Odia is the sixth Indian language to be designated a Classical language
, on the basis of having a long literary history and not having borrowed extensively from other languages.
The earliest known inscription in Odia dates back to the 10th century CE.
Odia is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language
belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family. It is thought to be directly descended from an Odra Prakrit
, which was spoken in east India over 1,500 years ago, and is the primary language used in early Jain
and Buddhist texts.
Odia appears to have had relatively little influence from Persian
, compared to other major Indo-Aryan languages.
The proto-languages of eastern Magadhan. The split and descent of proto-Odra(Odra Prakrit), the ancestor of modern Odia language, from the proto-Magadhan(Magadhi Prakrit).
Urajam inscription in Old Odia, royal charter of Eastern Ganga dynasty (1051 CE)
The history of the Odia language is divided into eras:
- Proto Odia (12th century and earlier): Inscriptions from 10th century onwards provide evidence for the existence of the Old Odia language, although the earliest known inscription that actually contains Odia lines is dated to 1249 CE.
- Early Middle Odia (1200–1400): The earliest use of prose can be found in the Madala Panji of the Jagannath Temple at Puri, which dates back to the 12th century. Such works as Shishu Veda, Amara Kosha, Gorakha Samhita, Kalasha Chautisha, and Saptanga are written in this form of Odia.
- Middle Odia (1400–1700): Sarala Das writes the Vilanka Ramayana. Towards the 16th century, poets emerged around the Vaishnava leader Achyutananda, These five poets are Balaram Das, Jagannatha Das, Achyutananda, Ananta Das and Jasobanta Das.
- Late Middle Odia (1700–1850): Ushabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Das, the Rahasya Manjari of Deba Durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini Bibha of Kartika Dasa were written. A new form of metrical epic-poems (called Chhanda-Kabya) evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Upendra Bhanja took a leading role in this period- his creations Baidehisha Bilasa, Koti Brahmanda Sundari, Labanyabati were landmarks in Odia Literature. Dinakrushna Das's Rasokallola and Abhimanyu Samanta Singhara's Bidagdha Chintamani are prominent Kavyas of this time. Four major poets emerged in the end of the era are Baladeba Rath, Bhima Bhoi, Brajanath Badajena and Gopala Krushna Pattanaik.
- Modern Odia (1850 till present day): The first Odia printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries which made a great revolution in Odia literature and language.
Charyapada of 8th Century and its affinity with Odia
The beginning of Odia poetry coincides with the development of charya sahitya
, the literature started by Vajrayana
Buddhist poets such as in the Charyapada
. This literature was written in a specific metaphor called twilight language
and prominent poets included Luipa
. Quite importantly, the ragas
that are mentioned for singing the Charyapadas are found abundantly in later Odia literature.
Poet Jayadeva's literary contribution Jayadeva
was a Sanskrit poet. He was born in an Utkala Brahmin
family of Puri in circa 1200 CE. He is most known for his composition, the epic poem Gita Govinda
, which depicts the divine love of the Hindu deity Krishna and his consort, Radha, and is considered an important text in the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. About the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, the influence of Jayadeva's literary contribution
changed the pattern of versification in Odia.
Due to the increasing migration of labour, the west Indian state of Gujarat
also has a significant population of Odia speakers.
Significant numbers of Odia speakers can also be found in the cities of Vishakhapatnam
, New Delhi
According to 2011 census, 3.1% of Indians in India are Odia speakers,
of which 93% belong to Odisha.
The Odia diaspora constitute a sizeable number in several countries around the world, totalling the number of Odia speakers on a global scale to 50 million.[page needed][need quotation to verify]
It has a significant presence in eastern countries such as Thailand
, mainly carried by the sadhaba
, ancient traders from Odisha who carried the language along with the culture during the old-day trading
and in western countries such as the United States
. The language has also spread to Burma
, Sri Lanka
and Middle East
It is spoken as a native tongue by the Bonaz
community in northeastern Bangladesh
Standardization and Dialects
- Ganjami (Southern Odia): Spoken in Ganjam, Gajapati and parts of Kandhamal districts of Odisha, Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. A variant spoken in Berhampur is also known as Berhampuria.
- Sambalpuri (Western Odia): It is the western dialect/variety of Odia language with the core variant spoken in Sambalpur, Jharsuguda, Bargarh, Balangir and Subarnapur districts, along with parts of Nuapada and western parts of Boudh districts of Odisha. Also spoken in parts of Raigarh, Mahasamund and Raipur districts of Chhattisgarh. A 2006 survey of the varieties spoken in four villages in Western Odisha found out that Sambalpuri share three-quarters of their basic vocabulary with Standard Odia and has 75%–76% lexical similarity with Standard Odia.
- Desiya (Southwestern Odia): Spoken in southwestern districts of Nabarangpur, Rayagada, Koraput, Malkangiri and southern parts of Kalahandi districts of Odisha and in the hilly regions of Vishakhapatnam and, Vizianagaram districts of Andhra Pradesh. A variant spoken in Koraput is also known as Koraputia.
Minor non-literary dialects
Major Adivasi dialects and Sociolects
Minor Adivasi dialects and Sociolects
Odia minor dialects include:
- Bhuyan: Adivasi dialect spoken in Northern Odisha.
- Kurmi: Northern Odisha and Southwest Bengal.
- Sounti: Spoken in Northern Odisha and Southwest Bengal.
- Bathudi: Spoken in Northern Odisha and Southwest Bengal.
- Kondhan: Adivasi dialect spoken in Western Odisha.
- Agharia: Spoken by Agharia community in districts of Western Odisha and Chhattisgarh.
- Bhulia: Spoken by Bhulia (Weaver) community in districts of Western Odisha and Chhattisgarh.
- Matia: Adivasi dialect spoken in Southern Odisha.
Odia has 30 consonant phonemes, 2 semivowel phonemes and 6 vowel phonemes.
There are no long vowels. All vowels except /o/ have nasal
counterparts, but these are not always contrastive. Final vowels are pronounced in the standard language, e.g. Odia [pʰulɔ] contra Bengali
Odia retains most of the cases
, though the nominative and vocative have merged (both without a separate marker), as have the accusative and dative. There are three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and two grammatical numbers (singular and plural). However there are no grammatical gender. The usage of gender is semantic, i.e. to differentiate male member of a class from female member.
There are three true tenses (present, past and future), others being formed with auxiliaries.
A detailed chart depicting evolution of the Odia script as displayed in a museum at Ratnagiri, Odisha
The Odia language uses Odia script (also known as the Kalinga script). It is a Brahmic script used to write primarily Odia language and others like Sanskrit and several minor regional languages. The script has developed over nearly 1000 years with the earliest trace of the script being dated to 1051 AD. It is a syllabic alphabet or an abugida, wherein all consonants have an inherent vowel embedded within.
Odia is a syllabic alphabet or an abugida wherein all consonants have an inherent vowel embedded within. Diacritics (which can appear above, below, before, or after the consonant they belong to) are used to change the form of the inherent vowel. When vowels appear at the beginning of a syllable, they are written as independent letters. Also, when certain consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are used to combine the essential parts of each consonant symbol.
The curved appearance of the Odia script is a result of the practice of writing on palm leaves, which have a tendency to tear if you use too many straight lines.
Consonants ବ୍ୟଞ୍ଜନ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣ
The earliest literature in Odia language can be traced to the Charyapadas composed in the 7th to 9th centuries.
Before Sarala Das, the most important works in Odia literature are the Shishu Veda, Saptanga, Amara Kosha, Rudrasudhanidhi, Kesaba Koili, Kalasha Chautisha etc.
In the 14th century, the poet Sarala Das
wrote the Sarala Mahabharata, Chandi Purana, and Vilanka Ramayana, in praise of the goddess Durga
. Rama-Bibaha, written by Arjuna Dasa, was the first long poem written in the Odia language.
The following era is termed the Panchasakha Age
and stretches until the year 1700. The period begins with the writings of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
whose Vaishnava influence brought in a new evolution in Odia literature. Notable religious works of the Panchasakha Age include those of Balarama Dasa
, Jagannatha Dasa
, Yasovanta, Ananta and Acyutananda
. The authors of this period mainly translated, adapted, or imitated Sanskrit literature. Other prominent works of the period include the Usabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Dasa, the Rahasya-manjari of Debadurlabha Dasa and the Rukmini-bibha of Kartikka Dasa. A new form of novels in verse evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Other poets like Madhusudana, Bhima Bhoi
, Dhivara, Sadasiva and Sisu Isvara-dasa composed another form called kavyas
(long poems) based on themes from Puranas, with an emphasis on plain, simple language.
However, during the Bhanja Age
(also known as the Age of Riti Yuga) beginning with turn of the 18th century, verbally tricky Odia became the order of the day. Verbal jugglery, eroticism characterise the period between 1700 and 1850, particularly in the works of the era's eponymous poet Upendra Bhanja
(1670–1720). Bhanja's work inspired many imitators of which the most notable is Arakshita Das. Family chronicles in prose relating religious festivals and rituals are also characteristic of the period.
The first Odia printing typeset was cast in 1836 by Christian missionaries. Although the handwritten Odia script of the time closely resembled the Bengali
and Assamese scripts
, the one adopted for the printed typesets was significantly different, leaning more towards the Tamil script
and Telugu script
. Amos Sutton
produced an Oriya Bible (1840), Oriya Dictionary (1841–43) and An Introductory Grammar of Oriya
Odia has a rich literary heritage dating back to the thirteenth century. Sarala Dasa
who lived in the fourteenth century is known as the Vyasa
of Odisha. He translated the Mahabharata
into Odia. In fact, the language was initially standardised through a process of translating classical Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata, Ramayana
and Srimad Bhagabata Gita. The translation of the Srimad Bhagabata Gita by Jagannatha Dasa was particularly influential on the written form of the language. Odia has had a strong tradition of poetry, especially devotional
Classical Odia literature is inextricably tied to music, and most of it was written for singing, set to traditional Odissi ragas and talas. These compositions form the core of the system of Odissi music
, the classical music of the state.
Prose in the language has had a late development.
Three great poets and prose writers, Kabibar Radhanath Ray
(1849–1908), Fakir Mohan Senapati
(1843–1918) and Madhusudan Rao
(1853–1912) made Odia their own. They brought in a modern outlook and spirit into Odia literature. Around the same time the modern drama took birth in the works of Rama Sankara Ray beginning with Kanci-Kaveri (1880).
Among the contemporaries of Fakir Mohan, four novelists deserve special mention: Aparna Panda, Mrutyunjay Rath, Ram Chandra Acharya and Brajabandhu Mishra. Aparna Panda's Kalavati and Brajabandhu Mishra's Basanta Malati were both published in 1902, the year in which Chha Mana Atha Guntha came out in the book form. Brajabandhu Mishra's Basanta Malati, which came out from Bamanda, depicts the conflict between a poor but highly educated young man and a wealthy and highly egoistic young woman whose conjugal life is seriously affected by ego clashes. Through a story of union, separation and reunion, the novelist delineates the psychological state of a young woman in separation from her husband and examines the significance of marriage as a social institution in traditional Indian society. Ram Chandra Acharya wrote about seven novels during 1924–1936. All his novels are historical romances based on the historical events in Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Odisha. Mrutyunjay Rath's novel, Adbhuta Parinama, published in 1915, centres round a young Hindu who gets converted to Christianity to marry a Christian girl.
One of the great writers in the 19th century was Pandit Krushna Chandra Kar
(1907–1995) from Cuttack, who wrote many books for children like Pari Raija, Kuhuka Raija, Panchatantra, Adi Jugara Galpa Mala
, etc. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1971–72 for his contributions to Odia literature, development of children's fiction, and biographies.
One of the prominent writers of the 19th and 20th centuries was Muralidhar Mallick (1927–2002). His contribution to Historical novels is beyond words. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1998 for his contributions to Odia literature. His son Khagendranath Mallick (born 1951) is also a writer. His contribution towards poetry, criticism, essays, story and novels is commendable. He was the former President of Utkal Kala Parishad and also former President of Odisha Geeti Kabi Samaj. Presently he is a member of the Executive Committee of Utkal Sahitya Samaj. Another illustrious writer of the 20th century was Mr. Chintamani Das. A noted academician, he was written more than 40 books including fiction, short stories, biographies and storybooks for children. Born in 1903 in Sriramachandrapur village under Satyabadi block, Chintamani Das is the only writer who has written biographies on all the five 'Pancha Sakhas' of Satyabadi namely Pandit Gopabandhu Das, Acharya Harihara, Nilakantha Das, Krupasindhu Mishra and Pandit Godabarisha. Having served as the Head of the Odia department of Khallikote College, Berhampur, Chintamani Das was felicitated with the Sahitya Akademi Samman in 1970 for his outstanding contribution to Odia literature in general and Satyabadi Yuga literature in particular. Some of his well-known literary creations are 'Bhala Manisha Hua', 'Manishi Nilakantha', 'Kabi Godabarisha', 'Byasakabi Fakiramohan', 'Usha', 'Barabati'.
20th century writers in Odia include Pallikabi Nanda Kishore Bal
, Gangadhar Meher
, Chintamani Mahanti and Kuntala Kumari Sabat
, besides Niladri Dasa and Gopabandhu Das
. The most notable novelists were Umesa Sarakara, Divyasimha Panigrahi, Gopala Chandra Praharaj
and Kalindi Charan Panigrahi
. Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray is the great introducer of the ultra-modern style in modern Odia poetry. Others who took up this form were Godabarisha Mohapatra, Mayadhar Mansingh
, Nityananda Mahapatra
and Kunjabihari Dasa. Prabhasa Chandra Satpathi is known for his translations of some western classics apart from Udayanatha Shadangi, Sunanda Kara and Surendranatha Dwivedi. Criticism, essays and history also became major lines of writing in the Odia language. Esteemed writers in this field were Professor Girija Shankar Ray, Pandit Vinayaka Misra, Professor Gauri Kumara Brahma, Jagabandhu Simha and Harekrushna Mahatab
. Odia literature mirrors the industrious, peaceful and artistic image of the Odia people
who have offered and gifted much to the Indian civilisation in the field of art and literature. Now Writers Manoj Das
's creations motivated and inspired people towards a positive lifestyle .Distinguished prose writers of the modern period include Baidyanath Misra
, Fakir Mohan Senapati
, Madhusudan Das
, Godabarisha Mohapatra, Kalindi Charan Panigrahi, Surendra Mohanty
, Manoj Das
, Kishori Charan Das
, Gopinath Mohanty, Rabi Patnaik, Chandrasekhar Rath, Binapani Mohanty, Bhikari Rath, Jagadish Mohanty
, Sarojini Sahoo
, Yashodhara Mishra
, Ramchandra Behera, Padmaja Pal. But it is poetry that makes modern Odia literature a force to reckon with. Poets like Kabibar Radhanath Ray
, Sachidananda Routray, Guruprasad Mohanty, Soubhagya Misra, Ramakanta Rath
, Sitakanta Mohapatra, Rajendra Kishore Panda, Pratibha Satpathy have made significant contributions towards Indian poetry.
's novella, Translator Translated
, from her collection The Art of Disappearance
, features a translator of a fictive Odia short story writer; the novella contains a discussion of the perils of translating works composed in regional Indian languages into English.
Odia in the Odia script
ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦ ୧: ସମସ୍ତ ମଣିଷ ଜନ୍ମକାଳରୁ ସ୍ୱାଧୀନ ଏବଂ ମର୍ଯ୍ୟାଦା ଓ ଅଧିକାରରେ ସମାନ । ସେମାନଙ୍କଠାରେ ବୁଦ୍ଧି ଓ ବିବେକ ନିହିତ ଅଛି ଏବଂ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ପରସ୍ପର ପ୍ରତି ଭ୍ରାତୃତ୍ୱ ମନୋଭାବରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବା ଉଚିତ୍ ।
Anuccheda eka: Samasta maṇiṣa janmakāḷaru swādhīna ebaṅ marẏyādā o adhikārare samāna. Semānaṅkaṭhāre buuddhi o bibeka nihita achi ebaṅ semānaṅku paraspara prati bhrātr̥twa manobhābare byabahāra karibā ucit.
ɔnut͡ʃt͡ʃʰed̪ɔ ekɔ: sɔmɔst̪ɔ mɔɳisɔ d͡ʒɔnmɔkäɭɔɾu swäd̪ʱinɔ ebɔŋ mɔɾd͡ʒjäːd̪ä o ɔd̪ʱikäɾɔɾe sɔmänɔ. semän̪ɔŋkɔʈʰäɾe bud̪d̪ʱi o bibekɔ niɦit̪ɔ ɔt͡ʃʰi ebɔŋ semänɔŋku pɔɾɔspɔɾɔ pɾɔt̪i bʱɾät̪ɾut̪wɔ mɔnobʱäbɔɾe bjɔbɔɦäɾɔ kɔɾibä ut͡ʃit̪
Article 1: All human beings from birth are free and dignity and rights are equal. Their reason and intelligence endowed with and they towards one another in a brotherhood spirit behaviour to do should.
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Google introduced the first automated translator for Odia in 2020.
Microsoft too incorporated Odia in its automated translator later that year. 
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Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Odia
Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 11:09
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