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Open back rounded vowel
The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɒ⟩. It is called "turned script a", being a rotated version of "script (cursive) a", which is the variant of a that lacks the extra stroke on top of a "printed a". Turned script a ⟨ɒ⟩ has its linear stroke on the left, whereas "script a" ⟨ɑ⟩ (for its unrounded counterpart) has its linear stroke on the right.
Open back rounded vowel
ɒ
IPA Number313
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɒ
Unicode (hex)U+0252
X-SAMPAQ
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[2]
daar
[dɒːr]'there'Fully back. Used by some speakers, particularly young female speakers of northern accents. Other speakers use an unrounded vowel [ɑː ~ ɑ̟ː].[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Assameseৰ / kor[kɒɹ]'to do'An "over-rounded" [ɒ̹], with rounding as strong as that for [u].[3]
CatalanMajorcan[4][5]
soc
[ˈsɒk]'clog'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Catalan phonology
Menorcan[4][5]
Valencian[4][5]
Some Valencian speakers[6]
taula
[ˈt̪ɑ̟wɫɒ̝]'table'Can be realized as unrounded [ɑ].
DutchLeiden[7]
bad
[bɒ̝t]'bath'Near-open fully back; may be unrounded [ɑ̝] instead.[7] It corresponds to [ɑ] in standard Dutch.
Rotterdam[7]
Some dialects[8]
bot
[bɒt]'bone'Some non-Randstad dialects,[8] for example those of Den Bosch and Groningen. It is open-mid [ɔ] in standard Dutch.
EnglishReceived Pronunciation[9]
not
[nɒt]'not'Somewhat raised. Younger RP speakers may pronounce a closer vowel [ɔ]. It is proposed that the /ɒ/ vowel of Received Pronunciation, which is normally described as a rounded vowel, is pronounced by some speakers without rounded lips for whom the characteristic quality is rather one of sulcality.[10] See English phonology
Northern English[11]May be somewhat raised and fronted.[11]
South African[12][nɒ̜̈t]Near-back and weakly rounded.[12] Some younger speakers of the General variety may actually have a higher and fully unrounded vowel [ʌ̈].[12] See South African English phonology
General American
thought
[θɒt] (help·info)'thought'Vowel /ɔ(:)/ is lowered (Phonetic realization of /ɔ(:)/ is much lower in GA than in RP).
However "Short o" before r before a vowel (a short o sound followed by r and then another vowel, as in orange, forest, moral, and warrant) is realized as [oɹ~ɔɹ].
Inland Northern American[13]See Northern cities vowel shift
Indian[14][t̪ʰɒʈ]/ɒ/ and /ɔː/ differ entirely by length in Indian English.
Welsh[15][16][θɒːt]Open-mid in Cardiff; may merge with // in northern dialects.
GermanMany speakers[17]
Gourmand
[ɡ̊ʊʁˈmɒ̃ː]'gourmand'Nasalized; common phonetic realization of /ɑ̃ː/.[17] See Standard German phonology
Many Swiss dialects[18]mane[ˈmɒːnə]'remind'The example word is from the Zurich dialect, in which [ɒː] is in free variation with the unrounded [ɑː].[19]
HungarianStandard[20]
magyar
[ˈmɒ̜̽ɟɒ̜̽r]'Hungarian'Somewhat fronted and raised, with only slight rounding; sometimes transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. Unrounded [ɑ] in some dialects.[21] See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[22]d[dɒ̝́]'marry'Near-open;[22] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
IrishUlster[23]
ólann
[ɒ̝ːɫ̪ən̪ˠ]'(he) drinks'Near-open;[23] may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.
Istro-Romanian[24]cåp[kɒp]'head'See Istro-Romanian pronunciation (in Romanian).
Lehali[25]dö[ⁿdɒ̝ŋ]'yam'Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of /æ/ in a symmetrical vowel inventory.[25]
Lemerig[26]ān̄sār[ʔɒ̝ŋsɒ̝r]'person'Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of /æ/ in a symmetrical vowel inventory.[26]
LimburgishMaastrichtian[27]plaots[plɒ̝ːts]'place'Near-open fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.[27] Corresponds to [ɔː] in other dialects.
MalayKedahtua[tu.ɒ]'old'Northern Kedah subdialect/dialect. Allophone of /a/ in word-final position in open-ended words and close-ended words that end with a glottal stop /ʔ/ or a glottal fricative /h/.
NorwegianUrban East[28][29]
topp
[tʰɒ̝pː]'top'Near-open,[28][29] also described as close-mid back [o].[30] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Dialects along the Swedish border[31]
hat
[hɒ̜ːt]'hate'Weakly rounded and fully back.[31] See Norwegian phonology
Persianف‍‍ارسی / fârsi[fɒːɾˈsiː]'Persian'
SlovakSome speakers[32]a[ɒ]'and'Under Hungarian influence, some speakers realize the short /a/ as rounded.[32] See Slovak phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[33][34]
jаg
[jɒ̝ːɡ]'I'Near-open fully back weakly rounded vowel.[33] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɑː⟩. See Swedish phonology
Gothenburg[34][jɒːɡ]More rounded than in Central Standard Swedish.[34]
UzbekStandard[35]
choy
[t͡ʃɒj]'tea'
Vastese[36]uâʃtə
Yoruba[37][example needed]Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
See also
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded low-central vowel /a/".
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 293–294.
  4. ^ a b c Recasens (1996), pp. 81, 130–131.
  5. ^ a b c Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  6. ^ Saborit (2009), pp. 25–26.
  7. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  8. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  9. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  10. ^ Lass, Roger (1984). Phonology: an introduction to basic concepts. p. 124.
  11. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  12. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 115.
  13. ^ W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg (1997), A national map of the regional dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved May 27, 2013
  14. ^ Sailaja (2009), pp. 24–25.
  15. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  16. ^ Tench (1990), p. 135.
  17. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 38.
  18. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 263.
  19. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 248.
  20. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  21. ^ Vago (1980), p. 1.
  22. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  23. ^ a b Ní Chasaide (1999), p. 114.
  24. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  25. ^ a b François (2011), p. 194.
  26. ^ a b François (2011), pp. 195, 208.
  27. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  28. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  29. ^ a b Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 2.
  30. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17.
  31. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), p. 23.
  32. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 54.
  33. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), pp. 140–141.
  34. ^ a b c Riad (2014), pp. 35–36.
  35. ^ Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963). Uzbek Structural Grammar. Uralic and Altaic Series. 18. Bloomington: Indiana University. p. 17.
  36. ^ "Vastesi Language - Vastesi in the World". Vastesi in the World. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  37. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɒ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 31 May 2021, at 00:29
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