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus not being recognized as a state.
- ^ Bartmann, Barry (2004). Bahcheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry (eds.). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-135-77121-8.
- ^ Dodd, Clement Henry (1993). The political, social and economic development of Northern Cyprus. Eothen Press. p. 377. ISBN 9780906719183. In short, the electorate of Northern Cyprus votes freely for its political leaders and gives them substantial support. Nor is Northern Cyprus a Turkish puppet state. Mr Denktaş and the Turkish-Cypriot case have a powerful following in Turkey...
- ^ "Cyprus country profile". BBC News. 23 December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ International Chamber of Commerce (1 November 2003). Europe Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report. Kogan Page Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7494-4067-1. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. The Turkish Cypriot-dominated north is the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' which elects its own government and is recognised only by Turkey.
- ^ The CIA World Factbook 2010. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. 2009. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60239-727-9. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), which is recognized only by Turkey
- ^ a b "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cyprus to the United Nations —". Un.int. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ Scott Leckie (28 May 2007). Housing and Property Restitution Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons: Laws, Cases, and Materials. Cambridge University Press. p. 448. ISBN 978-1-139-46409-3. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. The complaints raised in this application arise out of the Turkish military operations in northern Cyprus in July and August ... This development was condemned by the international community. ... of the establishment of the "TRNC" legally invalid and calling upon all States not to recognise any Cypriot State other than the ...
- ^ Quigley (6 September 2010). The Statehood of Palestine. Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-139-49124-2. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty.
- ^ Commentary Archived 24 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine Michael Rubin (7 July 2014):"Is Now the Time for a Cyprus Deal?"
- ^ Inter City Press Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Matthew Russell Lee: "At UN, Turkish Cypriot Community Has Rare Diplomatic Status, Non State Envy"
- ^ "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cyprus to the United Nations —". Un.int. Archived from the original on 28 August 2003. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Netwebsearch.com". Islamic-conference-news.newslib.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly". Assembly.coe.int. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ David Gow; Helena Smith (7 October 2004). "EU puts Turkey on a long road to accession". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- ^ "EU Sets Deadline for Turkey to Open Up Its Ports". Deutsche Welle. 21 November 2006. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- ^ "REGNUM news agency press release". Regnum.ru. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- ^ Yael Navaro-Yashin (12 March 2012). The Make-Believe Space: Affective Geography in a Postwar Polity. Duke University Press. pp. 118–122. ISBN 978-0-8223-5204-4. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- ^ "Cyprus Border Crossings". Cyprus Travel Secrets. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ^ Charlton, Gill (5 February 2005). "On the case: non-existent flight; Northern Cyprus; children in the Algarve; Cannes". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ Official Gazette Archived 20 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine 12 July 2012
- ^ Official Gazette Archived 23 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine EEZ Border (Page 4)
- ^ Eric Solsten; Library of Congress. Federal Research Division (1993). Cyprus, a country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-8444-0752-4. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. Although legally separate from the Turkish Army on the island, the Turkish Cypriot Security Force was believed to remain under the de facto operational control of the Turkish forces. It also depended on Turkey for training and equipment. Most of its officers were regular Turkish Army officers on secondment.
- ^ a b "Cyprus." Jane's Sentinel: Eastern Mediterranean, issue 22, 2007.
- ^ "Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of human rights in Cyprus : 16th Session, Human Rights Council, United Nations" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 7 January 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Freedom in the World 2011 Report" (PDF). Freedom House. p. 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- ^ "Freedom in the World 2014" (PDF). Freedom House. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "FH_FITW_Report_2016.pdf" (PDF). Freedom in the World in 2016. Freedom House. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- ^ Reporters Without Borders Archived 30 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine 2015 World Freedom Index
- ^ "Overview of the Human Rights Situation in North Cyprus". Turkish Cypriot Human Rights Foundation. 14 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- ^ "Kuzey Kıbrıs'ta Hıristiyanlar yarı vatandaş" [Christians in Northern Cyprus] (in Turkish). Agos. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- ^ UN SDSN World Happiness Report 2016Archived 18 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Figure 2.2. Renking of Happiness
- ^ Gallup Healthways Well-Being IndexArchived 1 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine 2014
- ^ UNHCR Archived 20 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine UNHCR Asylum Trend 2014, p. 21
- ^ Alptekin, Ünal; Ertaş, Aytekin. "Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti'nde 1995 yılı orman yangını sonrasındaki ağaçlandırmalardan gözlemler". Istanbul University. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- ^ Doğu Mesarya Bölgesi Archived 9 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, EU Coordination Center, retrieved on 28 December 2012.
- ^ KUZEY KIBRIS TÜRK CUMHURİYETİ MESARYA OVASI TARIM İŞLETMELERİNDE YETER GELİRLİ İŞLETME BÜYÜKLÜĞÜ VE OPTİMAL ÜRETİM DESENİNİN DOĞRUSAL PROGRAMLAMA YÖNTEMİ İLE TESPİTİArchived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ankara University, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ Özden, Özge (2009). The Biodiversity of Invertebrates in Cyprus Ecosystems (PhD). University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- ^ a b Kuzey Kıbrıs'ta Doğal Yaşam-FloraArchived 18 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Middle East Technical University, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ Kanlıdere ve Asi Dere Florası, introduction, Turkish Cypriot Biologists and Biological Research Association.
- ^ Kumda Yaşayan Prenses: Kum ZambağıArchived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Havadis, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ a b "Flora & Fauna of North Cyprus". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- ^ Eeyore plague: wild donkeys overrun Cyprus villages Archived 2 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ Karpaz Area Local Development StrategyArchived 28 March 2015 at WebCite, EU Programme for the TC Community, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ Section source. Weather Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine cypnet.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- ^ "Zaman Yazarları". Zaman.com.tr. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ a b c "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Why Northern Cyprus". TRNC Investment Development Agency. Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- ^ Gallup, Inc. "Gallup World (01 October 2014)". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- ^ Frank Hoffmeister (2006). Legal Aspects of the Cyprus Problem: Annan Plan And EU Accession. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 218. ISBN 90-04-15223-7.
- ^ "Universities: Little accord on the island". The Independent. London. 8 November 2007. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- ^ "Doing business in Cyprus: Cyprus trade and export guide". UK Trade and Investment. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- ^ Bryant, Rebecca. "The victory of Mustafa Akıncı in northern Cyprus gives hope to Turkish Cypriots of a better future". Greece at LSE. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- ^ "Cyprus after Accession: Thinking Outside the Box – Background Documents, University of Oxford, European Studies Centre, Workshop on Cyprus 10–11 March 2006" (PDF). Tepav.org.tr. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "North Cyprus – TRNC information". Cyprus-properties.com. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Trnc State Planning Organization". Devplan.org. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Tablo −3 Reel Growth Rate" (PDF). TRNC State Planning Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- ^ TRNC SPO Economic and Social Indicators 2014, p.3
- ^ "Power boost North Cyprus". Retrieved 18 July 2011.[dead link]
- ^ "KKTC'ye Su Temin Projesi" (in Turkish). DSİ. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- ^ Great BritainForeign and Commonwealth Office (9 November 2010). Sixth additional protocol to the constitution of the Universal Postal Union, General Regulations of the Universal Postal Union, Declarations made on signature of the Acts, Constitution of the Universal Postal Union, Rules and Procedures of Congresses, Universal Postal Convention with Final Protocol, and Postal Payment Services Agreement: Beijing, 15 September 1999. The Stationery Office. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-10-179702-3. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- ^ Vesna Maric (2009). Cyprus. Lonely Planet. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-74104-803-2. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. to any of these addresses in Northern Cyprus, ensure that you use the suffix 'Mersin 10, Turkey', not 'Northern Cyprus'.
- ^ a b "Çıkış yapan turistlerin ilçe ve konaklama türüne göre dağılımı" (PDF). TRNC State Planning Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ a b "Sectoral Distribution of GDP and GNP"(PDF). TRNC State Planning Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "Sectoral distribution of Gross Domestic Product" (PDF). TRNC State Planning Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "2012 YILI GENEL SANAYİ VE İŞYERLERİ SAYIMI" (PDF). TRNC State Planning Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ a b "KKTC Turizm Bakanı, ülkedeki hangi otel yatırımlarına tam not verdi?". Turizm Güncel. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "Şehirler ve Görülecek Yerler". Near East University. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- ^ "Cyprus: Bordering on splendid isolation". The Independent. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "Karpaz Bölgesi Yerel Kalkınma Stretejisi"(PDF). EU Coordination Committee of Northern Cyprus. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "Trends in Tourism in North Cyprus: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). Review of Tourism Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "Girne esnafından ekonomi isyanı: "Yetkililer acil önlem almalı"". Kıbrıs Postası. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- ^ Cansel; et al. "SEX TOURISM IN NORTHERN CYPRUS:INVESTIGATING THE CURRENT SITUATION". Tourism Analysis. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "Sex Work and State Regulations in North Cyprus" (PDF). Portland State University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ a b "Transport and Communications". Cypnet. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "Ercan'a gelip giden yolcu ve uçak sayısı arttı". Kıbrıs. Archived from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "Ercan Havalimanına Uçan Havayolları". Ercan Rent A Car. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "General Information". Ercan Airport. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "KKTC'ye yıllar sonra ilk charter seferi". Yacht Life and Travel. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "Cijene uključuju" (PDF). Azur Tours. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2015. Cijene uključuju: povratnu zrakoplovnu kartu Ljubljana-Ercan-Ljubljana
- ^ "Turkey 'will open up to Cyprus'". BBC News. 7 December 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- ^ "North Cyprus Airport, Ercan, Larnaca, Cheap Flights Northern Cyprus". Northcyprusonline.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- ^ "BRT". Brtk.net. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Merchant Shipping". Csa-cy.org. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- ^ "HC 113 II 04.05.PDF" (PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- ^ "Girne – Karpaz Yolu 50 Dakikaya İndi". Haber KKTC. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- ^ "Tablo – 8 : Yaş Grubu, Milliyet ve Cinsiyete Göre Sürekli İkamet Eden (de-jure) KKTC Vatandaşı Nüfus. TOPLAM". Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- ^ "Kıbrıslı Türkler Kaç Kişi – Kıbrıs Postası Gazetesi – Haber Merkezi". Kibrispostasi.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ a b "Census.XLS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ Simon Bahceli (15 February 2007). "Indigenous Turkish Cypriots just over half north's population". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
- ^ "Basin Bildirisi" (PDF). Devplan.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Census in north marred by delays and doubts". CyprusMail. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013. Top selling daily Kibris described the headcount as "controversial", while out-spoken left-wing daily Afrika dubbed it a "fiasco"
- ^ "TC'den para isterken 700 bin diyorlardı". Kibris. 13 December 2011. Archived from the original on 9 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- ^ "Nifus sayımı gerçekçi değil". Kibris. 11 December 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-59884-302-6.
- ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-59884-302-6.
- ^ Hatay, Mete. "Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?" (PDF). PRIO Cyprus Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- ^ "??". Devplan.org. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Quoted after the Euromosaic report, a study commissioned by the European Commission"(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007. (120 KB)
- ^ "Cyprus – Society". Country-data.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- ^ Hatay, Mete (2005) Beyond Numbers: An Inquiry into the Political Integration of the Turkish 'Settlers' in Northern Cyprus Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, PRIO Report, 4. Oslo/Nicosia: PRIO Cyprus Centre.
- ^ "Please, add title". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
- ^ "Botschaft der Republik Zypern in Berlin – Zypernfrage". Archived from the original on 1 February 2016.
- ^ Denver journal of international law and policy. 1993. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. The invasion of Cyprus by Turkish troops in 1974 resulted in the widespread eviction and population transfer of 162,000 Greek Cypriots from their homes in the northern part of Cyprus. In Cyprus v. Turkey, the European Commission on ..
- ^ William Mallinson (15 February 2011). Britain and Cyprus: Key Themes and Documents since World War II. I.B.Tauris. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84885-456-7. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. Around 180,000 Greek Cypriots had been expelled from their homes and fled to the unoccupied part of the island, with another 20,000 being "encouraged" to flee later.
- ^ Wolfgang Hörner; Hans Döbert; Botho von Kopp; Wolfgang Mitter (19 December 2006). The Education Systems of Europe. Springer. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4020-4868-5. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. Turkish settlers and military personnel, estimated at 85,000 and 40,000 respectively, who have moved into the Turkish-occupied areas since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. At that time one third of the Greek population (about 200,000 persons) was expelled from their homes in the northern part of the island and forced to resettle in the southern areas.
- ^ a b c Kevin Boyle; Juliet Sheen (2013). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. Routledge. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-134-72229-7. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- ^ Darke 2009, 10.
- ^ Nevzat & Hatay 2009, 911.
- ^ "Member profile". Inqaahe. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Students Flock to Universities in Northern Cyprus". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- ^ "Study in North Cyprus". Studyinnorthcyprus.org. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ Kibris Postasi 24 October 2014 Archived 25 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine 70,000 students enrolled to the universities
- ^ a b "Kıbrıs Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi". Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- ^ a b "Near East University – Mercin – Turkey – MastersPortal.eu". MastersPortal.eu. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- ^ "EUA members directory". Eua.be. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Eastern Mediterranean University". Icograda. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ Eastern Mediterranean University Archived 18 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Webometrics, retrieved on 30 December 2014.
- ^ "(Edu) Turkish Cypriot President Opens Girne American University'S Campus In Canterbury. – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "COLLEGE SEARCH RESULTS". Archived from the original on 13 December 2007.
- ^ "Small Size Robot League – teams:teams". Robocupssl.cpe.ku.ac.th. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "NeuIslanders". Robotics.neu.edu.tr. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi Duyuru Haber » Faculty of Engineering of Near East University (NEU) is continuing to make contributions to the world of science through supporting the CERN Laboratory". Duyuru.neu.edu.tr. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "SA Solar Challenge 2014". Sasol Solar Challenge. Archived from the original on 3 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- ^ a b c "Kültürel, Sanatsal ve Sosyal Yaşamı, El Sanatları, Gelenek, Görenek ve Adetler". Near East University. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- ^ "EPISODES OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH AND GREEK CYPRIOT WEDDINGS" (PDF). turkishstudies.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- ^ "Tarihçemiz". Nicosia Municipal Orchestra. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- ^ "Efsanevi Kıbrıs Türk müzik grubu SILA 4 yepyeni bir CD ile büyük bir sürprize imza atmak üzere". Kıbrıs Postası. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- ^ "SOS". Cypnet. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- ^ "Fikri Karayel'in ilk albümü çıkıyor". Kıbrıs Postası. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- ^ a b c Turan, Metin. Çağdaş Kıbrıs Türk Şiirinde Eğilimler/ Yönelimler Archived 8 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Çukurova University) Retrieved on 27 May 2012.
- ^ Kozmik şiirin yazarı Archived 17 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Hürriyet), retrieved on 31 December 2014.
- ^ "Boşluğun hasadı kalemledir" Archived 31 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine (Radikal) retrieved on 31 December 2014.
- ^ Yaşın, Mehmet (1994). Kıbrıslıtürk şiiri antolojisi: 18. yy-20. yy : 3 kuşak, 3 kimlik, 3 vatan arasında bir Türk azınlık şiiri. Yapı Kredi Yayınları. pp. 58–60. ISBN 978-975-363-345-1.
- ^ "KKTC'nin ilk uzun metrajlı filmi Anahtar, Altın Portakal'da gösterildi". Kibris Postasi. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Kod Adı: VENÜS". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- ^ "Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi'nin hazırladığı "Kod Adı Venüs" filmi Cannes Film Festivali'nde". Kibris Postasi. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Haber: "Kayıp Otobüs" belgesel filmi haberi / Haber, Haberler, Haberi, Haberleri, Haber oku, Gazete, Gazetesi, Gazeteleri, Gazete oku". Turkmedya.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "Documentary on Turkish Cyprus bus in US festival". Turkish Journal. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ TRNC State Planning Organization. 2008 Yılı Makroekonomik ve Sektörel Gelişmeler, June 2010, p. 169.
- ^ Kıbrıs Tiyatro Festivali. Nicosia Turkish Municipality and Nicosia Municipal Theatre.
- ^ a b c Turkish-Cypriot Theatres Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, cypnet.co.uk, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ a b Cihangir, Yurdal. THE PRIMARY YEARS OF TURKISH CYPRIOT PLAY-WRITING AND "SAFA YAHUT NETİCE-İ İBTİLA Archived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Turkish Studies, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın Kültürel ve Sosyal YaşamıArchived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, University of Kyrenia, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ Bilet satışı başladı Archived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Yeni Düzen, retrieved on 28 December 2014.
- ^ TRNC State Planning Organization. 2008 Yılı Makroekonomik ve Sektörel Gelişmeler, p.176-179.
- ^ "World Football Elo Ratings". Eloratings.net. 10 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ "North Cyprus – Food and Drink (Cuisine)". Cyprusive. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Langdale, Allan (2012). In a Contested Realm: an Illustrated Guide to the Archaeology and Historical Architecture of Northern Cyprus. Grimsay Press. ISBN 978-1845301286.
- North Cyprus – a Pocket-Guide. Rustem Bookshop, Nicosia. 2006. ISBN 9944-968-03-X.
- Bryant, Rebecca; Hatay, Mete (2020). Sovereignty Suspended: Political Life in a So-Called State. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-5221-7.
Last edited on 2 May 2021, at 19:26
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.