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Order of the Star of Romania
The Order of the Star of Romania (Romanian: Ordinul Steaua României) is Romania's highest civil Order and second highest State decoration after the defunct Order of Michael the Brave. It is awarded by the President of Romania. It has five ranks, from lowest to the highest: Officer, Commander, Grand Officer, Grand Cross, and Grand Cross with Collar.
Order of the Star of Romania
Ordinul Steaua României

Collar of the Order
Awarded by the King of Romania
(1877–1947)
The President of Romania
since 1998
TypeOrder of Merit
CountryKingdom of Romania
Romania
Ribbon
Eligibility(1) Civil, Military;
(2) Military units;
(3) Foreign citizens
Criteria(1) Exceptional civil and military services to the Romanian State and the Romanian people;
(2) For special acts in time of peace or for heroic acts in time of war;
(3) For contributing to the development of the friendship relations with Romania, or for other exceptional services to the Romanian State and the Romanian People.
StatusCurrently awarded
Grand MasterPresident Klaus Iohannis
GradesCollar
Grand Cross
Grand Officer
Commander
Officer
Knight/Dame
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of Michael the Brave
Next (lower)Order of Faithful Service
History
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In 1863, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the Domnitor of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, asked the Romanian representative to Paris to contact the then well-known jewellery house Krétly, to manufacture a state decoration. Krétly presented a model, which was immediately accepted by the domnitor, and based on his agreement, 1,000 pieces of the order were made. It was decided that the order would have five ranks: Knight (Cavaler), Officer (Ofițer), Comandor (Comandor), Grand Officer (Mare Ofițer), and Grand Cross (Mare Cruce).[citation needed]
Unlike all other decorations in that time that were mostly inspired on the French Légion d'honneur, or which had their insignia like a Maltese cross, the model proposed by Krétly for this order was a blue cross crosslet (cruce repetată), a design that was then unique in decorational design.[citation needed]
The domnitor decided that the name of the honour would be "The Order of the Union" ("Ordinul Unirii"). It was planned to institute the order on 24 January 1864, the date when the 5th anniversary of his election would be celebrated and a moment that marked the unification of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. Because of this, the motto of the new order would fit the event: "GENERE ET CORDES FRATRES" ("BROTHERS THROUGH ORIGINS AND FEELINGS"). The obverse of the insignia would bear the numbers "5" and "24", the days of January when he was elected in both Moldova and Wallachia.[citation needed]
However, due to the overthrow of Alexandru Ioan Cuza by a palace coup, he was unable to actually institute the order, and he awarded the insignia therefore only as a personal present, not as a state decoration. Most of the insignia produced for him remained stored in the Royal Palace's dungeons.[citation needed]
The original 1877 model - Commodore rank (obverse).
In April 1877, when Romania gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, the debate regarding the institution of Romanian decorations was revived. Mihail Kogălniceanu, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Ion Brătianu cabinet, took part in the debates in the Assembly of Deputies regarding the institution of a state decoration. Because of the already earlier supplied "Order of The Union", it was decided that the shape of the decoration would be the same, modifying only the domnitor's seal. The motto was also changed, because the old one was not appropriate to the moment, to "IN FIDE SALUS" ("IN FAITH IS THE SALVATION"). Regarding the name, Kogălniceanu insisted on "Steaua Dunării" ("The Star of The Danube").[citation needed]
The name "Steaua României" ("The Star of Romania") appeared on May 10, 1887, when the law was voted in the Parliament, as the first law of the Sovereign Romania.[citation needed]
By Royal Decree (no. 1545/1932), King Carol II changed the order of precedence in the Romanian honours system. As a result, in 1932, The Star of Romania dropped in precedence from second place (where it had been since 1906) to fourth place (after the Order of Carol I and the Order of Ferdinand I). In 1937, it dropped to seventh place. The main shape of the order, the blue repeated cross (called also "Romanian cross") was kept, but the rays between the cross' arms were replaced by four heraldic eagles with wings spread, the insignia of King Carol I was placed on the obverse, and the reverse bore the year of its establishment, "1877". Also the number of persons that could be awarded The Star of Romania was increased:[citation needed]
Certificate confirming that the Star of Romania was awarded to Ernesto Burzagli in the name of King Ferdinand I.
In 1938, the order was given a superior rank, called "Clasa I" (First Class in English), between the Grand Officer rank and the Grand Cross rank, with a maximum of 50 civilians and 15 military personnel.[citation needed]
The statutes established by King Carol II were changed by General Ion Antonescu (who became Conducător on 4 September 1940). Generally, the rules were the ones used during World War I. The order "The Star of Romania" became the second in the national hierarchy, after that of the Order of Michael the Brave.[citation needed]
Inspired by the German Iron Cross, Ion Antonescu decided that the first three grades of the orders the Star of Romania and the Crown of Romania, with spades (swords), and the ribbon of The Medal "The Military Virtue" would be awarded for exceptionally brave acts with an oak leaf, attached to the ribbon.[citation needed]
After 1948, all the existing decorations were outlawed, and their wearing was forbidden. Just by keeping the insignia, one was considered a delinquent in the first years of communism.[citation needed]
After many attempts, in 1998/1999 the National Order "The Star of Romania" was reinstituted, with a design similar to the one used in 1932, but without the insignia of King Carol I, and with the republican insignia.[citation needed]
Grades
As per Law 29/2000, regarding Romania's national system of decorations, there are currently six grades:[1]
Notable recipients
First issue (1877–1948)
Second issue (since 1998)
Foreign citizens
No.NameKnown forYear
Appointed
1
Jacques Chirac
President of France1998
2
Alberto Fujimori
President of Peru
3Martti AhtisaariPresident of Finland
4Petar StoyanovPresident of Bulgaria
5Aleksander KwaśniewskiPresident of Poland1999
6
Thomas Klestil
President of Austria
7
Konstantinos Stephanopoulos
President of Greece
8
Süleyman Demirel
President of Turkey
9
Harald V
King of Norway
10Hamad bin Khalifa Al ThaniEmir of Qatar
11Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-SabahEmir of Kuwait
12Nursultan NazarbayevPresident of Kazakhstan
13
Rexhep Meidani
President of Albania
14
Ezer Weizman
President of Israel
15Petru LucinschiPresident of Moldova2000
16Elizabeth IIQueen of the United Kingdom
17
Jorge Sampaio
President of Portugal
18Árpád GönczPresident of Hungary
19
Margrethe II
Queen of Denmark
20
Rudolf Schuster
President of Slovakia
21Stjepan MesićPresident of Croatia
22Ernesto ZedilloPresident of Mexico
23
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
President of Brazil
24
Bhumibol Adulyadej
King of Thailand
25
Leonid Kuchma
President of Ukraine
26
Émile Lahoud
President of Lebanon2001
27
Kofi Annan
Secretary-General of the United Nations
28
Beatrix I
Queen of the Netherlands
29Valdas AdamkusPresident of Lithuania
30Vaira Vīķe-FreibergaPresident of Latvia
31
Andrew Bertie
Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta2002
32Zayed bin Sultan Al NahyanPresident of United Arab Emirates
33Gloria Macapagal ArroyoPresident of Philippines
34Milan KučanPresident of Slovenia
35Ferenc MádlPresident of Hungary
36George W. BushPresident of the United States
37
Mauro Chiaruzzi
Captains Regent of San Marino
38
Giuseppe Maria Morganti
Captains Regent of San Marino
39
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
President of Tunisia2003
40Carl XVI GustafKing of Sweden
41
Juan Carlos I
King of Spain
42
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
President of Italy
43
Arnold Rüütel
President of Estonia
44Henri IGrand Duke of Luxembourg2004
45
Angelo Sodano
Cardinal Secretary of State
46
Eddie Fenech Adami
President of Malta
47
Giuseppe Arzilli
Captains Regent of San Marino
48
Roberto Raschi
Captains Regent of San Marino
49
Ricardo Lagos
President of Chile
50Ilham AliyevPresident of Azerbaijan
51Abdullah IIKing of Jordan2005
52Tarja HalonenPresident of Finland2006
53George Emil PaladeProfessor2007
54
Tarcisio Bertone
Cardinal Secretary of State2008
55
Matthew Festing
Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta
56Lech KaczyńskiPresident of Poland2009
57
Michel Suleiman
President of Lebanon
58
Albert II
Prince of Monaco
59
Albert II
King of the Belgians
60Mihai GhimpuPresident of Moldova2010
61
George Abela
President of Malta
62Valdis ZatlersPresident of Latvia2011
63
Toomas Hendrik Ilves
President of Estonia
64
Giorgio Napolitano
President of Italy
65
Pietro Parolin
Cardinal Secretary of State2015
67
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
President of Portugal
68Dalia GrybauskaitėPresident of Lithuania2016
69
Sergio Mattarella
President of Italy
70Rosen PlevnelievPresident of Bulgaria
71Joachim Gauck [3]President of Germany
72Andrzej DudaPresident of Poland
73
François Hollande
President of France
74
Andrej Kiska
President of Slovakia
75Nicolae TimoftiPresident of Moldova
76Kolinda Grabar-KitarovićPresident of Croatia2017
By class
List of recipients by class
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
1st Class
Collars
2nd Class
Grand Crosses
3rd Class
Grand Officers
4th Class
Commanders
5th Class
Officers
6th Class
Knights
Unknown Class
See also
References
  1. ^ "LEGE nr. 29 din 31 martie 2000 privind sistemul national de decoratii al Romaniei". Monitorul Oficial al României. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  2. ^ "Wikimedia Commons". Commons.wikimedia.org​. 2012-08-22. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  3. ^ "Iohannis i-a decorat pe preşedintele Germaniei şi pe partenera sa" (in Romanian). Mediafax. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  4. ^ www.presidency.ro, Decret de decorare semnat de Președintele României, domnul Klaus Iohannis, 29 March 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Klaus Iohannis a decorat opt congresmani americani cu Ordinul Steaua României în grad de Comandor". adevarul.ro (in Romanian). June 9, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Peia, Florentina; Iacob, Simona (June 9, 2017). Purcarea, Vicentiu; Pandea, Razvan-Adrian (eds.). "President Iohannis and U.S. congressmen discuss Romania's inclusion in Visa Waiver programme". Agepres. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  7. ^ "Presedintele Basescu i-a retras Steaua Romaniei lui Vadim Tudor". 9am.ro. 2007-05-28. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
Other sources
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 10:32
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