Operation Fath ol-Mobin
  (Redirected from Operation Undeniable Victory)
Operation Fath-ol-Mobin (Persian: عملیات فتح‌المبین‎‎, a Quranic phrase meaning "Undeniable Victory" or "Manifest Victory") was a major Iranian military operation conducted during the Iran–Iraq War, in March 1982. The operation was led by Lt. General Ali Sayad Shirazi, and was conducted in four phases.
Operation Fath ol-Mobin
Part of Iran–Iraq War

Operation Fath ol-Mobin, Map
Date22–28 March 1982
(6 days)
LocationKhuzestan, South-West Iran
Resultdecisive Iranian victory
Iranians recapture the DezfulShush area
Iraqi siege on Shush is broken
Commanders and leaders
Saddam Hussein
Ali Sayad Shirazi
Hossein Kharrazi
Mohammad Boroujerdi
Massoud Monfared Niyaki
80,000–160,000 soldiers80,000–100,000 regulars
40,000 Pasdaran
30,000 Basij
15,000 militia
Casualties and losses
25,000 killed or wounded
15,000–20,000 captured
361 tanks, IFVs and APCs, 18 aircraft, 300 vehicles, 50 artillery pieces and 30 engineering vehicles destroyed.
150 tanks, 170 APCs, 500 vehicles, several SA-6 missiles, several surface-to-surface missiles, 165 artillery pieces (182 mm, 130 mm, 152 mm) and 50 engineering vehicles captured.[1]
30,000 casualties
196 tanks destroyed
Some believe that this operation was the turning point in the war[2][3] and that it led to the eviction of Iraqi troops from Khuzestan. Others (including Efraim Karsh) believe it was actually the operation working in tandem with others which led to the expulsion of Iraqi troops from southern Iran. He believes that in fact, Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas, which lasted from April to May 1982, had the greatest effect, because the Iranians were able to liberate the strategically important city of Khorramshahr.
On 22 September 1980, Saddam Hussein, attempting to copy the success of the Israeli pre-emptive air strike against the Arab air forces in the Six-Day War, launched numerous sorties against Iranian air fields, hoping to destroy the Iranian air force on the ground. Although they failed, Saddam was still not going to be prevented from achieving his aim of establishing complete Iraqi dominance over the Shatt al-Arab, called Arvand Rood in Iran (Persian: اروند رود) waterway. He launched a land invasion of Iran, focusing on southern Iran.
He was able to achieve success, capturing the major Iranian city of Khorramshahr. Although the Iraqis were not able to capture the city of Abadan, the way was open to Tehran as the Iranian defenses had collapsed. The Iraqi advance was halted at the Karun and Karkheh rivers respectively and now Iran was able to counter-attack; although their first counter-attack was a failure, this one would be successful.[citation needed]
The battle
On 22 March 1982, precisely 18 months to the day of the Iraqi invasion, the Iranians launched Operation Fath ol-Mobin. They intended to use a pincer movement to encircle Iraqi forces who had halted outside the Iranian town of Shush. Under the command of the young Iranian Chief-of-Staff, Lieutenant General Ali Sayad Shirazi, the Iranians launched an armored thrust on the night of the 22nd followed by constant human-wave attacks by Pasdaran and Basij brigades, each composed of about 1,000 fighters.
The Iranians suffered much greater casualties than the Iraqis, because the Iranian attack at times involved massive unsupported frontal assaults made by the Pasdaran and Basij. The Iranian forces still had to contend with an Iraqi army which was entrenched on the front-line and they enjoyed a good amount of tank, artillery, and aerial support. The Iranians kept up the momentum against the Iraqi forces and, after heavy Iraqi losses, Saddam ordered a retreat on the 28th. Three Iraqi divisions were encircled in the operation and destroyed within a week.[citation needed]
Along with Operation Tariq al-Qods and Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas, the Iranians were able to evict the Iraqi forces from southern Iran. The wider operation to re-capture Khuzestan is rightly to be considered a turning point. The Iranians had succeeded in achieving their standing aim of reversing the gains made by the Iraqi armed forces in the initial stages of the Iran-Iraq War. Afterward, the Iranian hardliners, headed by the Speaker of the Iranian Parliament Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani, argued for the expansion of Iranian war operations into Iraq. They eventually succeeded in getting their way, and the Iranians commenced several operations to conquer territory.
But where the Iranians successfully used combined-arms operations to emerge victorious against the Iraqi troops in Iran, they relied upon unsupported human wave attacks by the poorly trained troops of the Pasdaran and the Basij.
The Iraqis eventually stabilized their armed forces after their retreat from Iran. The result was that the Iranians would not be able to press their determined, but futile, assaults against a resurgent Iraqi army. Iraq was supported by both the United States and the Soviet Union who saw Saddam's regime as a much better option than Khomeini's regime.[4]
Karbala Central Command
Commanded by Lt. Gen. Ali Sayyad Shirazi
Source: [5]
  1. ^ http://www.tebyan.net/newindex.aspx?pid=5921
  2. ^ Iran Chamber Society: History of Iran: Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988
  3. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh. Iran at War: 1500-1988. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781780962214.
  4. ^ Iran Chamber Society: History of Iran: The United States and Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988
  5. ^ http://www.tebyan.net/newindex.aspx?pid=5921#4
Last edited on 1 April 2021, at 19:15
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers