) is a state
in the Midwestern
region of the United States
. Of the fifty states
, it is the 34th-largest by area
, and with a population of just over 11.8 million, is the seventh-most populous
and tenth-most densely populated
. The state's capital and largest city
, with the Columbus metro area
, Greater Cincinnati
, and Greater Cleveland
being the largest metropolitan areas
. Ohio is bordered by Lake Erie
to the north, Pennsylvania
to the east, West Virginia
to the southeast, Kentucky
to the southwest, Indiana
to the west, and Michigan
to the northwest. Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees
, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".
The state takes its name from the Ohio River
, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca
, meaning "good river", "great river", or "large creek".
Ohio arose from the lands west of Appalachia that were contested from colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars
of the late 18th century. It was partitioned from the resulting Northwest Territory
, which was the first frontier of the new United States, and became the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance
Ohio was the first post-colonial free state
admitted to the union, and became one of the earliest and most influential industrial powerhouses during the 20th century. Although Ohio has transitioned
to a more information-
and service-based economy
in the 21st century, it remains an industrial state, ranking seventh in GDP as of 2019,
with the third largest manufacturing sector and second largest automobile production.
Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Ohio has 312 miles (502 km) of coastline with Lake Erie,
which allows for numerous cargo ports such as Cleveland and Toledo. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River
. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania
to the east, Michigan
to the northwest, Lake Erie
to the north, Indiana
to the west, Kentucky
on the south, and West Virginia
on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds
in the Enabling Act of 1802
Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River
, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan
, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.
Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court
held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia
(which at the time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.
Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War
, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.
The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle
to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic
unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress
passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region".
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia.
While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)
The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood
, the entire Miami River
watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton
. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District
was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys
in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals
in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. This body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km2
), was the largest artificial lake in the world when completed in 1845. Ohio's canal-building projects
were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.
Köppen climate types in Ohio now showing majority as humid subtropical
Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak
, Quercus marilandica
, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
, Albizia julibrissin
(mimosa), Crape Myrtle
, and even the occasional Needle Palm
are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region
of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75
; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard
, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Ohio
Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 200 earthquakes with a magnitude
of 2.0 or higher have occurred in Ohio since 1776.
The Western Ohio Seismic Zone and a portion of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone
are located in the state, and numerous faults
lie under the surface.
The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna
(Shelby County) earthquake,
which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity
Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include:
one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima
on September 19, 1884;
one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth
on May 17, 1901;
and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County
on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.
Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, 2011, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) northwest of Youngstown
and one occurring on June 10, 2019, approximately 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) north-northwest of Eastlake
under Lake Erie
both registered a 4.0 magnitude.
is the capital of Ohio, located near the geographic center of the state and well known for The Ohio State University
. However, other Ohio cities function as economic and cultural centers of metropolitan areas
, and Youngstown
are in the Northeast, known for major industrial companies Goodyear Tire and Rubber
, top-ranked colleges Case Western Reserve University
and Kent State University
, the Cleveland Clinic
, and cultural attractions including the Cleveland Museum of Art
, Big Five group Cleveland Orchestra
, Playhouse Square
, the Pro Football Hall of Fame
, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Largest metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio
The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.
Other metropolitan areas that contain cities in Ohio, but are primarily in other states include:
Largest combined statistical areas in Ohio
Additionally, there are 30 Ohio cities that function as centers of micropolitan areas
, urban clusters smaller than that of metropolitan areas. Many of these are included as part of larger combined statistical areas
, as shown in the table above.
Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people
as early as 13,000 BC.
These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC.
Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture
emerged. The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including, sunflowers
, and "grew squash
and possibly corn
"; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages.
The most notable remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound
, located in Adams County, Ohio
Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell
people who were also mound builders. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks
can be found in modern-day Marietta
, and Circleville
They were also a prolific trading society, their trading network spanning a third of the continent.
The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. The Mississippian Culture
rose as the Hopewell Culture declined. Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains and east coast claim them as ancestors and say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approximately the 13th century.
There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the Fort Ancient
people, the Whittlesey Focus people
and the Monongahela Culture
All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Their origins are unknown. The Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people.
It is also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.
Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation
, based in central and western New York.
After the Beaver Wars
in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people[dubious – discuss]
by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian
. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease,[clarification needed]
war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn
, sunflowers, beans
, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade
Colonial and Revolutionary eras
The Ohio Country
indicating battle sites between American settlers and indigenous tribes, 1775–1794
Under the Northwest Ordinance
, areas could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population was only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress
determined that it was growing rapidly and had already begun the path to statehood. In regards to the Leni Lenape
natives, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River
in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren
... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".
Rufus Putnam, the "Father of Ohio"
Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory. Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools. Putnam had been one of the primary benefactors in the founding of Leicester Academy
in Massachusetts, and similarly, in 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now Marietta College
) in Ohio. In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River. In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands. In 1788, he served as a judge in the Northwest Territory's first court. In 1802, he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio.
Statehood and early years
On February 19, 1803, U.S. president Thomas Jefferson
signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.
However, Congress had never passed a formal resolution admitting Ohio as the 17th state, a custom not introduced until Louisiana
's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, as Ohio began preparations for celebrating its sesquicentennial, Ohio congressman George H. Bender
introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly
At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe
, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood which was delivered to Washington, D.C., on horseback, and approved that August.
Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville
, and Columbus
. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state.
Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson
, the US government forced Indian Removal
of most tribes to the Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi River.
In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan
in the Toledo War
, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula
, in addition to the eastern third which was already considered part of the state.
25th U.S. president William McKinley
was from Ohio, one of six to be elected from the state.
Civil War and industrialization
Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War
. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the Union during the Civil war. Ohio contributed more soldiers per capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh
, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.
Later that year, when Confederate
troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson
threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod
still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.
From July 13 to 26, 1863, towns along the Ohio River were attacked and ransacked in Morgan's Raid
, starting in Harrison
in the west and culminating in the Battle of Salineville
near West Point
in the far east. While this raid was overall insignificant to the Confederacy, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana
as it was the furthest advancement of troops from the South in the war.
Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.
By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals – Ulysses S. Grant
, William Tecumseh Sherman
, and Philip Sheridan
– were all from Ohio.
Throughout much of the 19th century, industry was rapidly introduced to complement an existing agricultural economy. One of the first iron manufacturing plants opened near Youngstown
in 1804 called Hopewell Furnace. By the mid-19th century, 48 blast furnaces were operating in the state, most in the southern portions of the state.
Discovery of coal deposits aided the further development of the steel industry in the state, and by 1853 Cleveland was the third largest iron and steel producer in the country. The first Bessemer converter
was purchased by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company
, which eventually became part of the U.S. Steel Corporation
following the merger of Federal Steel Company
and Carnegie Steel
, the first billion-dollar American corporation.
The first open-hearth furnace used for steel production was constructed by the Otis Steel Company in Cleveland, and by 1892, Ohio ranked as the 2nd-largest steel-producing state behind Pennsylvania. Republic Steel
was founded in Youngstown in 1899 and was at one point the nation's third-largest producer. Armco
, now AK Steel, was founded in Middletown
also in 1899.
Artists, writers, musicians and actors developed in the state throughout the 20th century and often moved to other cities which were larger centers for their work. They included Zane Grey
, Milton Caniff
, George Bellows
, Art Tatum
, Roy Lichtenstein
, and Roy Rogers
. Alan Freed
, who emerged from the swing dance culture in Cleveland, hosted the first live rock 'n roll concert in Cleveland in 1952. Famous filmmakers include Steven Spielberg
, Chris Columbus
and the original Warner Brothers
, who set up their first movie theatre in Youngstown before that company later relocated to California. The state produced many popular musicians, including Dean Martin
, Doris Day
, The O'Jays
, Marilyn Manson
, Dave Grohl
, Macy Gray
and The Isley Brothers
Ohio had become nicknamed the "fuel cell corridor"
in being a contributing anchor for the region now called the "Green Belt," in reference to the growing renewable energy sector.
Although the state experienced heavy manufacturing losses at the close of the 20th century and suffered from the Great Recession
, it was rebounding by the second decade in being the country's 6th-fastest-growing economy through the first half of 2010.
Ohio's transition into the 21st century was symbolized by the Third Frontier program, spearheaded by governor Bob Taft
around the start of the century. This built on the agricultural and industrial pillars of the economy, dubbed the first and second frontiers, by aiding the growth of advanced technology industries, the third frontier.
The results of this initiative were considered widely successful,
attracting 637 new high-tech companies to the state and 55,000 new jobs, with an average of salary of $65,000,
while having a $6.6 billion economic impact with an investment return ratio of 9:1.
In 2010 the state won the International Economic Development Council
's Excellence in Economic Development Award
, celebrated as a national model of success.
Many of the state's former industrial centers turned to new industries, including Akron
as a center for polymer and biomedical research, Cincinnati
as the state's largest mercantile hub, Columbus
as a center for technological research and development, education, and insurance, Cleveland
in regenerative medicine research and manufacturing, Dayton
as an aerospace and defense hub, and Toledo
as a national center for solar technology.
Ohio was hit hard by the Great Recession
and manufacturing employment losses entering the 2010s. The recession cost the state 376,500 jobs
and it had 89,053 foreclosures in 2009, a record for the state.
The median household income dropped 7% and the poverty rate ballooned to 13.5% by 2009.
From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew faster than 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census
, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans.
Growth then slowed for the next four decades.
The United States Census Bureau
counted 11,808,848 in the 2020 census, a 2.4% increase since the 2010 United States Census
Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and whites
are found in a greater density than the US average. As of 2000, Ohio's center of population
is located in Morrow County
in the county seat
of Mount Gilead
This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.
Graph of Ohio's population growth from 1800 to 2000
As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.
6.2% of Ohio's population is under five years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population.
Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live births by single race/ethnicity of mother
Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic
origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic
group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
Ohio racial breakdown of population
In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens
and 240,699 (2.1%) were not.
The largest groups were:
Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.
The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:
Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African
, Puerto Rican
, West Indian
Population density map
About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and older reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages.
Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke English
, 239,229 Spanish
, 55,970 German
, 38,990 Chinese
, 33,125 Arabic
, and 32,019 French
. In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language
and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language
according to the 2010 Census.
Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers
, second largest of Slovak speakers
, second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers
, and the third largest of Serbian speakers
children on their way to school
According to a Pew Forum
poll, as of 2014, 73% of Ohioans identified as Christian.
Specifically, 29% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant
, 17% as Mainline Protestant
, 7% as Historically Black Protestant
, and 18% as Catholic
22% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body.
Small minorities of Jews
(1%), Jehovah's Witnesses
(1%), and other faiths (1-1.5%) exist.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives
(ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations by adherents were the Catholic Church
with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church
with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention
with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ
with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA)
With about 80,000 adherents in 2020, Ohio has the second largest Amish population
of all U.S. states, only behind neighboring Pennsylvania
According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 56%, feel religion is "very important", 25% that it is "somewhat important", and 19% that religion is "not too important/not important at all".
38% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 32% occasionally, and 30% seldom or never.
Cincinnati's Procter & Gamble
is one of Ohio's largest companies in terms of revenue.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau
, the total number for employment in 2016 was 4,790,178. The total number of unique employer establishments was 252,201, while the total number of non-employer establishments was 785,833.
In 2010, Ohio was ranked second in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database.
The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments.
As of 2016, Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion.
This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia
The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%.
Ohio was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009.
The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate.
Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009.
Ohio has five of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report
's 2010 rankings,
and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.
and financial activities
sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP.
Ohio has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California and Texas.
Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances.
5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.
By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care
and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%).
Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%).
Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product.
Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble
, Goodyear Tire & Rubber
, AK Steel
, Abercrombie & Fitch
, and Wendy's
Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery,
the Ohio Lottery
As of 2020, the Ohio Lottery has contributed more than $26 billion to education beginning in 1974.
Many major east–west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway
which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton
, and Van Wert
. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Route 30
Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent of which is the Buckeye Trail
which extends 1,444 mi (2,324 km) in a loop around the state of Ohio. Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Additionally, the North Country Trail
(the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails
authorized by Congress
) and the American Discovery Trail
(a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the United States
) pass through Ohio. Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail.
Ohio has extensive railroads, though today most are only utilized by freight companies. Major cities in the north and south of Ohio lie on Amtrak
intercity rail lines. The Capitol Limited
and the Lake Shore Limited
serve Toledo, Cleveland and other northern Ohio cities. The Cardinal
serves Cincinnati. Columbus is the largest city in the United States without any form of passenger rail. Its Union Station
last had an inter-city train in 1979 with the National Limited.
Mass transit exists in many forms in Ohio cities, primarily through bus systems, though Cleveland has both light and heavy rail through the GCRTA
, and Cincinnati reestablished a streetcar line
Law and government
The state government of Ohio consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary
. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters".
The intermediate-level court system is the district court system.
Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area.
A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.
The state's highest-ranking court is the Ohio Supreme Court
A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion
, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.
Six U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "mother of presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia
. It is also termed "modern mother of presidents",
in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison
lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes
, in North Bend, Ohio
. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant
(elected from Illinois
), Rutherford B. Hayes
, James A. Garfield
, Benjamin Harrison
(grandson of William Henry Harrison & elected from Indiana
), William McKinley
, William Howard Taft
and Warren G. Harding
All seven were Republicans
Ohio is considered a swing state
, being won by either the Democratic
candidates reasonably each election. As a swing state, Ohio is usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections.
Pivotal in the election of 1888
, Ohio has been a regular swing state since 1980.
Additionally, Ohio is considered a bellwether
. Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs". The Economist
notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb",
, Ohio has had only three misses in the general election (Thomas E. Dewey in 1944
, Richard Nixon in 1960
, and Donald Trump in 2020
) and had the longest perfect streak of any state, voting for the winning presidential candidate in each election from 1964
, and in 33 of the 38 held since the Civil War
. No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio.
As of 2019, there are more than 7.8 million registered Ohioan voters, with 1.3 million Democrats
and 1.9 million Republicans
. They are disproportionate in age, with a million more over 65 than there are 18- to 24-year-olds.
Since the 2010 midterm elections
, Ohio's voter demographic has leaned towards the Republican Party.
The governor, Mike DeWine
, is Republican, as well as all other non-judicial statewide elected officials, including Lieutenant Governor Jon A. Husted
, Attorney General Dave Yost
, State Auditor Keith Faber
, Secretary of State Frank LaRose
and State Treasurer Robert Sprague
. In the Ohio State Senate
the Republicans are the majority, 25–8, and in the Ohio House of Representatives
the Republicans control the delegation 64–35.
Since 1994, the state has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from its rolls. In April 2016, a lawsuit was filed, challenging this policy on the grounds that it violated the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993
and the Help America Vote Act of 2002
In June, the federal district court ruled for the plaintiffs and entered a preliminary injunction applicable only to the November 2016 election. The preliminary injunction was upheld in September by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election.
Still, it has been estimated that the state has removed up to two million voters since 2011.
Ohio's system of public education
is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution
, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code
. Ohio University
, the first university in the Northwest Territory
, was also the first public institution in Ohio. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states
. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education
, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents
coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio
under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of more than 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.
A tree map depicting the distribution of bachelor's degrees awarded in Ohio in 2014
Colleges and universities
- 13 state universities
- 24 state university branch and regional campuses
- 46 private colleges and universities
- 6 free-standing state-assisted medical schools
- 15 community colleges
- 8 technical colleges
- 24 independent non-profit colleges
Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries.
The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr.
ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison.
For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.
500,000 books or more
The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN)
is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.
Ohio also offers the OhioLINK
program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available.
Popular musicians from Ohio include Mamie Smith
, Dean Martin
, Dave Grohl
, Tyler Joseph
and Josh Dun
of Twenty One Pilots
, Frankie Yankovic
, Doris Day
, The McGuire Sisters
, The Isley Brothers
, Bobby Womack
, Howard Hewett
, Shirley Murdock
, Boz Scaggs
, John Legend
, Marilyn Manson
, Nine Inch Nails
, Dan Auerbach
and Patrick Carney
of The Black Keys
, Griffin Layne
, Joe Dolce
, Kid Cudi
, Benjamin Orr
of The Cars
, Chrissie Hynde
of The Pretenders
, William "Bootsy" Collins
, Stephanie Eulinberg of Kid Rock
's Twisted Brown Trucker
Band, and Devo
. Five Ohio musicians[who?]
are Rock and Roll Hall of Fame members.
Many other Ohio cities are home to their own orchestras, including Akron
, Blue Ash
, and Youngstown
. Cincinnati is home to its own ballet
, symphony orchestra
, pops orchestra
, and opera
, all housed at the Cincinnati Music Hall
. Dayton is also home to a ballet, orchestra, and opera, collectively known as the Dayton Performing Arts Alliance
- Akron Art Museum, Akron
- Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College
- Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum, Ohio State University
- Burchfield Homestead, Salem
- Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown
- Canton Museum of Art, Canton
- Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati
- Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland
- Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus
- Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati
- Dayton Art Institute, Dayton
- Frank Museum of Art, Otterbein University
- National Imperial Glass Museum, Bellaire
- Kennedy Museum of Art, Ohio University
- Temple Museum of Religious Art, Case Western Reserve University
- Mansfield Art Center, Mansfield
- McDonough Museum of Art, Youngstown State University
- Miami University Art Museum, Miami University
- Museum of Ceramics, East Liverpool
- Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, Cleveland
- Ohio Glass Museum, Lancaster
- Richard Ross Museum of Art, Ohio Wesleyan University
- Springfield Center for the Arts at Wittenberg University, Wittenberg University
- Taft Museum of Art, Cincinnati
- Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo
- Toy and Plastic Brick Museum, Bellaire
- University of Findlay's Mazza Museum, University of Findlay
- Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University
- Whitby Mansion, Sidney
The Cincinnati Art Museum
holds over 100,000 works spanning 6,000 years of human history, being among the most comprehensive collections in the Midwest
. Among its notable collections are works by Master of San Baudelio, Jorge Ingles, Sandro Botticelli
(Judith with Head of Holofernes
), Matteo di Giovanni
, Domenico Tintoretto
(Portrait of Venetian dux Marino Grimani
), Mattia Preti
, Bernardo Strozzi
, Frans Hals
, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
(St. Thomas of Villanueva
), Peter Paul Rubens
(Samson and Delilah
) and Aert van der Neer
. The collection also includes works by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
, Camille Pissarro
, Claude Monet
(Rocks At Belle Isle
), and Pablo Picasso
. The museum also has a large collection of paintings by American painter Frank Duveneck
(Elizabeth B. Duveneck
The Columbus Museum of Art
holds nineteenth and early twentieth-century American and European art, including early Cubist
paintings by Pablo Picasso
and Juan Gris
, works by François Boucher
, Paul Cézanne
, Mary Cassatt
, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
, Edgar Degas
, Henri Matisse
, Claude Monet
, Edward Hopper
, and Norman Rockwell
, and installations by Mel Chin
, Josiah McElheny
, Susan Philipsz
, and Allan Sekula
. Also in Columbus, the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum
collection includes 450,000 original cartoons, 36,000 books, 51,000 serial titles, and 3,000 feet (910 m) of manuscript materials, plus 2.5 million comic strip clippings and tear sheets, making it the largest research library for cartoon art.
Professional sports teams
Ohio has brought home seven World Series
titles (Reds 1919
; Indians 1920
), two MLS Cups
), one NBA Championship
), and nine NFL Championships
; Bulldogs 1922
; Rams 1945
; Browns 1950
). Despite this success in the NFL
in the first half of the 20th century, no Ohio team has won the Super Bowl
since its inception in 1967
or made an appearance since 1989
. No Ohio team has made an appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals
Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings
of 1869, were organized in Ohio.
An informal early-20th-century American football association, the Ohio League
, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The Pro Football Hall of Fame
is located in Canton
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