Since returning from an Adderall related drugs ban, Oussama Mellouli has been the 1500 m freestyle World champion at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships
with a winning time of 14:37.28, then the second best performance of all time. Mellouli was the gold medalist in the 1500 freestyle
at the 2008 Olympics, the bronze medalist in the 1500 freestyle at the 2012 Olympics
, and the gold medalist in the 10 km marathon swim at the 2012 Olympics. He is the first Olympian to win medals in both the open water and the pool in a single Olympics
On 1 December 2006 Oussama Mellouli beat Michael Phelps in the 400m IM at the U.S. Open in West Lafayette: Mellouli clocked 4:15.61, ahead of Phelps with 4:18.32.
This swim however was subsequently placed within Mellouli's 18-month doping ban, and the results nullified, as the drug test where the banned substance was found occurred at this meet (see section below for further information).
On 19 February 2007 he broke his own African Record in the 200m individual medley for the fourth time since 2003 at the USA Swimming
Grand Prix meet, held at the Mizzou Aquatic Center
at the University of Missouri
. He also set a new African record in the 400 meter individual medley.
On 25 March 2007 he won the silver in the 400 m freestyle
(3:45.12) at the 2007 World Championships
in Melbourne, Australia. Three days later, on 28 March, he swam to the first Tunisian World Championship in swimming in winning the 800m freestyle
in a then African Record
of 7:46.95 — one of the top 10 fastest times ever. However, due to his positive drug-testing result from a in-competition test from December 2006 and the 18-month competition ban imposed on him on 11 September 2007 by the Court of Arbitration for Sport
(CAS), retroactive from 30 November 2006 forward, his 2007 World Championships results have been nullified. He was also a finalist in the 400 m individual medley
, where he originally finished fourth in 4:11.68.
Following the 11 September 2007 ruling by CAS, Mellouli was not allowed to compete again up mid-2008. All of Mellouli's results from 2007 have been nullified, per his September 2007 doping suspension, related to his positive test from December 2006 (see section below).
Mellouli came into the 2008 Olympics
in Beijing, China entered in two events, the 400m and 1500m freestyle events. In his first event, the 400m free despite setting a new African record in the final, he could only manage fifth place in a time of 3:43.45. Mellouli would however go on to win the 1500m freestyle
and set a new African record. In doing so, he became the first African male swimmer to ever win an Olympic gold medal in an individual swimming event (the South African men's 4 × 100 m Free Relay won the event at the 2004 Olympics
Mellouli won 5 gold medals (200m and 400m individual medley, and 200m, 400m and 1500m freestyles) at the XVI Mediterranean Games
in Pescara, Italy.
In the 2009 World Aquatics Championships
, held in Rome during the summer, Mellouli won a gold medal in the 1500 meter freestyle and 2 silver medals in the 400 meter freestyle and 800 meter freestyle.
Mellouli won 4 medals ( 1 gold in the 1500 freestyle; 1 silver in the 400 medley and 2 bronzes in the 200 m freestyle and the 400 m freestyle) at the 2010 FINA Short Course World Championships
(25m) in Dubai, UAE.
Positive drug test
A few weeks after the conclusion of the 2007 World Championships
, reports began to surface that Mellouli had tested positive for a banned substance at the 2006 U.S. Open, 30 November – 2 December 2006. These reports surfaced because FINA
, the international governing body of the sport, had discovered that Tunisian authorities had known about the positive test but had only given him a warning. FINA/WADA rules state that when an athlete tests positive for a banned substance, he or she must be given a 2-year ban from the sport. Accordingly, FINA took the case to the Court of Arbitration for Sport
(CAS), demanding stiffer sanction.
Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD
, a stimulant
and a form of amphetamine
. (Already in June 2006, an American sports commentator wrote: Various studies show rampant use of Adderall, Ritalin and other drugs normally used for attention deficit disorder instead applied toward all-night cramming sessions.
) Mellouli did not have a prescription for the drug, having claimed to have received it from another USC
student shortly before the US Open. He argued that he took the pill in order to help himself with writing a term paper (to sustain or enhance his academic performance) in the days leading up to the weekend US Open meet, and that the drug was not intended as a performance-enhancing substance for competitive swimming. However, amphetamines are on the official banned substances list; and can/do help swimming performance.
Wikinews has related news:
CAS ruled on Mellouli's case on 11 September 2007, ruling against him and issuing him an 18-month competition suspension, retroactively beginning on 30 November 2006. As a result of this sanction, all his results from the 2006 U.S. Open through the competitions his swam in 2007, including the 2007 World Championships, were nullified. His ban from competition covered most, but not all, of the qualification window for the 2008 Olympics. As the retroactive nullification of results wiped out all of his qualifying times for the 2008 Games, he ended up with just a week or two after the ban in order to qualify (which he did).
- ^ https://swimswam.com/ous-mellouli-looking-repeat-gold-rio/
- ^ US Open 2006 results: Men's 400 IM final. Archived on the USA Swimming website and retrieved 2009-07-23.
- ^ "Mellouli wins men's 10km swimming marathon". Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- ^ Oussama MELLOULI - Olympic Swimming | Tunisia, olympic.org. Accessed August 23, 2016.
- ^ https://www.rio2016.com/en/athlete/oussama-mellouli
- ^ "Consider ending drug policies in sports: Maybe best solution is just to let pro athletes take whatever they want", Commentary by Bob Cook, MSNBC.com, 10 June 2006. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
- ^ List of Drugs Prohibited by the WADA for years 2005 Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine and 2006 Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine (PDF) – relevant quote: The following stimulants are prohibited, including both their optical (D- and L-) isomers where relevant: ...amphetamine... and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). (p. 7) This passage verbatim matches the content of article section Adderall#Chemistry.
Last edited on 19 April 2021, at 09:08
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