From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was an integral part of the County of Holland
. During this period West Friesland
was incorporated. In the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland
and commonly known as the Noorderkwartier
(English: "Northern Quarter"). In 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer
was drained and turned into land.
Emergence of a new province (1795 to 1840)
The province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813. This was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic
was established. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed. The republic was reorganised into eight departments (département
) with roughly equal populations. Holland was split up into five departments named "Texel
", and "Rijn
". The first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland; the latter two were made up of parts of different provinces. In 1801 the old borders were restored when the department of Holland was created. This reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province.
In 1807, Holland was reorganised. This time the two departments were called "Amstelland" (corresponding to the modern province of North Holland) and "Maasland" (corresponding to the modern province of South Holland
). This also did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire. Amstelland and Utrecht were amalgamated as the department of "Zuiderzee" (Zuyderzée
in French) and Maasland was renamed "Monden van de Maas" (Bouches-de-la-Meuse
After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so. When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, the country was reorganised as provinces and regions (landschappen). Zuiderzee and Monden van de Maas were reunited as the province of "Holland". One of the ministers on the constitutional committee (van Maanen) suggested that the old name "Holland and West Friesland" be reintroduced to respect the feelings of the people of that region. This proposal was rejected.
However, the division was not totally reversed. When the province of Holland was re-established in 1814, it was given two governors, one for the former department of Amstelland (area that is now North Holland) and one for the former department of Maasland (now South Holland). Even though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still being treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland remained alive. During this reorganisation the islands of Vlieland
were returned to Holland and parts of "Hollands Brabant" (including "Land of Altena") went to North Brabant
. The borders with Utrecht and Gelderland
were definitively set in 1820.
When the constitutional amendments were introduced in 1840, it was decided to split Holland once again, this time into two provinces called "North Holland" and "South Holland". The need for this was not felt in South Holland or in West Friesland (which feared the dominance of Amsterdam
). The impetus came largely from Amsterdam, which still resented the 1838 relocation of the court of appeal to The Hague
in South Holland.
Urbanisation and economic growth (1840 to today)
After the Haarlemmermeer
was drained in 1855 and turned into arable land, it was made part of North Holland. In exchange, South Holland received the greater part of the municipality of Leimuiden
in 1864. In 1942, the islands Vlieland
went back to the province of Friesland
. In 1950, the former island Urk
was ceded to the province of Overijssel
In February 2011, North Holland, together with the provinces of Utrecht
, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces.
This has been positively received by the First Rutte cabinet
, for the desire to create one Randstad
province has already been mentioned in the coalition agreement
The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province,
and very much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province,
is not named. With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population
Satellite image of the south of North Holland
North Holland has five municipalities with 100,000 or more inhabitants. They are, in order of size, Amsterdam
(in terms of population this is also the largest municipality in the Netherlands), Haarlem
. Another seven municipalities have a population between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants (Hilversum
, Den Helder
- Kop van North Holland COROP group
- Alkmaar agglomeration COROP group
- IJmond COROP group
- Haarlem agglomeration COROP group
- Zaanstreek COROP group
- Greater Amsterdam COROP group
- Het Gooi and Vechtstreek COROP group
Regions in North Holland
Map of North Holland (2019).
North Holland has various regions that, for historical or other reasons, have their own identities. Some of these regions are unofficial, ill-defined and sometimes overlapping. Others are official and are part of regional groupings artificially created for various administrative purposes. These regions are not the same as the municipalities.
List of some of these unofficial and official regions in North Holland:
in Zuid-Kennemerland National Park
Some of the best known nature reserves in this province are:
More information about nature reserves in North Holland is available (in Dutch) on the relevant site pages of national nature conservation organisations Natuurmonumenten 
as well as provincial organisation "Landschap Noord-Holland".
Organisations and companies based in North Holland
Several national nature friendly organisations like Milieudefensie
, the national "Union of vegetarians",
the "Vissenbescherming" (Fish protection foundation)
and the Party for the Animals
as well have their head office in North Holland.
- ^ (in Dutch) Noord-Hollands volkslied, Province of North Holland. Retrieved on 19 Januari 2019.
- ^ "Oppervlakte".
- ^ a b "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl.
- ^ XE.com average EUR/ USD ex. rate in 2017
- ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl.
- ^ "71 million passengers through Schiphol". 71 million passengers through Schiphol.
- ^ (in Dutch) "Drie provincies denken over fusie", NOS, 2011.
- ^ (in Dutch) "Randstadprovincies bekijken fusie", RTL Nieuws, 2011.
- ^ (in Dutch) Marije Willems, "Randstadprovincies onderzoeken fusie", NRC Handelsblad, 2011.
- ^ (in Dutch) "Echte Randstadprovincie is robuuste oplossing" Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Provincie Zuid-Holland, 2011.
- ^ "The ports of IJmuiden; History; Fishing port; The fish auction; Cup port; Seaport Marina". feelingkeep.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- ^ World Heritage. "Visiting the Kop van Noord-Holland". Wadden Sea World Heritage. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- ^ DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: The Netherlands. Penguin. 2011. p. 169. ISBN 9780756684761.
- ^ Bertolini, Luca (10 January 2013). "Transitions of Mobility Systems in Urban Regions: A Heuristic Framework". Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning. 15 (2): 141–160. doi:10.1080/1523908X.2012.746182.
- ^ "Natuurgebieden in Noord-Holland". Natuurmonumenten.
- ^ "Natuurgebieden". Staatsbosbeheer.
- ^ "Natuurgebieden". landschapnoordholland.nl.
- ^ Amnesty International, Amsterdam address.
- ^ Work for Greenpeace, official website.
- ^ Randstad address in Diemen.
- ^ "Amstelveen hoofdkantoor", KPMG.com.
- ^ KLM Office, Amstelveen.
- ^ Vegetariersbond. "De Vegetariërsbond – Vegetariersbond". vegetariers.nl.
- ^ "Vissenbescherming".
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 21:10
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