Northern Iraq offensive (August 2014)
Not to be confused with Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014).
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Between 1 and 15 August 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) expanded territory in northern Iraq under their control. In the region north and west from Mosul, the Islamic State conquered Zumar, Sinjar, Wana, Mosul Dam, Tel Keppe, Batnaya and Kocho, and in the region south and east of Mosul the towns Bakhdida, Karamlish, Bartella and Makhmour.
Northern Iraq offensive (August 2014)
Part of the War in Iraq
Date1–19 August 2014 (2 weeks and 4 days)
LocationIraqi Nineveh and Kirkuk Governorates
ResultPartial ISIL victory
  • ISIL besieges Yazidi refugees on Mount Sinjar, but the siege is broken by Kurdish forces
  • ISIL repels Iraqi military attack on Tikrit
ISIL captures Sinjar, the Mosul Dam, and eight other towns
Peshmerga and Iraqi special forces recapture the Mosul Dam, Mount Zartak and two towns
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant[17]
Commanders and leaders
Haider al-Abadi
Ali Ghaidan
Ahmed Saadi [18]
Hamid Majid Mousa
Gewargis Hanna
Yonadam Kanna
Qasim Şeşo
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
25,000[19]–30,000[20] (two army divisions)
10,000 federal police
30,000 local police
2,000 Iranian Quds Force[21]
1,000 U.S. troops[22]
Islamic State: Around 100,000 fighters in Iraq (according to Kurdistan Region Chief of Staff.)[24]
Casualties and losses
14 killed (Zumar only)[25]100 killed, 160 wounded, 38 captured (Zumar only)[25][26]
5,000 Yazidis killed[27] 5,000–7,000 Yazidis abducted[citation needed]
The offensive resulted in 200,000 Yazidi civilians and 100,000 Iraqi Christians driven from their homes, 5,000 Yazidi men massacred, 5,000–7,000 Yazidi women enslaved, and a foreign military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
50,000 of Sinjar's Yazidis took refuge in the adjacent Sinjar Mountains, where they lacked food, water and other basic necessities. 35,000 to 45,000 of them were evacuated within several weeks, after the United States bombed ISIL positions and the Kurdish People's Defence Forces, People's Protection Units, and Peshmerga forces opened a humanitarian corridor to enable their escape. Some ISIL-controlled territory was retaken; a subsequent Kurdish counter-attack recaptured the Mosul Dam and several other nearby towns.
Main article: Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)
In June 2014, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) conquered significant territories in northern Iraq, including the cities of Mosul, Iraq's second largest town, with over a million residents, and Tikrit, 200 km south of Mosul. While Iraqi federal military forces fled from the advancing ISIL troops, Kurdish Peshmerga fighters took over the control of a wide territory in northern Iraq outside Kurdistan Region from the federal Iraqi government.[25][28]
ISIL assault
See also: Timeline of ISIL related events § August 2014
1 August
Friday 1 August 2014, ISIL attacked a Peshmerga post in Zumar, 40 km northwest of Mosul, in the peshmerga-controlled zone of northern Iraq, and a nearby oil winning facility and the nearby Mosul Dam, Iraq's largest dam and important supplier of electricity and water.[25][29] The Peshmerga fought off ISIL, killing 100 ISIL fighters, according to Kurdish sources, but also losing 14 Peshmerga fighters.[25]
2–3 August
See also: Sinjar massacre and Battle of Zumar
Sunday 3 August, ISIL, with heavy weaponry seized from the Iraqi federal army,[28][30] in the darkness of morning seized first the town of Zumar and then Sinjar (90 km southwest of Zumar),[29] and the surrounding Sinjar area.[31] ISIL routed from those towns the Kurdish peshmerga troops that since June more or less controlled the region.[29] A spokesman of citizens fled from Sinjar said, that 250 peshmerga in Sinjar had withdrawn from Sinjar in the night, leaving the civilians unprotected.[32]
ISIL on 3 August also took control of the oil facility in Zumar subdistrict.[25][29] Later that day, ISIL also captured the town of Wana between Zumar and Mosul.[29] There were conflicting reports about whether the Mosul Dam was still in Kurdish hands[29] or captured by ISIL.[33]
4 August
ISIL surrounded the village of Kocho near the Sinjar Mountains, demanding its Yazidi residents to convert or die.[34]
6 August
ISIL on 6 August advanced up to 40 km southwest of Erbil, the capital of autonomous region Kurdistan Region.[30]
7 August
Further information: Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL and Persecution of Christians by ISIL
On 7 August, ISIL took control of Qaraqosh (or Bakhdida), the largest Christian town of Iraq, 30 km southeast of Mosul and 60 km west of Erbil, Karamlish, 5 km from Qaraqosh, Tal Keif (Tel Keppe), Batnaya, just north of Mosul, and Bartella, just east of Mosul.[35][36] Kurdish forces had retreated from Qaraqosh and surrounding area, which caused civilians to flee in panic.[37] The Chaldaic archbishop of Kirkuk and Sulaymaniyah, Joseph Thomas, stated that "all inhabitants" of those four cities were fleeing their town.[35]
ISIL also captured the strategic[38] town of Makhmour,[39] between Mosul and Kirkuk, 20 miles from Erbil.[38] There were conflicting remarks—in one newspaper—as to whether ISIL had 'seized' the Mosul Dam or was making 'efforts to seize' it.[37] That week, ISIL also overran other towns in northwest Iraq, chasing Kurdish Peshmerga troops away.[28][30]
At this time, the U.S. started airdropping food and water for the Yazidi refugees stranded in the Sinjar Mountains.[40]
8–9 August
On 8 August, the U.S. started to conduct airstrikes on ISIL, first west of Erbil to stop ISIL's advance on the city. Starting on 9 August, airstrikes also took place around the Sinjar Mountains. By this time, ISIL had also seized the Mosul Dam, 40 km northwest of Mosul on the Tigris river.[28]
Iraqi/Kurdish/US counter-attack
U.S intervention
Main article: American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) § Military aid to the Kurds
On 5 August, the United States began with directly supplying munitions to the Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga forces and, with Iraq's agreement, the shipment of weapons to the Kurds.[41]
Main articles: American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) § Chronology, and Sinjar massacre § Clearing a path for Yazidis
Following the start of U.S. airstrikes on 8 August, between 9 and 13 August, the American air-strikes and efforts from Iraqi, Syrian and Turkish Kurds enabled the evacuation of 35,000 to 45,000 of the 50,000 Yazidis stranded in the Sinjar Mountains.
On 10 August, encouraged by American airstrikes, Kurdish Peshmerga forces retook the strategic towns of Gwer and Makhmour, both about 20 miles from Erbil.[38] American fighter jets bombarded areas in Makhmour, forcing ISIL fighters to abandon their positions, and Kurdish Peshmerga together with Kurdish PKK fighters and civilian volunteers from the area reclaimed the village.[39]
On 15 August, ISIL moved into the village Kocho, which they had held surrounded since 4 August, shot 80 Yazidi men dead with assault rifles, and abducted their wives and children.[34]
Reclaiming the Mosul Dam
See also: Battle for Mosul Dam and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) § Retaking Mosul Dam
From 16 until 18 August, the U.S. conducted 35 airstrikes against ISIL positions at the strategically critical Mosul Dam. This allowed Kurdish and Iraqi forces to move swiftly and with cooperation towards Mosul Dam.[34][42]
On the morning of 17 August, Kurdish forces, supported by U.S. and Iraqi airstrikes, attacked the dam. They quickly captured the eastern part of the dam, but fighting continued.[43] By the evening, Kurdish and Iraqi forces had recaptured most of the facility, but were still in the process of removing mines and booby traps left by ISIL. U.S. warplanes destroyed or damaged 19 ISIL vehicles and one checkpoint during the battle.[44]
On 18 August, the U.S. president confirmed Kurdish Peshmerga ground troops, with the help of Iraqi Special Forces, overran ISIL militants and reclaimed the Mosul Dam.[42]
Iraqi move on Tikrit
On the morning of 19 August, Iraqi government troops and allied militiamen launched an operation to retake the city of Tikrit from ISIL. The military push started early in the morning from the south and southwest of the city, which lies around 160 kilometres north of the Iraqi capital Baghdad.[45][46]
Demonstration in Paris 23 August 2014, to support Kurds and Yazidis threatened by ISIL
However, by the afternoon, the offensive had been repelled by ISIL.[45] Also, the Iraqi military lost its positions in the southern area of the city it had captured a few weeks earlier.[47]
Humanitarian reaction
Further information: American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) § Humanitarian efforts; and Sinjar massacre § Iraqi/US/UK/Australian food drops, U.S. air strikes
On 5 August, Iraqi military helicopters started dropping food and water for the Yazidis in the Sinjar Mountains.[48]
On 7 August, the U.S. also started airdropping food and water for the Yazidi refugees stranded in the Sinjar Mountains.[40]
On 10 August, the United Kingdom also began airdropping humanitarian aid in northern Iraq.[49]
Civilian casualties
Further information: Sinjar massacre, Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL, and Persecution of Christians by ISIL
The ISIL capture of Sinjar on 3 August was accompanied by a massacre of thousands of Yazidi men, the selling of women into slavery, and 200,000 civilians fleeing Sinjar, of whom 50,000 fled to Mount Sinjar.
ISIL ordered the Yazidi minority in the area to convert to Islam, pay jizyah, or face death. This prompted tens of thousands to flee their homes[30] not only in Sinjar city but in many other villages; for example, 300 Yazidi families fled the villages of Koja, Hatimiya and Qaboshi.[28]
The UN reported in October 2014 that ISIL, "sweeping" through Iraqi territory inhabited by Yazidis in August, had gunned down 5,000 Yazidi male civilians in a series of massacres and detained 5,000–7,000 Yazidi women to be sold as slaves or given to jihadists.[citation needed]
On 7 August, the UN reported that since 2 August 200,000 new refugees had been seeking sanctuary in the Kurdish north of Iraq from ISIL.[50]
100,000 Christians, 25% of Iraq's Christianity, fled Bakhdida (Qaraqosh) and neighbouring villages and towns in the Nineveh Governorate after ISIL's invasion on 7 August, leaving all their property behind, many of them fleeing to Kurdistan Region.[51] According to local officials, this August ISIL advance nearly purged northwestern Iraq of most of its Christian (Assyrian) population.[36]
See also
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  2. ^ "Tony Blair: 'We didn't cause Iraq crisis". BBC News. 15 June 2014.
  3. ^ "US conducts 2nd airdrop of food, water to Iraqi refugees after airstrikes". Fox News. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  4. ^ "U.S. Navy Strikes ISIS Targets in Iraq". USNI. 8 August 2014.
  5. ^ "U.S. provides aid to Yezidis". USAF. 14 August 2014.
  6. ^ Van Heuvelen, Ben. "Amid turmoil, Iraq's Kurdish region is laying foundation for independent state". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2014. Kurdistan's military forces … have taken over many of the northernmost positions abandoned by the national army, significantly expanding the zone of Kurdish control... "In most places, we aren't bothering them [ISIS], and they aren't bothering us – or the civilians," said Lt. Gen. Shaukur Zibari, a pesh merga commander.
  7. ^ "Presence of the MFS at the border of Iraq". Syriac International News Agency. 16 June 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  8. ^​https://web.archive.org/web/20140814072527/http://www.atranaya.com/?p=15784​. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ "Member of Iraq's Parliament Requests Creation of Assyrian Christian Security Force". Aina.org. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  10. ^ "مسيحيو العراق يتطوعون في قوات الدفاع عن المناطق المسيحية". LBC. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d "U.S. airstrikes helped, but Kurds from Syria turned tide against Islamic State". The State. 12 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Rückeroberung von Jalula: YRK und HPJ entsenden Guerillakräfte" (in German). Kürdische Nachrichten. 13 August 2014. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  13. ^ a b "YRK-HPJ gerillaları Celawla yolunda" (in Turkish). Firat News Agency. 13 August 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  14. ^ "No Escape from Mount Sinjar". Foreign Policy. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  15. ^ a b Haqiqi, Fuad (25 August 2014). "In Iran, Limited Support for IS Among Small Number of Salafis". Rudaw English. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  16. ^ Muhammad, Kamran (11 August 2014). "PDKI Peshmerga Forces Fought Bravely in the Liberation of Makhmour and Gwer". PDKI Official Website. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  17. ^ Iraq crisis: Isis declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East – Middle East – World – The Independent
  18. ^ "On a Helicopter, Going Down: Inside a Lethal Crash in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  19. ^ "ISIS weighs approach on Baghdad". 11 June 2014.
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  21. ^ "Iran sends troops into Iraq to aid fight against Isis militants". The Guardian. 14 June 2014.
  22. ^ "U.S. mission in Iraq could expand, Pentagon official says". Navy Times. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  23. ^ Peter Beaumont. "How effective is Isis compared with the Iraqi army and Kurdish peshmerga?". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  24. ^ "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". el-balad.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  25. ^ a b c d e f "Jihadists kill dozens as Iraq fighting rages". Al Arabiya. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  26. ^ "92 IS Militants Killed in Zumar". Basnews. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  27. ^ "UN confirms massacre of thousands of Yazidis by jihadis in 'cold blood'". Independent.ie. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  28. ^ a b c d e "Obama says tackling Iraq's insurgency will take time". Reuters. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Arango, Tim (3 August 2014). "Sunni Extremists in Iraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  30. ^ a b c d "Kurds, Islamic State clash near Kurdish regional capital: Kurdish official". Asharq al-Awsat. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  31. ^ Salih, Mohammed; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (5 August 2014). "Iraqi Yazidis: 'If we move they will kill us'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  32. ^ Shelton, Tracey (29 August 2014). "'If it wasn't for the Kurdish fighters, we would have died up there'". Global Post. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  33. ^ "ISIS takes over Iraq's biggest dam". Al Arabiya. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  34. ^ a b c "Militants massacre 80 Yazidis; airstrikes target insurgents around Iraq's largest dam". thestar.com. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  35. ^ a b ‘Des djihadistes prennent la plus grande ville chrétienne d'Irak’ (Jihadists take the largest Christian town of Iraq). Le Figaro, 7 August 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  36. ^ a b (subscription needed) "Barack Obama Approves Airstrikes on Iraq, Airdrops Aid". Wall Street Journal. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  37. ^ a b "U.S. airstrikes target Islamic State militants in northern Iraq". The Washington Post. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  38. ^ a b c ‘Capitalizing on U.S. Bombing, Kurds Retake Iraqi Towns’. New York Times, 10 August 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
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  40. ^ a b "Obama Authorizes Air Strikes in Iraq". ABC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  41. ^ Khalilzad, Zalmay (5 August 2014). "To fight the Islamic State, Kurdish and Iraqi forces need expedited aid". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  42. ^ a b "Troops in Iraq Rout Sunni Militants From a Key Dam". The New York Times. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  43. ^ "Kurdish forces take parts of Mosul dam from Isis fighters". The Guardian. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  44. ^ "Kurdish forces 'break IS hold on Mosul dam'". BBC News. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  45. ^ a b "Isis fighters show strength as they repel Iraqi army's attempt to retake Tikrit". The Guardian. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  46. ^ "Iraqi Forces Launch Major Push to Retake Tikrit". Naharnet. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
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  49. ^ "Iraq conflict: US in new air strikes on militants". BBC News. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  50. ^ "Iraq's largest Christian town abandoned as Isis advance continues". The Guardian. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  51. ^ "Iraq Christians flee as Islamic State takes Qaraqosh". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
External links
Iraq updates – Institute for the Study of War
Last edited on 18 April 2021, at 02:17
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