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Open-mid front unrounded vowel
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ⟨ɛ⟩.
Open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ
IPA Number303
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɛ
Unicode (hex)U+025B
X-SAMPAE
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArabicSee Imāla
ArmenianEastern[2]էջ/ēǰ[ɛd͡ʒ]'page'
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3][example needed]Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩.
Bengali[4]/ek[ɛk]'one'See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5]пет/pet[pɛt̪]'five'See Bulgarian phonology
Burmese[6]မေ/me[mɛ]'mother'
Catalan[7]
mel
[mɛɫ]'honey'See Catalan phonology
ChineseMandarin[8] / tiān[tʰi̯ɛn˥]'sky'Height varies between mid and open depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvashҫепĕç['ɕɛp̬ɘɕ]'gentle, tender'
Czech[9][10]
led
[lɛt]'ice'In Bohemian Czech, this vowel varies between open-mid front [ɛ], open-mid near-front [ɛ̠] and mid near-front [ɛ̝̈].[9] See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[11][12]
frisk
[ˈfʁɛsk]'fresh'Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩. See Danish phonology
DutchStandard[13]
bed
[bɛt] (help·info)'bed'See Dutch phonology
The Hague[14]
jij
[jɛ̞ː] (help·info)'you'Corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
EnglishGeneral American[15]
bed
[bɛd] (help·info)'bed'
Northern England[16]May be somewhat lowered.[16]
Received Pronunciation[17][18]Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel []. See English phonology
Scottish[19]
Cockney[20]
fat
[fɛt]'fat'
Singaporean[21]
New Zealand[22]See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad
South African speakers[23]
Other speakers realize this vowel as [æ] or [a]. See South African English phonology
Belfast[24]
days
[dɛːz]'days'Pronounced [iə] in closed syllables; corresponds to [eɪ] in RP.
Zulu[25]
mate
[mɛt]'mate'Speakers exhibit a met-mate merger.
Faroese[26]
frekt
[fɹɛʰkt]'greedy'See Faroese phonology
French[27][28]
bête
[bɛt̪] (help·info)'beast'See French phonology
Galician
ferro
[ˈfɛro̝]'iron'See Galician phonology
Georgian[29]დი/gedi[ɡɛdi]'swan'
GermanStandard[30][31]
Bett
[b̥ɛt] (help·info)'bed'Also described as mid [ɛ̝].[32] See Standard German phonology
Franconian accent[33]
oder
[ˈoːdɛ]'or'Used instead of [ɐ].[33] See Standard German phonology
Coastal Northern accents[33]
Swabian accent[34]
fett
[fɛt]'fat'Contrasts with the close-mid [e].[34] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[35]
See
[z̥ɛː]'lake'Close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the near-open [æː].[36] See Standard German phonology
HindustaniHindiरहना[ˈɾɛɦna]'to stay'See Hindustani phonology
Urduرہنا
Italian[37]
bene
[ˈbɛːne] (help·info)'good'See Italian phonology
Kaingang[38]mbre[ˈᵐbɾɛ]'with'
Korean매미 / maemi[mɛːmi]'cicada'See Korean phonology
KurdishKurmanji (Northern)
hevde
[hɛvdɛ]'seventeen'See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central)هه‌ڤده/hevda[hɛvdæ]
Palewani (Southern)[hɛvda]
Limburgish[39][40][41]crème[kʀ̝ɛːm]'cream'The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian
mesti
[mɛs̪t̪ɪ]'throw'See Lithuanian phonology
Lower Sorbian[42]serp[s̪ɛrp]'sickle'
Luxembourgish[43]Stär[ʃtɛːɐ̯]'star'Allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/.[43] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian[44][45]Standardмед/med[ˈmɛd̪]'honey'See Macedonian language § Vowels
MalayNegeri Sembilancepat[cɔpɛɁ]'quick'See Negeri Sembilan Malay
Kelatan-Pattaniayam[äjɛː]'chicken'See Kelatan-Pattani Malay
Terengganubiasa[bɛsə]'normal'See Terengganu Malay
NorwegianSognamål[46]
pest
[pʰɛst]'plague'See Norwegian phonology
Polish[47]
ten
[t̪ɛn̪] (help·info)'this one' (nom. m.)See Polish phonology
PortugueseMost dialects[48][49]
pé
[ˈpɛ]'foot'Stressed vowel might be lower [æ]. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨e⟩ allophones, such as [ e ɪi ɨ], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[50]
tempo
[ˈt̪ɛ̃mpu]'time'Timbre differences for nasalized vowels are mainly kept in European Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology
RomanianTransylvanian dialects[51]
vede
[ˈvɛɟe]'(he) sees'Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[52]это/eto[ˈɛt̪ə] (help·info)'this'See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[53][example needed]Allophone of /a/.
Slovene
met
[mɛ́t]'throw' (n.)See Slovene phonology
SpanishEastern Andalusian[54]
las madres
[læ̞ː ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛː]'the mothers'Corresponds to [] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[54]
Swahilishule[ʃulɛ]'school'
SwedishCentral Standard[55]
ät
[ɛ̠ːt̪]'eat' (imp.)Somewhat retracted.[55] See Swedish phonology
Thaiตร / trae[trɛː˧]'horn (instrument)'
Turkish[56][57]
ülke
[y̠l̠ˈcɛ]'country'Allophone of /e/ described variously as "word-final"[56] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[57] See Turkish phonology
Twiɛyɛ'it is good/fine'See Twi phonology
Ukrainian[58]день/den'[dɛnʲ]'day'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[42][59]čelo[ˈt͡ʃɛlɔ]'calf'See Upper Sorbian phonology
Welshnesaf[nɛsav]'next'See Welsh phonology
West Frisian[60]beppe[ˈbɛpə]'grandma'See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[61]
sẹ̀
[ɛ̄sɛ]'leg'
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Khan (2010), p. 222.
  5. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  6. ^ Watkins (2001), pp. 292–293.
  7. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  8. ^ Lin (2007), p. 65.
  9. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  10. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  11. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  12. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  13. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  15. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  16. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  17. ^ Schmitt (2007), pp. 322–323.
  18. ^ "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  19. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  20. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  21. ^ Bet Hashim & Brown (2000).
  22. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  23. ^ Lanham (1967), p. 9.
  24. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  25. ^ "Rodrik Wade, MA Thesis, Ch 4: Structural characteristics of Zulu English". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  26. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  27. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  28. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  29. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  30. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 82, 107.
  31. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  32. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  33. ^ a b c Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 40.
  34. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  35. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  36. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  37. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  38. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  39. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  40. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  41. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  42. ^ a b Stone (2002), p. 600.
  43. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  44. ^ Friedman (2001:10)
  45. ^ Lunt (1952:10–11)
  46. ^ Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  47. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  48. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  49. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de OliveiraArchived 2014-12-15 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP
  51. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  52. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 41.
  53. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  54. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  55. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  56. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  57. ^ a b Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  58. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  59. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  60. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  61. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɛ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 10:44
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