One-party state
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A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.[1] All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.
World's states coloured by form of government1
 Full presidential republics2 Semi-presidential republics2
 Republics with an executive president elected by or nominated by the legislature that may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence. Parliamentary republics2
 Parliamentary constitutional monarchies Constitutional monarchies which have a separate head of government but where royalty still holds significant executive and/or legislative power
 Absolute monarchies One-party states
 Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorships) Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional governments).
1 This map was compiled according to the Wikipedia list of countries by system of government. See there for sources.
2 Several states constitutionally deemed to be multiparty republics are broadly described by outsiders as authoritarian states. This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy.
One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle and because of this the Soviet Union legally authorized and recognized a single party leading the proletariat, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the People's Republic of China under the United Front, the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Others may outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independent, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others may both outlaw all other parties and include party membership as a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.
Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.
Most one-party states have been ruled by parties forming in one of the following three circumstances:
  1. an ideology of Marxism–Leninism and international solidarity (such as the Soviet Union for most of its existence);
  2. some type of nationalist or fascist ideology (such as the Kingdom of Italy under the National Fascist Party or Germany under the Nazi Party);
  3. parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.
One-party states are usually considered to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.
The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, and instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic". One peculiar example is Cuba where, despite the role of the Communist Party being enshrined in the constitution, no party, including the Communist Party, is permitted to campaign or run candidates for elections. Candidates are elected on an individual referendum basis without formal party involvement, although elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the Communist Party alongside non-affiliated candidates.[2]
Current one-party states
As of 2021 the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:
CountryHead of partyPartyIdeologyDate of establishmentDuration
Xi Jinping, General Secretary
Communist Party of China
Socialism with Chinese characteristicsOctober 1, 194971 years, 224 days
CubaMiguel Díaz-Canel, First Secretary
Communist Party of Cuba
Marxism–Leninism, CastroismJanuary 1, 195962 years, 132 days
EritreaIsaias Afwerki, Chairperson
People's Front for Democracy and Justice
Eritrean nationalism, socialismMay 24, 199327 years, 354 days
Thongloun Sisoulith, General Secretary
Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Kaysone Phomvihane ThoughtDecember 2, 197545 years, 162 days
North KoreaKim Jong-un, ChairmanWorkers' Party of KoreaJucheOctober 10, 194575 years, 215 days
SahrawiBrahim Ghali, Secretary GeneralPolisario FrontSahrawi nationalism, social democracyFebruary 27, 197645 years, 75 days
Nguyễn Phú Trọng, General Secretary
Communist Party of Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh ThoughtApril 30, 197546 years, 13 days
Wa StateBao Youxiang, General SecretaryUnited Wa State PartyWaNationalism, Communism, MaoismApril 11, 198932 years, 32 days
Former one-party states
CountryPartyIdeologyDate of establishmentDate of dissolutionContinent
 Ottoman Empire
Union and Progress PartyFactions: Turkish nationalism, Constitutionalism, Ottomanism, Pan-Turkism​/​Turanism​, Pan-Islamism, SecularismJune 11, 19131918Asia/Europe
Tinoquista Costa RicaPeliquista PartyLiberalism19171919North America
Republican People's Party
Cameroon People's Democratic MovementBig tent, Nationalism, Francophilia19751990Africa
Neo DestourTunisian nationalism, Bourguibism19631964Africa
Socialist Destourian PartyTunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism19641981Africa
Democratic Party of TurkmenistanTurkmennationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party19922008Asia
 Republic of China[Note 1]/Taiwan
TridemismJuly 1, 1925July 15, 1987Asia
Syrian RepublicArab Liberation MovementPan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western19531954Asia
Republic of Afghanistan
National Revolutionary PartyPashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Anti-communism, Republicanism, SecularismFebruary 14, 1977[3][4]April 28, 1978Asia
National Liberation FrontArab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism19621989Africa
 BangladeshBangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami LeagueBengali nationalism, Socialism, One Party State, Libertarian Socialism19741975Asia
Burma Socialist Programme Party
Burmese Way to Socialism19621988Asia
 Cape Verde
African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape VerdeCommunism, Marxism–Leninism19751980Africa
 Cape Verde
African Party for the Independence of Cape VerdeCommunism, Marxism–Leninism19801990Africa
 Central African Republic
Movement for the Social Evolution of Black AfricaAfrican nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism19621980Africa
People's Rally for ProgressAfar interests, Third Way, Liberal socialism19771992Africa
 Equatorial Guinea
United National Workers' PartyAfrican nationalism, Socialism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism19701979Africa
Arab Socialist UnionArab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism19621976Africa
Eritrean People's Liberation Front
Left-wing nationalism1991 (Provisional government)
1993 (Recognized state)
Convention People's PartyNkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism19641966Africa
Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic RallyAfrican nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism19581984Africa
 Guinea-BissauAfrican Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape VerdeCommunism, Marxism–Leninism19741991Africa
Indonesian National PartyNationalism, MarhaenismAugust 17, 1945November 3, 1945Asia
Iraqi Arab Socialist UnionArab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism19641968Asia
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front)
Saddamist Ba'athism19682003Asia
LibyaLibyan Arab Socialist UnionArab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism19711977Africa
Democratic Republic of Madagascar
National Front for the Defense of the RevolutionLeft-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism19761989Africa
Sudanese Union – African Democratic RallyAfrican nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism19601968Africa
Democratic Union of the Malian PeopleSocialism, Democratic centralism19761991Africa
Mauritanian People's PartyNationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism19611978Africa
 São Tomé and PríncipeMovement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic PartyCommunism, Marxism–Leninism19751990Africa
Socialist Party of SenegalAfrican nationalism, African socialism19661974Africa
 SeychellesSeychelles People's Progressive FrontDemocratic socialism, Social democracy19771991Africa
 Sierra Leone
All People's CongressAfrican nationalism, Democratic socialism19781991Africa
Democratic Republic of the Sudan
Sudanese Socialist Union
Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism19711985Africa
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front)
Neo-Ba'athism1963February 27, 2012[5][6]Asia
Chama Cha MapinduziUjamaa, African socialism19771992Africa
Tanganyika African National Union
African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa19611977Africa
Uganda People's CongressSocial democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism19691971Africa
 United Arab Republic
National UnionArab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism19581961Africa
People's Anti-Imperialist AssociationSix Great Policies19351942Asia
United National Independence PartyAfrican socialism, African nationalism19721990Africa
Afro-Shirazi PartyAfrican nationalism, Marxism–Leninism19641977Africa
People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (National Fatherland Front)Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialismDecember 24, 1980July 27, 1990Asia
Democratic Government of Albania
Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement)Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionismOctober 20, 1944August 5, 1945Europe
Democratic Government of Albania
Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front)Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionismAugust 5, 1945January 11, 1946Europe
Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front)Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionismJanuary 11, 1946December 11, 1990Europe
People's Republic of Angola
People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–LeninismNovember 11, 1975May 30, 1991Africa
ArmeniaCommunist Party of ArmeniaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismDecember 2, 1920December 30, 1922Asia
AzerbaijanCommunist Party of AzerbaijanCommunism, Marxism–LeninismApril 30, 1920December 30, 1922Asia
People's Revolutionary Party of Benin
Communism, Marxism–LeninismNovember 30, 1975March 1, 1990Africa
BulgariaBulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front)Communism, Marxism–LeninismSeptember 15, 1946January 15, 1990Europe
ByelorussiaCommunist Party of ByelorussiaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismJuly 31, 1920December 30, 1922Europe
Chinese Soviet Republic
Communist Party of ChinaMarxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism19301937Asia
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front)Marxism–LeninismFebruary 25, 1948November 30, 1989Europe
East GermanySocialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc)Communism, Marxism–LeninismOctober 7, 1949March 30, 1950Europe
East GermanySocialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic)Communism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 30, 1950December 1, 1989Europe
Russian Communist Party(Central Committee of the Estonian Sections)Communism, Marxism–LeninismNovember 29, 1918June 5, 1919Europe
EstoniaCommunist Party of EstoniaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismJuly 21, 1940August 9, 1940Europe
Workers' Party of EthiopiaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismSeptember 12, 1984February 22, 1987Africa
EthiopiaWorkers' Party of EthiopiaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismFebruary 22, 1987April 28, 1991Africa
GeorgiaCommunist Party of GeorgiaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismFebruary 25, 1921December 30, 1922Asia
GrenadaNew Jewel MovementCommunism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 13, 1979October 25, 1983Central America
GuangzhouCommunist Party of ChinaMarxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism19271927Asia
HunanCommunist Party of ChinaMarxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism19271927Asia
Hungarian Working People's Party
Communism, Marxism–Leninism, StalinismAugust 20, 1949October 30, 1956Europe
HungaryHungarian Socialist Workers' PartyCommunism, Marxism–LeninismNovember 4, 1956October 7, 1989Europe
JinggangCommunist Party of ChinaMarxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism19271928Asia
Communist Party of KampucheaCommunism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, UltranationalismApril 17, 1975June 22, 1982Asia
Kampuchean People's Revolutionary PartySocialism, Marxism–LeninismJanuary 7, 1979October 23, 1991Asia
LatviaCommunist Party of LatviaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismDecember 17, 1918January 13, 1920Europe
LatviaCommunist Party of LatviaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismJuly 21, 1940August 5, 1940Europe
Mongolian People's Revolutionary PartyCommunism, Marxism–Leninism1921July 29, 1990Asia
FRELIMOMarxism–LeninismJune 25, 1975December 1, 1990Africa
 Vietnam (partially)
Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam)Communism, Marxism–LeninismSeptember 2, 19451946[citation needed]Asia
 North Vietnam
Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front)Communism, Marxism–Leninism1955July 2, 1976Asia
LithuaniaCommunist Party of LithuaniaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismJuly 21, 1940August 3, 1940Europe
Lithuania–ByelorussiaCommunist Party of Lithuania and BelorussiaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismFebruary 17, 1919July 17, 1919Europe
People's Republic of the Congo
Congolese Party of LabourCommunism, Marxism–LeninismJanuary 31, 19691991Africa
Communist Party of PersiaCommunism, Marxism–Leninism19201921Asia
PolandPolish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity)Marxism–LeninismFebruary 5, 1947July 1982Europe
PolandPolish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth)Marxism–LeninismJuly 1982August 24, 1989Europe
Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front)
Communism, Marxism–LeninismFebruary 5, 19481968Europe
Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity)
Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism19681980Europe
Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy)
Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism1980December 29, 1989Europe
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Social Democratic Labour PartyCommunism, Marxism–LeninismJanuary 19, 1918March 8, 1918[7]Europe/Asia
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Communist PartyCommunism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 8, 1918[7]December 30, 1922Europe/Asia
Somali Revolutionary Socialist PartyIslamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism
July 1976January 26, 1991Africa
South Yemen
Yemeni Socialist Party
Communism, Marxism–LeninismOctober 31, 1978May 22, 1990Asia
Southwest JiangxiCommunist Party of ChinaMarxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism19301931Asia
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsRussian Communist PartyCommunism, Marxism–LeninismDecember 30, 1922December 31, 1925[7]Europe/Asia
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsAll-Union Communist PartyCommunism, Marxism–LeninismDecember 31, 1925[7]October 13, 1952[7]Europe/Asia
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsCommunist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunism, Marxism–LeninismOctober 13, 1952[7]October 9, 1990[8]Europe/Asia
TranscaucasiaCommunist Part of ArmeniaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
TranscaucasiaCommunist Party of AzerbaijanCommunism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
TranscaucasiaCommunist Party of GeorgiaCommunism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 12, 1922December 30, 1922Asia
Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party
Communism, Marxism–LeninismAugust 14, 1921October 11, 1944Asia
UkraineCommunist Party of UkraineCommunism, Marxism–LeninismMarch 10, 1919December 30, 1922Europe
Yan'anCommunist Party of ChinaMarxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism19371949Asia
Yemeni Socialist Party
Communism, Marxism–LeninismMay 21, 1994July 7, 1994Asia
YugoslaviaLeague of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia)Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, YugoslavismNovember 29, 1945January 22, 1990Europe
HawaiiReform PartyAmericanisation, Annexationism18941898North America
Brazilian military regime
ARENA[Note 2]
Militarism, Social conservatism, National conservatism, Brazilian nationalism, Anti-communism, National security19641979South America
Gabonese Democratic PartyConservatism19681990Africa
 Ivory Coast
Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic RallyAfrican nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism19601990Africa
Kingdom of Spain
Spanish Patriotic UnionSpanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism19241930Europe
Malawi Congress PartyUbuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism19641993Africa
 IranIslamic Republican PartyVelyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment19811987Asia
National Movement for the Development of SocietyConservatism19891991Africa
Albanian Kingdom
Albanian Fascist Party
Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, HellenophobiaJune 2, 1939July 27, 1943Europe
Albanian Kingdom
Guard of Greater AlbaniaAlbanian nationalism, FascismJuly 27, 1943September 8, 1943Europe
Albanian KingdomNational FrontAlbanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialismSeptember 14, 1943November 29, 1943Europe
Federal State of Austria
Fatherland Front
Clerical fascismMay 1, 1934March 13, 1938Europe
Republic of Burundi
Union for National Progress
Burundian​nationalism​, Tutsi interestsJuly 11, 1974March 13, 1992Africa
Republic of Cameroon
Cameroonian National UnionBig tentSeptember 1, 1966[9]March 24, 1985Africa
 Central African Republic
Central African Democratic UnionAfrican nationalism, RepublicanismMarch 1, 1980September 2, 1981Africa
 Central African Republic
Central African Democratic RallyAfrican nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, RepublicanismFebruary 6, 1987April 22, 1991[10]Africa
Chadian Progressive PartyAfrican nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, FederalismApril 16, 1962April 6, 1973Africa
National Movement for the Cultural and Social RevolutionAfrican nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, FederalismApril 6, 1973April 13, 1975Africa
National Union for Independence and RevolutionNationalism19841990Africa
 ComorosComorian Union for ProgressNationalism19821990Africa
Independent State of Croatia
Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary MovementCroatian irredentism, Croatian​ultranationalism​, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communismApril 10, 1941May 8, 1945Europe
Dahomeyan Unity PartyAfrican nationalism, Republicanism19611963Africa
Dahomeyan Democratic PartyAfrican nationalism19631965Africa
Dominican Republic
Dominican PartyTrujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism19311961Central America
National Democratic PartyEgyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent19561958Africa
National Democratic PartyEgyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent19611962Africa
El SalvadorNational Pro Patria PartyFascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy19311944South America
Empire of Japan
Imperial Rule Assistance AssociationShōwa statism19401945Asia
 Equatorial Guinea
Democratic Party of Equatorial GuineaAfrican nationalism, Militarism19871991Africa
Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution)Estonian nationalism, PersonalismMarch 9, 1935July 21, 1940Europe
Nazi GermanyNational Socialist German Workers' PartyNazismJuly 14, 1933May 23, 1945Europe
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
National PartnershipNazismMarch 21, 1939May 9, 1945Europe
GuatemalaProgressive Liberal PartyUbicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism19311944South America
HaitiNational Unity PartyBlack nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism19571985Central America
Government of National Unity
Arrow Cross Party
HungarismOctober 16, 1944May 7, 1945Europe
Imperial State of IranRastakhiz PartyMonarchism, Fascism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position19751978Asia
Kingdom of Italy
National Fascist Party
FascismMay 17, 1928[11]
January 9, 1939
July 27, 1943Europe
Italian Social Republic
Republican Fascist Party
FascismSeptember 13, 1943April 28, 1945Europe
Kenya African National UnionKenyan nationalism, Conservatism19821991Africa
LithuaniaLithuanian Nationalist UnionLithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Antisemitism19271940Europe
Concordia AssociationFascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, PersonalismApril 1, 1932[12]May 1, 1945[12]Asia
Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch TerritoriesNational Socialist Movement in the NetherlandsNazismDecember 14, 1941May 6, 1945Europe
Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic RallyAfrican nationalism, Pan-Africanism19601974Africa
 North YemenGeneral People's CongressYemeninationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent19821988Asia
National GovernmentNational RallyFascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, CollaborationismFebruary 1, 1942May 9, 1945Europe
ParaguayColorado PartyConservatism, national conservatism19471962South America
Philippine Executive Commission
Association for Service to the New PhilippinesFilipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-JapanDecember 8, 1942October 14, 1943Asia
Republic of the PhilippinesAssociation for Service to the New PhilippinesFilipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-JapanOctober 14, 1943August 17, 1945Asia
PortugalNational UnionSalazarism, corporatismJuly 30, 1930[13]October 8, 1945[13]Europe
PortugalNational UnionSalazarism, corporatismJanuary 31, 1948[14]September 1969[15]Europe
PortugalPeople's National Action (formerly National Union)Salazarism, corporatism1970April 25, 1974Europe
Party of the NationBig tent, Romanian nationalism, MonarchismDecember 16, 1938September 6, 1940Europe
National Legionary State
Iron GuardLegionarism, clerical fascismSeptember 6, 1940January 23, 1941Europe
 RwandaParmehutuHutu Power19651973Africa
 RwandaNational Republican Movement for Democracy and DevelopmentHutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism19781991Africa
San MarinoSammarinese Fascist PartyItalian Fascism, Corporatism19261943Europe
 San MarinoRepublican Fascist Party of San MarinoItalian Fascism19431944Europe
Slovak RepublicHlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National UnityClerical fascismMarch 14, 1939May 8, 1945Europe
Spanish StateFET y de las JONSFrancoism, FalangismApril 19, 1937July 6, 1976[16]Europe
 SudanNational Congress PartyIslamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism19892005Africa
 TogoParty of Togolese UnityAfrican nationalism19621963Africa
 TogoRally of the Togolese PeopleAfrican nationalism, Right-wing populism19691991Africa
Upper VoltaVoltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic RallyAfrican nationalism, Pan-Africanism19601966Africa
YugoslaviaYugoslav Radical Peasants' DemocracyRoyalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism19291931Europe
ZairePopular Movement of the RevolutionMobutism19701990Africa
See also
  1. ^ The Republic of China controlled the mainland from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers the Free area. This government served China in the United Nations from 1945 to 1971. See Political status of Taiwan and the One-China policy for various viewpoints.
  2. ^ Although there was an official democratic opposition, the MDB, ARENA was de facto the only governing party.
  1. ^ Clark, William Roberts; Golder, Matt; Golder, Sona Nadenichek (2012-03-23). Principles of Comparative Politics. SAGE. ISBN 9781608716791.
  2. ^ Cuba: Elections and Events 1991–2001Archived 2007-03-01 at the Wayback Machine Latin American Election Statistics Home
  3. ^ Afghanistan: A Country Study
  4. ^ Afghanistan 1977
  5. ^ "Presidential Decree on Syria's New Constitution". Syrian Arab News Agency. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  6. ^ Chulov, Martin (27 February 2012). "Syrian regime rockets bombard Homs". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e f The Constitution of the Russian Federation: A Contextual Analysis By Jane Henderson
  8. ^ Ideology And Political System By Kundan Kumar
  9. ^ The Search for a Cameroonian Model of Democracy or the Search for the Domination of the State Party: 1966-2006
  10. ^ Central African Republic Unions Strike for Democracy 1990-1993
  11. ^ Mediterranean Fascism 1919–1945
  12. ^ a b China at War: Regions of China, 1937-1945
  13. ^ a b 12th Period - Second Republic of Portugal
  14. ^ Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals and Military
  15. ^ Following the appointment of Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister in 1968, the opposition was allowed to run to the 1969 Portuguese legislative election, before being banned
  16. ^ Law 21/1976, of June 14, on the Right of Political Association.
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