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Open-mid front rounded vowel
The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨œ⟩. The symbol œ is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. The sound ⟨ɶ⟩, a small capital version of the ⟨Œ⟩ ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel.
Open-mid front rounded vowel
œ
IPA Number311
Encoding
Entity (decimal)œ
Unicode (hex)U+0153
X-SAMPA9
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Open-mid front compressed vowel
The open-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨œ⟩, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated IPA diacritic for compression. However, the compression of the lips can be shown by the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɛ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɛ] and labial compression) or ⟨ɛᵝ⟩ ([ɛ] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨œ͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.
Features
Occurrence
Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AsturianSome Western dialects [es][2]fuöra[ˈfwœɾɐ]'outside'Realization of ⟨o⟩ in the diphthong ⟨uo⟩. May also be realized as [ɵ] or [ø].
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3]Seil[sœː]'rope'Contrasts close [y], near-close [ø̝], close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ] front rounded vowels in addition to the open central unrounded [ä].[3] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɶ⟩.
Northern[4]I helfad[i ˈhœlʲfɐd̥]'I'd help'Allophone of /ɛ/ before /l/.[4]
BretonAll speakers[5][example needed]Short counterpart of /øː/.[6] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩.
Bas-Léon[6][example needed]Long; contrasts with the short open-mid /œ/ and the long close-mid /øː/. Other speakers have only one mid front rounded vowel /øː/.[6]
Buwal[7][kʷœ̄lɛ̄lɛ̄]'fine'Allophone of /a/ when adjacent to a labialized consonant.[7]
ChineseCantonese / cheung4[tsʰœːŋ˩]'long'See Cantonese phonology
LombardLombardfiœ[fjœː]'boy','man'Occures naturally in the language, most frequently in western and northern regions, alternating with ø in many words, and rendered under the letter 'œ', while [ø] is under the letter ö.
DanishStandard[8]
gøre
[ˈkœːɐ]'to do'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɶː⟩. See Danish phonology
DutchStandard[9][10]
manoeuvre
[maˈnœːvrə]'manoeuvre'Occurs only in a few loanwords.[9][10] See Dutch phonology
Some speakers[11]
parfum
[pɑrˈfœ̃ː]'perfume'Nasalized; occurs only in a few loanwords and it is used mainly in southern accents. Often nativized as [ʏm].[11] See Dutch phonology
The Hague dialect[12]
uit
[œːt]'out'Corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch.[13] See Dutch phonology
EnglishGeneral New Zealand[14][15]
bird
[bœːd]'bird'May be mid [œ̝ː] instead. In broader varieties, it is close-mid or higher.[14][15][16] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɵː⟩. See New Zealand English phonology
Scouse[17]Possible realization of the merged SQUARENURSE vowel /eː/.[17]
Southern Welsh[18]Also described as mid [œ̝ː][19] and close-mid [øː].[20][21]
General South African[22]
go
[ɡœː]'go'Some speakers. Can be a diphthong of the type [œʉ̯]~[œɘ̯] instead. Other South African varieties do not monophthongize. See South African English phonology
French[23][24]
jeune
[ʒœn]'young'See French phonology
Galician[25]semana[s̺œˈmãnɐ̃]ˈweek'Labialization of pre-tonic [e], which is usually realized as [o]
GermanStandard[26]
Hölle
[ˈhœlə]'hell'See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[27]
schön
[ʃœːn]'beautiful'Close-mid [øː] in other accents.[28] See Standard German phonology
LimburgishMany dialects[29][30]mäö[mœː]'sleeve'Central [ɞː] in Maastricht;[31] the example word is from the Hasselt dialect.
Low German[32]söss / zös[zœs]'six'
Saterland Frisian[33][34]bölkje[ˈbœlkjə]'to rear'
West FrisianHindeloopers[35][example needed]See West Frisian phonology
Súdwesthoeksk[35][36]skoalle[ˈskœlə]'school'
Open-mid front protruded vowel
Open-mid front protruded vowel
œ̫
œʷ
ɛʷ
Catford notes[full citation needed] that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One Scandinavian language, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).
As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ⟨œʷ⟩ or ⟨ɛʷ⟩ (an open-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but it could be misread as a diphthong.
Acoustically, the sound is "between" the more typical compressed open-mid front vowel [œ] and the unrounded open-mid front vowel [ɛ].
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Norwegian[37][38]
nøtt
[nœ̫tː]'nut'The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has also been described as mid central [ɞ̝].[39] See Norwegian phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[40][41][42]
öra
[²œ̫ːra̠] (help·info)'ear'Allophone of /œ/ and most often also /øː/ before /r/.[40][41][42] May be more open [ɶ, ɶː] for younger speakers from Stockholm.[42] See Swedish phonology
Younger Stockholm speakers[42]
köpa
[²ɕœ̫ːpa̠]'to buy'Higher [øː] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ García, Fernando Álvarez-Balbuena (2015-09-01). "Na frontera del asturllionés y el gallegoportugués: descripción y exame horiométricu de la fala de Fernidiellu (Forniella, Llión). Parte primera: fonética". Revista de Filoloxía Asturiana (in unknown language). 14 (14). ISSN 2341-1147.
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Rowley (1990), p. 422.
  5. ^ Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  6. ^ a b c Ternes (1992), pp. 431, 433.
  7. ^ a b Viljoen (2013), p. 50.
  8. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999), p. 76.
  10. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 137.
  11. ^ a b van de Velde & van Hout (2002).
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 135–136.
  14. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  15. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  16. ^ Wells (1982), p. 607.
  17. ^ a b Gimson (2014), pp. 118, 138.
  18. ^ Penhallurick (2004), p. 104.
  19. ^ Wells (1982), p. 381.
  20. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  21. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  22. ^ Lass (2002), p. 118.
  23. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  24. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  25. ^ Freixeiro Mato, X. Ramón. (2006). Gramática da lingua galega (2. ed.). [Vigo, Spain]: Edicions A Nosa Terra. ISBN 84-8341-060-5. OCLC 213259857.
  26. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 97, 107.
  27. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  28. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  29. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  30. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  31. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  32. ^ Prehn (2012), p. 157.
  33. ^ Fort (2001), p. 411.
  34. ^ Peters (2017), p. ?.
  35. ^ a b van der Veen (2001), p. 102.
  36. ^ Hoekstra (2001), p. 83.
  37. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  38. ^ Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 2.
  39. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17.
  40. ^ a b Eliasson (1986), p. 273.
  41. ^ a b Thorén & Petterson (1992), pp. 13–14.
  42. ^ a b c d Riad (2014), p. 38.
References
External links
List of languages with [œ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 18:01
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