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Open-mid back unrounded vowel
The open-mid back unrounded vowel or low-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʌ⟩, graphically a rotated lowercase "v" (called a turned V but created as a small-capital ⟨ᴀ⟩ without the crossbar). Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as a "wedge", "caret" or "hat". In transcriptions for English, this symbol is commonly used for the near-open central unrounded vowel and in transcriptions for Danish, it is used for the (somewhat mid-centralized) open back rounded vowel.
Open-mid back unrounded vowel
ʌ
IPA Number314
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʌ
Unicode (hex)U+028C
X-SAMPAV
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
CatalanSolsonès[2]
tarda
[ˈtaɾð̞ʌ̃ː]'afternoon'Realization of final unstressed /ə/
Emilian-Romagnol[3]most Emilian dialects
Bulåggna
[buˈlʌɲːɐ]'Bologna'It corresponds to a sound between /ɔ/ a /ä/; written ò in some spellings
EnglishCape Town[4]
lot
[lʌt]'lot'It corresponds to a weakly rounded [ɒ̈] in all other South African dialects. See South African English phonology
Natal[4]
Cardiff[5]
thought
[θʌːt]'thought'For some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology
General South African[6]
no
[nʌː]'no'May be a diphthong [ʌʊ̯] instead.[7] See South African English phonology
General American[8]
gut
[ɡʌt] (help·info)'gut'In most dialects, fronted to [ɜ], or fronted and lowered to [ɐ]. See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift
Inland Northern American[9]
Multicultural London[10]
Newfoundland[11]
Northern East Anglian[12]
Philadelphia[13]
Scottish[14]
Some Estuary English speakers[15]
FrenchPicardy[16]
alors
[aˈlʌʀ̥]'so'Corresponding to /ɔ/ in standard French.
GermanChemnitz dialect[17]
machen
[ˈmʌχɴ̩]'to do'Allophone of /ʌ, ʌː/ (which phonetically are central [ɜ, ɜː])[18] before and after /ŋ, kʰ, k, χ, ʁ/. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before /χ, ʁ/.[19]
Haida[20]ḵwaáay[qʷʰʌʔáːj]'the rock'Allophone of /a/ (sometimes also /aː/) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.[21]
IrishUlster dialect[22]
ola
[ʌl̪ˠə]'oil'See Irish phonology
Kaingang[23][ˈɾʌ]'mark'Varies between back [ʌ] and central [ɜ].[24]
Kensiu[25][hʌʎ]'stream'
Korean[26] / neo[nʌ]'you'See Korean phonology
Lillooet[example needed]Retracted counterpart of /ə/.
Mah Meri[27][example needed]Allophone of /ə/; can be mid central [ə] or close-mid back [ɤ] instead.[27]
Nepaliअसल/asal[ʌsʌl]'good'See Nepali phonology
OʼodhamPimacorresponds to [ɨ] in Papago.
RussianStandard Saint Petersburg[28]голова/golová[ɡəɫ̪ʌˈvä]'head'Corresponds to [ɐ] in standard Moscow pronunciation;[28] occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Tamil[29][example needed]Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence /am/, may be [õ] or [ã] instead.[29] See Tamil phonology
Before World War II, the /ʌ/ of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel [ʌ], which has since shifted forward towards [ɐ] (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reported his speech (southern British) as having an advanced back vowel [ʌ̟] between his central /ə/ and back /ɔ/; however, he also reported that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel that approached cardinal [a].[30] In American English varieties, such as in the West, the Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme /ʌ/ is an open-mid central [ɜ].[31][32] Truly backed variants of /ʌ/ that are phonetically [ʌ] can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some of African-American English, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas.[33][34] However, the letter ⟨ʌ⟩ is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants [ɐ] or [ɜ]. That may be because of both tradition and some other dialects retaining the older pronunciation.[35]
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ "Anàlisi dialectològica d'uns parlars del Solsonès". prezi.com. Retrieved 2019-11-29.
  3. ^ "Scrîver al bulgnaiṡ cum và". bulgnais.com (in Emilian).
  4. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 115.
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  6. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 614, 621.
  7. ^ Wells (1982), p. 614.
  8. ^ Wells (1982), p. 485.
  9. ^ W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg (1997), A national map of the regional dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved May 27, 2013
  10. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  11. ^ Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 61–63.
  12. ^ Trudgill (2004), p. 167.
  13. ^ Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 73–74.
  14. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  15. ^ Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 188.
  16. ^ "Picardie : phonétique". Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  17. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), pp. 235, 238.
  18. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  19. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 238.
  20. ^ Lawrence (1977), pp. 32–33.
  21. ^ Lawrence (1977), pp. 32–33, 36.
  22. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999), pp. 114–115.
  23. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  24. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  25. ^ Bishop (1996), p. 230.
  26. ^ Lee (1999).
  27. ^ a b Kruspe & Hajek (2009), p. 245.
  28. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 225.
  29. ^ a b Keane (2004), p. 114.
  30. ^ Jones (1972), pp. 86–88.
  31. ^ Gordon (2004b), p. 340.
  32. ^ Tillery & Bailey (2004), p. 333.
  33. ^ Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 112–115, 121, 134, 174.
  34. ^ Gordon (2004a), pp. 294–296.
  35. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 135.
References
External links
List of languages with [ʌ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 15:17
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