OECD - Wikipedia
OECD
  (Redirected from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; French: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries,[1] founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Generally, OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. As of 2017, the OECD member countries collectively comprised 62.2 % of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion)[4] and 42.8 % of global GDP (Int$54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity.[5] The OECD is an official United Nations observer.[6]
Organisation for Economic
Co-operation
and Development
Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques

 Founding member countries (1961)
 Other member countries
Abbreviation
OECDOCDE
Formation16 April 1948; 73 years ago (as the OEEC)a
Reformed in September 1961 (as OECD)
TypeIntergovernmental organisation
Headquarters2, rue André Pascal
Paris, France 75016
Membership
38 countries[1][2]
Official languages
EnglishFrench
Mathias Cormann
Deputies Secretary-General
Ludger Schuknecht
Ulrik Vestergaard Knudsen
Masamichi Kono
Budget
€386 million (2019)[3]
Website
www.oecd.org
a. Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.
In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC),[7] led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states).[8] This would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.[9]
In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states.[10][11] The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris, France.[12] The OECD is funded by contributions from member countries at varying rates and had a total budget of €386 million in 2019.[3]
Although the OECD does not have the power to enforce its decisions, which further require a unanimous vote from its members, it is recognised as a highly influential publisher of mostly economic data through publications as well as annual evaluations and rankings of member countries.[13]
History
Organisation for European Economic Co-operation
The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.[14] Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan". The organisation started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it has been headquartered in the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues.[7]
In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC.
By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.[15]
Founding
Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada (three countries, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy, all OEEC members, ratified the OECD Convention after September 1961 but are nevertheless considered founding members). The official founding members are:
During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country.[16]
The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961), International Energy Agency (IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering.
Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise/-ize).
Enlargement to Central Europe
In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland.[16][17] This programme also included a membership option for these countries.[17] As a result of this, Poland,[18] Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South Korea[19] became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.
Reform and further enlargement
In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey.[20] In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become members of the OECD.[21] Slovenia also applied for membership that same year.[22] In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation.[23] The EU is lobbying for the admission of all EU member states.[24] Romania reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta to then-OECD-Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría.[25] In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for membership before the OECD Secretariat.[26]
The OECD established a working group headed by ambassador Seiichiro Noboru to work out a plan for the enlargement with non-members. The working group defined four criteria that must be fulfilled: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 May 2004.[16] On 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement.[27] Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010.[28] In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Annexation of Crimea.[29][30]
In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania.[31] Latvia became a member on 1 July 2016 and Lithuania on 5 July 2018.[32][33] Colombia signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018 and became a member on 28 April 2020.[34] On 15 May 2020, the OECD decided to extend a formal invitation for Costa Rica to join the OECD,[35] and joined as a member on 25 May 2021.[2]
Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are Argentina, Peru,[36]Malaysia,[37] Brazil,[38] and Croatia.[39]
Objectives and activities
Taxation
Payroll and income tax by OECD Country
The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for allocating taxation rights between countries. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings). Additionally, the OECD has published and updated the Transfer Pricing Guidelines since 1995. The Transfer Pricing Guidelines serve as a template for profit allocation of inter-company transactions to countries. The latest version, of July 2017, incorporates the approved Actions developed under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project initiated by the G20.
Multinational corporations
The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are a set of legally non-binding guidelines attached as an annex to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. They are recommendations providing principles and standards for responsible business conduct for multinational corporations operating in or from countries adhering to the Declaration.
Publishing
The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers, and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary.
The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD premises by appointment.
Books
Reports on a wide range of topics for sale at the OECD's Conference Centre Bookshop
The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD flagship[vague] titles include:
All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives.[n 1]
Magazine
OECD Observer, an award-winning magazine[n 2] was launched in 1962.[41] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook, launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation.[42] The online and mobile[43] editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information.[44] An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.[45]
Statistics
The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on numerous subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD indicators.[46][47]
OECD statistics are available in several forms:
Working papers
There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.
Reference works
The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).
It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable.
Structure
The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:
Meetings
The main entrance to the OECD Conference Centre in Paris
Delegates from the member countries attend committee and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde [sv] estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat.[48] This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations.[citation needed] In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration.
The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, member countries, and non-member countries.[49]
Noteworthy meetings include:
Secretariat
Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas.
The secretariat is organised in Directorates:
Secretary-General
The head of the OECD Secretariat and chair of the OECD Council is the Secretary-General. Secretary-General selections are made by consensus, meaning all member states must agree on a candidate.[51]
Secretary-General of the OEEC
No.Secretary-GeneralTime servedCountry of origin
1Robert Marjolin1948 – 1955
France
2René Sergent1955 – 1960
France
3Thorkil Kristensen1960 – September 1961
Denmark
Secretary-General of the OECD[52]
No.Secretary-GeneralTime servedCountry of originNotes
1Thorkil Kristensen30 September 1961 – 30 September 1969
Denmark
2Emiel van Lennep1 October 1969 – September 1984
Netherlands
3Jean-Claude Paye1 October 1984 – 30 September 1994
France
Staffan Sohlman (interim)1 October 1994 – November 1994Sweden[53][54]
3Jean-Claude PayeNovember 1994 – 31 May 1996
France
[55]
4Donald Johnston1 June 1996 – 31 May 2006Canada
5José Ángel Gurría1 June 2006 – 31 May 2021Mexico[56]
6Mathias Cormann1 June 2021 – presentAustralia[57]
2020–2021 Secretary-General selection process
OECD Secretary-General Selection, 2021
Nominations opened September 1, 2020
Finalised March 12, 2021
 
NomineeMathias CormannCecilia Malmström
Country Australia Sweden
Secretary-General before election
Elected Secretary-General
The selection process to succeed José Ángel Gurria concluded in April, 2021, with the selection of ex-Australian Finance Minister Mathias Cormann, who began a 5-year term on 1 June 2021.
British Ambassador to the OECD, who was chair of the Selection Committee, Christopher Sharrock asked member states for nominees beginning 1 September 2020. Nominations closed on 1 November 2020 with 10 candidates. Between 1 and 11 December 2020, candidates interviewed by the members' ambassadors, virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, Sharrock consulted privately with ambassadors to determine which candidate had sufficient support to be selected. Following the completion of consultations on 13 January, 28 January, and 10 February, Sharrock announced several candidates had withdrawn due to lack of support.[51]
On 19 January and 25 February, Chris Liddell and Philipp Hildebrand, respectively, withdrew.[51][58]
Anna Diamantopoulou withdrew on 2 March 2021.[51][59]
2021 OECD Secretary-General Selection Nominees[51]
NomineeCountryPrevious PositionsDate Withdrew (if applicable)
Mathias Cormann AustraliaMinister for Finance, 2013-2020
Senator for Western Australia, 2007-2020
Cecilia Malmström SwedenEuropean Trade Commissioner, 2014-2019
Member of the European Parliament, 1999-2006
Anna Diamantopoulou
 Greece
European Commissioner for Employment and Social Affairs, 1990-2004
Member of the Parliament, 1996-1999 and 2004-2012
March 2, 2021[59]
Philipp Hildebrand
  Switzerland
Vice-Chair of BlackRock, 2012–present
Chair of the Swiss National Bank, 2010-2012
Vice-Chair of the Financial Stability Board, 2011-2012
February 25, 2021[58]
Ulrik Knudsen
 Denmark
OECD Deputy Secretary-General, 2019-2020
Permanent Secretary of State for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2013-2018
Prime Minister's Chief Foreign Policy Advisor, 2010-2013
February 10, 2021
Kersti Kaljulaid
 Estonia
President of Estonia, 2016–present
Member of the European Court of Auditors, 2004-2016
Economic Advisor to the Prime Minister, 1999-2002
January 28, 2021
Bill Morneau CanadaMinister of Finance, 2015-2020
Member of Parliament, 2015-2020
January 28, 2021
Chris Liddell United StatesWhite House Deputy Chief of Staff, 2018-2021
Vice-Chair and CFO of General Motors, 2009-2014
CFO of Microsoft, 2005-2009
CFO of International Paper, 2003-2005
January 19, 2021
Vladimír Dlouhý
 Czech Republic
President of the Czech Chamber of Commerce, 2014–present
Deputy Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia, 1990-1992
January 13, 2021
Michał Kurtyka PolandMinister of Climate and Environment, 2020–present
President of COP24, 2018
International Energy Agency Ministerial Chair 2019
January 13, 2021
Committees
Representatives of member and observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.[60]
Special bodies
OECD has a number of specialised bodies:[61]
Decision-making process
OECD decisions are made through voting, which requires unanimity among all of those voting. However, dissenting members which do not wish to block a decision but merely to signal their disapproval can abstain from voting.[62]
Member countries
Current members
There are currently (May 2021) 38 members of the OECD.[1][2]
CountryApplicationNegotiationsInvitationMembership[1]Geographic locationNotes
 Australia7 June 1971Oceania
 Austria
29 September 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Belgium
13 September 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Canada10 April 1961North America
 Chile
November 2003[63][64]16 May 2007[27]15 December 2009[65]7 May 2010South America
 Colombia
24 January 2011[66]30 May 2013[31]25 May 2018[67]28 April 2020South America
 Costa Rica9 April 2015[2]15 May 2020[2]25 May 2021[2]North America
 Czech Republic
January 1994[68]8 June 1994[69]24 November 1995[68]21 December 1995EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
 Denmark
30 May 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Estonia
16 May 2007[27]10 May 2010[70]9 December 2010Europe
 Finland28 January 1969Europe
 France
7 August 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Germany27 September 1961EuropeJoined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany).[71] Previously represented by the Trizone.[7]East Germany was a member of the rival Comecon from 1950 until German reunification in 1990.
 Greece
27 September 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 HungaryDecember 1993[72]8 June 1994[69]7 May 1996EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991.
 Iceland
5 June 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Ireland17 August 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Israel
15 March 2004[73]16 May 2007[27]10 May 2010[70]7 September 2010West Asia
 Italy
29 March 1962EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Japan
November 1962[74]July 1963[74]28 April 1964East Asia
 South Korea
29 March 1995[75]25 October 1996[76]12 December 1996East AsiaOfficially the Republic of Korea
 Latvia29 May 2013[77]11 May 2016[78]1 July 2016[79]Europe
 Lithuania9 April 2015[80]31 May 20185 July 2018[81]Europe
 Luxembourg7 December 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Mexico14 April 1994[82]18 May 1994North America
 Netherlands
13 November 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 New Zealand29 May 1973Oceania
 Norway
4 July 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Poland1 February 1994[83]8 June 1994[69]11 July 1996[84]22 November 1996EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991.
 Portugal
4 August 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Slovakia
February 1994[85]8 June 1994[69]July 2000[85]14 December 2000EuropeWas a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
 SloveniaMarch 1996[86]16 May 2007[27]10 May 2010[70]21 July 2010Europe
 Spain
3 August 1961EuropeJoined OEEC in 1958.[87]
 Sweden28 September 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
  Switzerland
28 September 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 Turkey
2 August 1961West Asia/EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 United Kingdom2 May 1961EuropeOEEC member.[7]
 United States12 April 1961North America
The European Commission participates in the work of the OECD alongside the EU member states.[88] Dependent territories of member states are not members in their own right, but may have membership as part of their controlling state.[89] As of January 2021, the Dutch territory of the Caribbean Netherlands and the British territories of Guernsey, Jersey, the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, and Bermuda are members of the OECD.[90][91] Territories of other OECD member states are not members of the OECD.
Former members
Free Territory of Trieste (Zone A) was member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity.[7]
Countries whose accession talks are suspended
In May 2007, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Russia.[27] In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in that year's Crimean Annexation and continuous human and civil rights abuses.[29][30]
Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD Council
Indicators
Member states
The following table shows various data for OECD member countries, including area, population, economic output, and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press, and democratic level.
CountryArea[93]
(km2)
2017
Population
[93] 2017
GDP (PPP)
[93] (Intl. $)
2017
GDP (PPP)
per capita[93]
(Intl. $)
2017
Income
inequality
[93] 2008-
2016
(latest available)
HDI[94]
2019
FSI[95]
2019
RLI[96]
2020
CPI[97]
2019
IEF[98]
2020
GPI[99]
2019
WPFI[100]
2019
DI[101]
2019
 Australia7,741,22024,598,9331,192,065,505,30148,46034.70.94419.70.807782.61.41916.559.09
 Austria
83,8798,809,212461,582,926,40052,39830.50.92225.00.827773.31.29115.338.29
 Belgium
30,53011,372,068544,041,974,95847,84027.70.93128.60.797568.91.53312.077.64
 Canada9,984,67036,708,0831,714,447,151,94446,70534.00.92920.00.817778.21.32715.699.22
 Chile
756,09618,054,726444,777,637,16924,63544.40.85138.90.676776.81.63425.658.08
 Colombia
1,141,74848,901,066709,420,539,90714,50749.70.76775.70.503769.22.66142.827.13
 Costa Rica51,1005,048,99284,031,346,80116,97648,30.81042.00.685665.81.70612.248.13
 Czech Republic
78,87010,591,323384,753,663,28336,32725.90.90037.60.735674.81.38324.897.69
 Denmark
42,9225,769,603296,350,723,35451,36428.20.94019.50.908778.31.3169.879.22
 Estonia
45,2301,315,48041,756,008,08931,74232.70.89240.80.817477.71.72712.277.90
 Finland338,4205,511,303247,269,243,61944,86627.10.93816.90.878675.71.4887.909.25
 France
549,08767,118,6482,876,059,993,39942,85032.70.90132.00.736966.01.89222.218.12
 Germany357,38082,695,0004,187,583,088,23950,63931.70.94724.70.848073.51.54714.608.68
 Greece
131,96010,760,421297,008,117,38927,60236.00.88853.90.614859.91.93329.087.43
 Hungary93,0309,781,127274,926,859,41228,10830.40.85449.60.534466.41.54030.446.63
 Iceland
103,000341,28418,140,165,68953,15327.80.94919.8N/A7877.11.07214.719.58
 Ireland70,2804,813,608364,140,938,83075,64831.80.95520.6N/A7480.91.39015.009.24
 Israel
22,0708,712,400333,351,018,35438,26241.40.919N/AN/A6074.02.73530.807.86
 Italy
301,34060,551,4162,387,357,093,79339,42735.40.89243.80.665363.81.75424.987.52
 Japan
377,962126,785,7975,487,161,155,33243,27932.10.91934.30.787373.31.36929.367.99
 Korea, South
100,28051,466,2011,972,970,735,84238,33531.60.91633.70.735974.01.86724.948.00
 Latvia64,4901,940,74053,561,181,20627,59834.20.86643.9N/A5671.91.71819.537.49
 Lithuania65,2862,827,72190,748,628,81232,09237.40.88238.1N/A6076.71.77922.067.50
 Luxembourg2,590599,44962,189,692,542103,74533.80.91620.4N/A8075.8N/A15.668.81
 Mexico1,964,380129,163,2762,358,275,520,12618,25843.40.77969.70.442966.02.60046.786.09
 Netherlands
41,54017,132,854899,530,829,78352,50328.20.94424.80.848277.01.5308.639.01
 New Zealand267,7104,793,900197,072,471,93141,109N/A0.93120.10.838784.11.22110.759.26
 Norway
385,1785,282,223324,403,929,57961,41427.50.95718.00.898473.41.5367.829.87
 Poland312,68037,975,8411,102,293,080,83129,026N/A0.88042.80.665869.11.65428.896.62
 Portugal
92,22510,293,718326,029,976,81531,67335.50.86425.30.706267.01.27412.658.03
 Slovakia
49,0355,439,892171,990,237,34731,61626.50.86040.5N/A5066.81.55023.587.17
 Slovenia20,2702,066,74872,063,812,12634,86825.40.91728.00.696067.81.35522.317.50
 Spain
505,94046,572,0281,769,637,042,99637,99836.20.90440.70.726266.91.69921.998.29
 Sweden447,42010,067,744505,482,949,46950,20829.20.94520.30.868574.91.5338.319.39
  Switzerland
41,2908,466,017547,853,971,54364,71232.30.95518.7N/A8582.01.37510.529.03
 Turkey
785,35080,745,0202,140,141,581,68529,50541.90.82080.30.433964.43.01552.814.09
 United Kingdom243,61066,022,2732,856,703,440,28943,26933.20.93236.70.797779.31.80122.238.52
 United States9,831,510325,719,17819,390,604,000,00059,53241.50.92638.00.726976.62.40125.697.96
OECDb,c36,328,7301,300,865,25556,394,326,347,47643,35133.480.90434.480.72966.9173.081.69221.068.086
CountryArea
(km2)
2017
Population
2017
GDP (PPP)
(Intl. $)
2017
GDP (PPP)
per capita
(Intl. $)
2017
Income
inequality
2008-2016
(latest available)
HDI
2019
FSI
2019
RLI
2020
CPI
2019
IEF
2020
GPI
2019
WPFI
2019
DI
2019
  • a The FSI index supplies no figure for Israel per se, but rather provides an average (76.5) for "Israel and West Bank".
  • b OECD total used for indicators 1 through 3; OECD weighted average used for indicator 4; OECD unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 13.
  • c Figures do not include Colombia.
Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).
Highest quartile
Upper-mid (3rd quartile)
Lower-mid (2nd quartile)
Lowest quartile
Potential member states
CountryArea[93]
(km2)
2017
Population
[93] 2017
GDP (PPP)
[93] (Intl. $)
2017
GDP (PPP)
per capita[93]
(Intl. $)
2017
Income
inequality
[93] 2008-
2016
(latest available)
HDI[94]
2019
FSI[95]
2019
RLI[96]
2020
CPI[97]
2019
IEF[98]
2020
GPI[99]
2019
WPFI[100]
2019
DI[101]
2019
 Argentina2,780,40044,044,811918,032,825,60120,84340,60.84546.00.584553.11.98928.307.02
 Brazil
8,515,770207,833,8313,255,144,799,73515,66253,30.76571.80.523553.72.27132.796.86
 Bulgaria111,0007,075,947148,227,624,52220,94837,40.81650.60.554370.21.60735.117.03
 Croatia56,5904,124,531108,456,655,61826,29531,10.85147.50.614762.21.64529.036.57
 Peru
1,285,22031,444,297433,059,982,55413,77243,30.77768.20.503667.92.01630.226.60
 Romania
238,40019,587,491520,937,675,79226,59535,90.82847.80.634469.71.60625.676.49
 Russia
17,098,250144,496,7403,783,634,636,96625,76637,70.82474.70.472861.03.09350.313.11
OECDb36,328,7301,300,865,25556,394,326,347,47643,35133.10.90033.30.746873.21.66520.468.11
CountryArea
(km2)
2017
Population
2017
GDP (PPP)
(Intl. $)
2017
GDP (PPP)
per capita
(Intl. $)
2017
Income
inequality
2008-2016
(latest available)
HDI
2019
FSI
2019
RLI
2020
CPI
2019
IEF
2020
GPI
2019
WPFI
2019
DI
2019
Highest quartile
Upper-mid (3rd quartile)
Lower-mid (2nd quartile)
Lowest quartile
See also
Notes
  1. ^ "OECD Archives - OECD". OECD.
  2. ^ Highly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see article [1].
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