Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion
of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly
, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle
to confirm Norman authority over the area. The castle has never been used for military purposes[dubious – discuss]
and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks (St George in the Castle
). The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth
wrote his History of the Kings of Britain
, a compilation of Arthurian legends.
Additionally, there is evidence of Jews
living in the city as early as 1141, and during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100.
The city was besieged
during The Anarchy
"Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, and by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney
and to the canons serving God in that place.
Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark
of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island; and besides, because we have undertaken on our own part and on behalf of our heirs to guarantee the aforesaid island to the same canons wheresoever and against all men; they themselves, by this guarantee, will pay to us and our heirs each year at Easter another half mark which we have demanded; and we and our heirs faithfully will guarantee the aforesaid tenement to them for the service of the aforesaid mark annually for all matters and all services.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation.
(There follows a list of witnesses, ending with the phrase, "... and all the Commune of the City of Oxford.")
Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II
, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom; and various important religious houses were founded in or near the city. Oxford's status as a liberty
obtained from this period until the 19th century.
A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian
Order; and friars of various orders (Dominicans
) all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century. The Provisions of Oxford
were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort
; these documents are often regarded as England's first written constitution.
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford
is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of aularian
houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall
1225) remains. What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges
were University College
(1263) and Merton
(1264). These colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way. These colleges at Oxford were supported by the Church in the hope of reconciling Greek philosophy
and Christian theology
. The relationship between "town and gown
" has often been uneasy – as many as 93 students and townspeople were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot
The sweating sickness
epidemic in 1517 was particularly devastating to Oxford and Cambridge
where it killed half of both cities' populations, including many students and dons.
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford
is unique in combining a college chapel and a cathedral in one foundation. Originally the Priory Church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of the Cardinal's College shortly before its refounding as Christ Church in 1546, since when it has functioned as the cathedral of the Diocese
English Civil War
In the 19th century, the controversy surrounding the Oxford Movement
in the Anglican Church
drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought.
A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Cowley Barracks
Local government in Oxford was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835
, and the boundaries of the borough were extended to include a small area east of the River Cherwell
. The boundaries were further extended in 1889 to add the areas of Grandpont
and New Hinksey
, south of the Thames, which were transferred from Berkshire
to Oxfordshire. At the same time Summertown and the western part of Cowley were also added to the borough. In 1890 Oxford became a county borough
Royal proclamation granting Lord Mayoralty to Oxford
Oxford Town Hall
was built by Henry T. Hare
; the foundation stone was laid on 6 July 1893 and opened by the future King Edward VII
on 12 May 1897. The site has been the seat of local government since the Guild Hall of 1292 and though Oxford is a city and a Lord Mayoralty, the building is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall
20th and 21st centuries
Aerial view of Oxford city centre
During the First World War
, the population of Oxford changed. The number of University members was significantly reduced as students, fellows and staff enlisted. Some of their places in college accommodation were taken by soldiers in training. Another reminder of the ongoing war was found in the influx of wounded and disabled soldiers, who were treated in new hospitals housed in buildings such as the university's Examination School, the town hall
and Somerville College
By the early 20th century, there was rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. In 1929 the boundaries of the city were extended to include the suburbs of Headington
to the east, and Wolvercote
to the north.
Also during the 1920s, the economy and society of Oxford underwent a huge transformation as William Morris
established Morris Motors Limited
to mass-produce cars in Cowley, on the south-eastern edge of the city. By the early 1970s over 20,000 people worked in Cowley at the huge Morris Motors and Pressed Steel Fisher
plants. Oxford was now a city of two halves: the university city to the west of Magdalen Bridge
and the car town to the east. This led to the witticism that "Oxford is the left bank of Cowley". Cowley suffered major job losses in the 1980s and 1990s during the decline of British Leyland
, but is now producing the successful Mini
on a smaller site. Much of the original car factories at Cowley was demolished in the 1990s, and is now the site of the Oxford Business Park
During the Second World War
, Oxford was largely ignored by the German air raids during the Blitz
, perhaps due to the lack of heavy industry such as steelworks or shipbuilding that would have made it a target, although it was still affected by the rationing and influx of refugees fleeing London and other cities.
The university's colleges served as temporary military barracks and training areas for soldiers before deployment.
Oxford's second university, Oxford Brookes University
, formerly the Oxford School of Art, then Oxford Polytechnic, based at Headington Hill
, was given its charter in 1991 and for ten years has been voted the best new university in the UK.
It was named to honour the school's founding principal, John Henry Brookes
The influx of migrant labour to the car plants and hospitals, recent immigration from south Asia, and a large student population, have given Oxford a notably cosmopolitan character, especially in the Headington
and Cowley Road areas with their many bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, Asian shops and fast food outlets and the annual Cowley Road Carnival. Oxford is one of the most diverse small cities in Britain: the most recent population estimates for 2011
showed that 22% of the population were from black or minority ethnic groups, compared to 13% in England.
Oxford is 24 miles (39 km) north-west of Reading
, 26 miles (42 km) north-east of Swindon
, 36 miles (58 km) east of Cheltenham
and 43 miles (69 km) east of Gloucester
, 29 miles (47 km) south-west of Milton Keynes
, 38 miles (61 km) south-east of Evesham
, 43 miles (69 km) south of Rugby
and 51 miles (82 km) west-north-west of London
. The rivers Cherwell
(also sometimes known as the Isis
locally, supposedly from the Latinised name Thamesis
) run through Oxford and meet south of the city centre. These rivers and their flood plains constrain the size of the city centre.
Oxford has a maritime temperate climate
is uniformly distributed throughout the year and is provided mostly by weather systems that arrive from the Atlantic
. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oxford was −17.8 °C (0.0 °F) on 24 December 1860. The highest temperature ever recorded in Oxford is 36.5 °C (98 °F) on 25 July 2019.
The average conditions below are from the Radcliffe Meteorological Station. It boasts the longest series of temperature and rainfall records for one site in Britain. These records are continuous from January 1815. Irregular observations of rainfall, cloud and temperature exist from 1767.
The driest year on record was 1788, with 336.7 mm (13.26 in) of rainfall. Whereas, the wettest year was 2012, with 979.5 mm (38.56 in). The wettest month on record was September 1774, with a total fall of 223.9 mm (8.81 in). The warmest month on record is July 1983, with an average of 21.1 °C (70 °F) and the coldest is January 1963, with an average of −3.0 °C (27 °F). The warmest year on record is 2014, with an average of 11.8 °C (53 °F) and the coldest is 1879, both with a mean temperature of 7.7 °C (46 °F). The sunniest month on record is May 2020, with 331.7 hours and December 1890 is the least sunny, with 5.0 hours. The greatest one-day rainfall occurred on 10 July 1968, with a total of 87.9 mm (3.46 in). The greatest one-day snowfall is 46.7 cm (18.4 in) on 25 April 1908. The greatest known snow depth was 61.0 cm (24.0 in) in February 1888.
Weather station is located 0.7 miles (1.1 km) from the Oxford city centre.
Map of Oxford
Aside from the city centre, there are several suburbs and neighbourhoods within the borders of the city of Oxford, including:
Suburbs and neighbourhoods outside the city boundaries include:
Oxford is at the centre of the Oxford Green Belt, which is an environmental
policy that regulates the rural space in Oxfordshire surrounding the city which aims to prevent urban sprawl
and minimize convergence with nearby settlements.
The policy has been blamed for the large rise in house prices in Oxford, making it the least affordable city in the UK outside London, with estate agents calling for brownfield land inside the green belt to be released for new housing.
The vast majority of area covered is outside the city, but there are some green spaces within that are covered by the designation such as much of the Thames and Cherwell river flood-meadows
, and the village of Binsey
, along with several smaller portions on the fringes. Other landscape features and places of interest covered include Cutteslowe Park and the mini railway attraction, the University Parks
, Hogacre Common Eco Park, numerous sports grounds, Aston's Eyot
, St Margaret's Church and well, and Wolvercote Common
and community orchard.
Oxford's economy includes manufacturing, publishing and science-based industries as well as education, research and tourism.
Oxford has been an important centre of motor manufacturing since Morris Motors
was established in the city in 1910. The principal production site for Mini
cars, owned by BMW
since 2000, is in the Oxford suburb of Cowley
. The plant, which survived the turbulent years of British Leyland
in the 1970s and was threatened with closure in the early 1990s, also produced cars under the Austin
brands following the demise of the Morris brand in 1984, although the last Morris-badged car was produced there in 1982.
Oxford University Press
, a department of the University of Oxford, is based in the city, although it no longer operates its own paper mill and printing house. The city is also home to the UK operations of Wiley-Blackwell
and several smaller publishing houses.
Science and technology
Oxford increasingly has a reputation for being a centre of digital innovation, as epitomized by Digital Oxford.
Several startups including Passle,
and more, are based in Oxford.
The presence of the university has also led to Oxford becoming a centre for the education industry. Companies often draw their teaching staff from the pool of Oxford University students and graduates, and, especially for EFL education
, use their Oxford location as a selling point.
There is a long history of brewing in Oxford. Several of the colleges had private breweries, one of which, at Brasenose
, survived until 1889. In the 16th century brewing and malting appear to have been the most popular trades in the city. There were breweries in Brewer Street
and Paradise Street
, near the Castle Mill Stream
The rapid expansion of Oxford and the development of its railway links after the 1840s facilitated expansion of the brewing trade.
As well as expanding the market for Oxford's brewers, railways enabled brewers further from the city to compete for a share of its market.
By 1874 there were nine breweries in Oxford and 13 brewers' agents in Oxford shipping beer in from elsewhere.
The nine breweries were: Flowers & Co in Cowley Road
, Hall's St Giles Brewery, Hall's Swan Brewery (see below), Hanley's City Brewery in Queen Street
, Le Mills's Brewery in St. Ebbes
Lion Brewery in St Thomas Street
(see below), Simonds's Brewery in Queen Street, Weaving's Eagle Brewery (by 1869 the Eagle Steam Brewery) in Park End Street
and Wootten and Cole's St. Clement's
The Swan's Nest Brewery, later the Swan Brewery, was established by the early 18th century in Paradise Street, and in 1795 was acquired by William Hall.
The brewery became known as Hall's Oxford Brewery, which acquired other local breweries. Hall's Brewery was acquired by Samuel Allsopp & Sons
in 1926, after which it ceased brewing in Oxford.
Morrell's was founded in 1743 by Richard Tawney. He formed a partnership in 1782 with Mark and James Morrell, who eventually became the owners.
After an acrimonious family dispute this much-loved brewery was closed in 1998,
the beer brand names being taken over by the Thomas Hardy Burtonwood brewery
while the 132 tied
pubs were bought by Michael Cannon, owner of the American hamburger chain Fuddruckers
, through a new company, Morrells of Oxford.
The new owners sold most of the pubs on to Greene King
The Lion Brewery was converted into luxury apartments in 2002.
View of Oxford's Christ Church area from Westgate Oxford shopping mall
Outside the city centre:
- Banbury Road, Summertown, Oxford
- Botley Road, Oxford
- Cowley Retail Park, Cowley, Oxford
- Cowley Road, Oxford
- Iffley Road, Oxford
- London Road, Headington, Oxford
- North Parade, Oxford
- St Clement's, Oxford
- Templars Square shopping centre, Cowley, Oxford
- Templars Shopping Park, Cowley, Oxford
- Walton Street, Jericho, Oxford
Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the university and colleges. As well as several famous institutions, the town centre is home to Carfax Tower and the University Church of St Mary the Virgin
, both of which offer views over the spires of the city. Many tourists shop at the historic Covered Market
. In the summer, punting
on the Thames/Isis and the Cherwell is a common practice.
Merton Street between Merton College
and Oxford University Tennis Club
Oxford University Museum of Natural History
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford
is the oldest university in the English-speaking world,
and one of the most prestigious higher education institutions of the world, averaging nine applications to every available place, and attracting 40% of its academic staff and 17% of undergraduates from overseas.
In September 2016, it was ranked as the world's number one university, according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Oxford is renowned for its tutorial
-based method of teaching, with students attending an average of one one-hour tutorial a week.
The city centre
As well as being a major draw for tourists (9.1 million in 2008, similar in 2009)[out of date]
Oxford city centre has many shops, several theatres and an ice rink. The historic buildings mean the area is regularly used by film and TV crews.
The city centre is relatively small, and is centred on Carfax
, a crossroads which forms the junction of Cornmarket Street (pedestrianised), Queen Street (mainly pedestrianised), St Aldate's
and the High Street ("the High"; blocked for through traffic). Cornmarket Street and Queen Street are home to Oxford's chain stores, as well as a small number of independent retailers, one of the longest established of which was Boswell's
, founded in 1738.
The store closed in 2020.
St Aldate's has few shops but several local government buildings, including the town hall, the city police station and local council offices. The High (the word street
is traditionally omitted) is the longest of the four streets and has a number of independent and high-end chain stores, but mostly university and college buildings.
There are two small shopping malls in the city centre: The Clarendon Centre
and the Westgate Centre
The Westgate Centre is named for the original West Gate in the city wall, and is at the west end of Queen Street. A major redevelopment and expansion to 750,000 sq ft (70,000 m2
), with a new 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2
) John Lewis
department store and a number of new homes, was completed in October 2017.
is a bookshop which claims the largest single room devoted to book sales in the whole of Europe, the cavernous Norrington Room (10,000 sq ft).
The Bodleian Library
The University of Oxford
maintains the largest university library system in the UK,
and, with over 11 million volumes housed on 120 miles (190 km) of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library
. The Bodleian is a legal deposit
library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year.
Visitors can take a guided tour of the Old Bodleian Library to see inside its historic rooms, including the 15th-century Divinity School, medieval Duke Humfrey's Library, and the Radcliffe Camera. The Weston Library was redeveloped and reopened in 2015, with a new shop, café and exhibition galleries for visitors.
Museums and galleries
The first of these to be established was the Ashmolean Museum
, the world's first university museum
and the oldest museum in the UK.
Its first building was erected in 1678–1683 to house a cabinet of curiosities
given to the University of Oxford
in 1677. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo
, Leonardo da Vinci
, and Picasso
, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead
, the Parian Marble
and the Alfred Jewel
. It also contains "The Messiah
", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence.
Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum
, founded in 1884, which displays the University's archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers
stipulated that the University establish a lectureship in anthropology.
Parks and nature walks
Oxford is a very green city, with several parks and nature walks within the ring road, as well as several sites just outside the ring road. In total, 28 nature reserves
exist within or just outside Oxford ring road, including:
Oxford has five park and ride
car parks with frequent bus links to the city centre:
There are also bus services to the John Radcliffe Hospital
(from Thornhill and Water Eaton/Oxford Parkway) and to the Churchill and Nuffield Hospitals (from Thornhill). As of 2015, Oxford has one of the largest urban park and ride networks in the UK. Its five sites have a combined capacity of 4,930 car parking spaces,
served by 20 Oxford Bus Company double deck buses with a combined capacity of 1,695 seats.
By comparison, York park and ride
has six sites with a combined total of 4,970 parking spaces
served by 35 First York
buses, but they are single deckers with a combined capacity of 1,548 seats.
More than 58% of Oxford Bus Company customers use the ITSO Ltd
smartcard. Secondary school students are able to gain either a reduced price pass, like pay a set fee for the month, or a free riding pass for the school year.
In November 2014 all Oxford Bus Company buses within the Oxford SmartZone area have free WiFi installed.
, which use battery power with a small diesel generator, began to be used in Oxford on 15 July 2010, on Stagecoach Oxfordshire's Route 1 (City centre – Cowley – Blackbird Leys). Both Stagecoach and Oxford Bus Company now operate numerous hybrid buses in the city.
In 2014 Oxford Bus introduced a fleet of 20 new buses with flywheel energy storage
(FES) on the services it operates under contract for Oxford Brookes University.
Whereas electric hybrids use battery storage and an electric motor to save fuel, FES uses a high-speed flywheel.
Among UK cities, Oxford has the second highest percentage of people cycling to work.
In 1844, the Great Western Railway
linked Oxford with London Paddington
in 1851, the London and North Western Railway
opened its own route from Oxford to London Euston
, via Bicester
and in 1864 a third route, also to Paddington, running via Thame
, High Wycombe
, was provided;
this was shortened in 1906 by the opening of a direct route between High Wycombe and London Paddington by way of Denham
The distance from Oxford to London was 78 miles (125.5 km) via Bletchley; 63.5 miles (102.2 km) via Didcot and Reading; 63.25 miles (101.8 km) via Thame and Maidenhead;
and 55.75 miles (89.7 km) via Denham.
Only the original (Didcot) route is still in use for its full length, portions of the others remain.
There were also routes to the north and west. The line to Banbury
was opened in 1850,
and was extended to Birmingham Snow Hill
a route to Worcester
opened in 1853.
A branch to Witney
was opened in 1862,
which was extended to Fairford
The line to Witney and Fairford closed in 1962, but the others remain open.
Oxford has had three main railway stations. The first was opened at Grandpont in 1844,
but this was a terminus, inconvenient for routes to the north;
it was replaced by the present station
on Park End Street
in 1852 with the opening of the Birmingham route.
Another terminus, at Rewley Road
, was opened in 1851 to serve the Bletchley route;
this station closed in 1951.
There have also been a number of local railway stations, all of which are now closed. A fourth station, Oxford Parkway
, is just outside the city, at the park and ride
site near Kidlington
River and canal
Commercial traffic has given way to recreational use of the river and canal. Oxford was the original base of Salters Steamers
(founded in 1858), which was a leading racing-boat-builder that played an important role in popularising pleasure boating on the Upper Thames. The firm runs a regular service from Folly Bridge
downstream to Abingdon
Oxford's central location on several transport routes means that it has long been a crossroads
city with many coaching inns
, although road traffic is now strongly discouraged from using the city centre. From August 2021, a new Zero Emission Zone will mean any vehicles which are not zero-emission will be banned from the a small group of city centre roads during certain hours. This will be expanded to the whole city centre from spring 2022.
The main roads to/from Oxford are:
- A34 – a trunk route connecting the North and Midlands to the port of Southampton. It leaves J9 of the M40 north of Oxford, passes west of Oxford to Newbury and Winchester to the south and joins the M3 12.7 miles (20.4 km) north of Southampton. Since the completion of the Newbury bypass in 1998, this section of the A34 has been an entirely grade separated dual carriageway. Historically the A34 led to Bicester, Banbury, Stratford-upon-Avon, Birmingham and Manchester, but since the completion of the M40 it disappears at J9 and re-emerges 50 miles (80 km) north at Solihull.
- A40 – leading east dualled to J8 of the M40 motorway, then an alternative route to High Wycombe and London; leading west part-dualled to Witney then bisecting Cheltenham, Gloucester, Monmouth, Abergavenny, passing Brecon, Llandovery, Carmarthen and Haverfordwest to reach Fishguard.
- A44 – which begins in Oxford, leading past Evesham to Worcester, Hereford and Aberystwyth.
- A420 – which also begins in Oxford and leads to Bristol passing Swindon and Chippenham.
The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects London to Birmingham. The M40 approached Oxford in 1974, leading from London to Waterstock
, where the A40 continued to Oxford. When the M40 extension to Birmingham was completed in January 1991, it curved sharply north, and a mile of the old motorway became a spur. The M40 comes no closer than 6 miles (9.7 km) away from the city centre, curving to the east of Otmoor
. The M40 meets the A34 to the north of Oxford.
Universities and colleges
As well as the BBC
national radio stations, Oxford and the surrounding area has several local stations, including BBC Oxford
, Heart Thames Valley
, Destiny 105, Jack FM
and Jack FM 2
along with Oxide: Oxford Student Radio
(which went on terrestrial radio at 87.7 MHz FM in late May 2005). A local TV station, Six TV
: The Oxford Channel, was also available
but closed in April 2009; a service operated by That's TV
, originally called That's Oxford (now That's Oxfordshire), took to the airwaves in 2015.
The city is home to a BBC TV newsroom which produces an opt-out from the main South Today
programme broadcast from Southampton
Popular local papers include The Oxford Times
(compact; weekly), its sister papers the Oxford Mail
(tabloid; daily) and the Oxford Star
(tabloid; free and delivered), and Oxford Journal
(tabloid; weekly free pick-up). Oxford is also home to several advertising agencies.
(known locally as Daily Info) is an events and advertising news sheet which has been published since 1964 and now provides a connected website.
is a monthly local free magazine that has covered the Oxford music scene since 1991.
"Dreaming spires" of Oxford University viewed from South Park
in the snow
Theatres and cinemas
- Burton Taylor Studio, Gloucester Street
- New Theatre, George Street
- Odeon Cinema, George Street
- Odeon Cinema, Magdalen Street
- Curzon Cinema, Westgate, Bonn Square
- Old Fire Station Theatre, George Street
- O'Reilly Theatre, Blackhall Road
- Oxford Playhouse, Beaumont Street
- Pegasus Theatre, Magdalen Road
- Phoenix Picturehouse, Walton Street
- Ultimate Picture Palace, Cowley Road
- Vue Cinema Grenoble Road
- The North Wall Arts Centre, South Parade
- Creation Theatre Company
Literature and film
Well-known Oxford-based authors include:
- Brian Aldiss, who lived in Oxford.
- Vera Brittain, undergraduate at Somerville.
- John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, attended Brasenose College. Best known for his The Thirty-nine Steps, authored 32 novels and many more volumes of history, poetry and essays.
- A.S. Byatt, undergraduate at Somerville.
- Susan Cooper, undergraduate at Somerville, best known for her The Dark Is Rising Sequence.
- Lewis Carroll (real name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland was a Student and Mathematical Lecturer of Christ Church.
- Colin Dexter, who wrote and set his Inspector Morse detective novels in Oxford.
- John Donaldson (d. 1989), a poet resident in Oxford in later life.
- Siobhan Dowd, Oxford resident, who was an undergraduate at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.
- Victoria Glendinning, undergraduate at Somerville.
- Kenneth Grahame, educated at St Edward's School, Oxford.
- Michael Innes (J. I. M. Stewart), of Christ Church.
- P. D. James, born and died in Oxford.
- T. E. Lawrence, "Lawrence of Arabia", Oxford resident, undergraduate at Jesus, postgraduate at Magdalen.
- C. S. Lewis, student at University College and Fellow of Magdalen.
- Iris Murdoch, undergraduate at Somerville and fellow of St Anne's.
- Carola Oman, novelist and biographer, was born and brought up in the city.
- Iain Pears, undergraduate at Wadham and Oxford resident, whose novel An Instance of the Fingerpost is set in the city.
- Philip Pullman, undergraduate at Exeter, teacher and resident in the city.
- Dorothy L. Sayers, undergraduate at Somerville.
- J. R. R. Tolkien, undergraduate at Exeter and later professor of English at Merton
- John Wain, undergraduate at St John's and later Professor of Poetry at Oxford University 1973–78.
- Oscar Wilde, a 19th-century poet and author who attended Oxford from 1874 to 1878.
- Athol Williams, South African poet, postgraduate at Hertford and Regent's Park from 2015 to 2020.
- Charles Williams, editor at Oxford University Press.
And that sweet city with her dreaming spires, She needs not June for beauty's heightening,
Oxford, and its surrounding towns and villages, have produced many successful bands and musicians in the field of popular music. The most notable Oxford act is Radiohead
, who all met at nearby Abingdon School, though other well known local bands include Supergrass
, Lab 4
, Talulah Gosh
, the Candyskins
, the Egg
, Unbelievable Truth
, Hurricane No. 1
and more recently, Young Knives
, Glass Animals
, Dive Dive
. These and many other bands from over 30 years of the Oxford music scene's history feature in the documentary film Anyone Can Play Guitar?
. In 1997, Oxford played host to Radio 1's
Sound City, with acts such as Travis
, Bentley Rhythm Ace
and DJ Shadow
playing in various venues around the city including Oxford Brookes University
The city's leading football club, Oxford United
, are currently in League One
, the third tier of league football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. They were elected to the Football League
in 1962, reached the Third Division
after three years and the Second Division
after six, and most notably reached the First Division
in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League. They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the Football League Cup
a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League
) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the Football Conference
in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League
in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium
(named after former chairman Firoz Kassam
), which is near the Blackbird Leys
housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground
in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves
, Jim Smith
, Maurice Evans
, Brian Horton
, Ramon Diaz
and Denis Smith
. Notable former players include John Aldridge
, Ray Houghton
, Tommy Caton
, Matt Elliott
, Dean Saunders
and Dean Whitehead
is the oldest city team and currently plays in the Berks, Bucks and Oxon Championship. Their most famous player was arguably Michael James Parsons known as Jim Parsons who was capped by England.
Oxford University RFC
are the most famous club with more than 300 Oxford players gaining International honours; including Phil de Glanville, Joe Roff, Tyrone Howe, Anton Oliver, Simon Halliday, David Kirk and Rob Egerton.
Speedway and greyhound racing
There are several hockey clubs based in Oxford. The Oxford Hockey Club (formed after a merger of City of Oxford HC and Rover Oxford HC in 2011) plays most of its home games on the pitch at Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus and also uses the pitches at Headington Girls' School and Iffley Road. Oxford Hawks has two astroturf pitches at Banbury Road North, by Cutteslowe Park to the north of the city.
is Oxford's senior American Football team. One of the longest-running American football clubs in the UK, the Saints were founded in 1983 and have competed for over 30 years against other British teams across the country.
Oxford University Boat Club
compete in the world-famous Boat Race
. Since 2007 the club has been based at a training facility and boathouse in Wallingford
south of Oxford, after the original boathouse burnt down in 1999. Oxford is also home to the City of Oxford Rowing Club, based near Donnington Bridge.
Headington Road Runners based at the OXSRAD sports facility in Marsh Lane (next to Oxford City F.C.
) is Oxford's only road running club with an average annual membership exceeding 300. It was the club at which double Olympian Mara Yamauchi
started her running career.
Freedom of the City
- ^ a b "Key Facts about Oxford". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- ^ "Civic office holders". Oxford City Council. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ a b UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Oxford Local Authority (1946157324)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- ^ Upton, Clive; et al., eds. (2001). The Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 734. ISBN 978-0-19-863156-9.
- ^ Dictionary.com, "oxford" in Dictionary.com Unabridged. Source location: Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/oxfordArchived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com Archived 20 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed: 4 July 2012.
- ^ Sager 2005, p. 36.
- ^ Margaret Gelling, The Place-Names of Oxfordshire, Part 1, ISBN 0-521-04916-4
- ^ "A Handy Guide to Oxford, ch. 2". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "The St Brice's Day Massacre". History Today Volume 52 Issue 11 November 2002. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- ^ Ord, Louise (12 August 2011). "Oxford Viking massacre revealed by skeleton find". BBC News. bbc.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- ^ "When Vikings put Oxford to the torch". The Oxford Times 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- ^ Chris Andrews, David Huelin; Oxford. Introduction & Guide; Oxford 1986
- ^ "The Jewish Community of Oxford". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- ^ Crouch, D. (2013). The Reign of King Stephen: 1135–1154 (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-31789-297-7.
- ^ "Oxford charter 1191". whatdotheyknow.com. 23 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ a b c Eleanor Chance, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, C J Day, T G Hassall, Mary Jessup and Nesta Selwyn (1979). "Boundaries". In Alan Crossley; C R Elrington (eds.). A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4, the City of Oxford. Victoria County History. pp. 260–264. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- ^ Jenkins, Vivian (1996). Kings & Queens. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-472295-7.
- ^ "The Sweating Sickness". Story of London. Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer: the Oxford Martyrs". Westminster Seminary California. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- ^ Cockayne, Emily (2007). Hubbub: Filth Noise & Stench in England. Yale University Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-0-300-13756-9.
- ^ "Cowley Barracks". Headington at War. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- ^ Harrison, Brian, ed. (1994). History of the University of Oxford: Volume VIII: The Twentieth Century – Oxford Scholarship. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229742.001.0001. ISBN 9780198229742. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- ^ "Oxford Business Group Country Reports". hbs.edu. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- ^ "Exhibition remembers refugees who fled to Oxford before and during World War II". Archived from the original on 21 October 2012.
- ^ Neil Harvey. "College life in wartime". ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009.
- ^ "1954: Bannister breaks four-minute mile". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- ^ Oxford Brookes University, 'Awards and Rankings' Archived 6 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- ^ "Ethnicity". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- ^ "Daily Data from the Radcliffe Observatory site in Oxford". University of Oxford. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- ^ "Radcliffe Meteorological Station". Archived from the original on 1 June 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
- ^ "Monthly, Annual and Seasonal Data from the Radcliffe Observatory site in Oxford". University of Oxford. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- ^ "Oxford 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- ^ "Daily Data from the Radcliffe Observatory site in Oxford". University of Oxford. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- ^ "Ethnicity". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- ^ "CPRE:The Oxford Green Belt: Key Facts". www.cpreoxon.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- ^ "Estate agents call for building on Green Belt to ease house price crisis". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- ^ Elledge, Jonn (22 September 2017). "Loosen Britain's green belt. It is stunting our young people – Jonn Elledge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ White, Anna (26 February 2015). "Welcome to Britain's most unaffordable spot – it's not London". Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- ^ "Oxford Green Belt Study Final Report Prepared by LUC October 2015" (PDF). oxfordshire.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- ^ "Home – Digital Oxford". Digital Oxford. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- ^ "Passle – become a thought leader". Passle: Don't have time to blog?. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- ^ "Brainomix". Brainomix. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- ^ "Labstep". angel.co. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- ^ "Learn English in Oxford". oxford-royale.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- ^ a b c d Woolley, Liz (2010). "Industrial Architecture in Oxford, 1870 to 1914". Oxoniensia. Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society. LXXV: 78. ISSN 0308-5562.
- ^ Page, William, ed. (1907). A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 2: Industries: Malting and Brewing. Victoria County History. Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 225–277. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- ^ Richmond, Lesley; Turton, Alison (1990). The Brewing industry: a guide to historical records. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7190-3032-1. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- ^ "History of Headington, Oxford". Headington.org.uk. 19 April 2009. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "Morrells Brewery up for sale". Archive.thisisoxfordshire.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ www.quaffale.org.uk (22 September 2001). "Morrells Brewery Ltd". Quaffale.org.uk. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "Jericho Echo". Pstalker.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "England | Brewer buys pub chain for £67m". BBC News. 18 June 2002. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "Brewery site plan nears final hurdle". Archive.thisisoxfordshire.co.uk. 19 February 2001. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "Bell Founders". Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- ^ "Introduction and history". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- ^ a b "International students". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017". Times Higher Education. September 2016. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- ^ Hearn, Dan (19 August 2009). "Oxford tourism suffers triple whammy". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- ^ "About Boswells". Boswells-online.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- ^ Ffrench, Andrew (29 February 2020). "Everything must go now at Boswells in closing down sale". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- ^ "Clarendon Shopping Centre". Clarendoncentre.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- ^ "Visit Oxford's premier shopping centre – the Westgate Shopping Centre". Oxfordcity.co.uk. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- ^ "Blackwell's Books, Oxford". britainexpress.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- ^ "Libraries". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012.
- ^ "A University Library for the Twenty-first Century". University of Oxford. 22 September 2005. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ^ "Bodleian Library Website". Oxford University Bodleian Library. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- ^ MacGregor, A. (2001). The Ashmolean Museum. A brief history of the museum and its collections. Ashmolean Museum & Jonathan Horne Publications, London.
- ^ "Support Us". The Ashmolean. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- ^ "Ashmolean Museum website, What's in the Ashmolean". Oxford University Ashmolean Museum. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- ^ "Oxford University Museum of Natural History Homepage". Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
- ^ "Pitt Rivers Museum Website, About Augustus Pitt Rivers". University of Oxford Pitt Rivers Museum. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- ^ "About the Museum". Museum of the History of Science. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ^ "Visiting museums, libraries & places of interest – University of Oxford website". Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- ^ "Museums and Galleries – Experience Oxfordshire website". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- ^ Hikins, Richard (4 March 2016). "New Global Headquarters for Airways Aviation". oxfordairport.co.uk. Oxford Airport. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ "Airbus Helicopters celebrates 40 years as the all-in-one solution for UK helicopter industry". Helicopters. Airbus. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ "SAPPHIRE – Aylesbury to Oxford via Haddenham, Thame and Wheatley 280". Timetables. Arriva Shires & Essex. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "FAQs frequently asked questions". Sapphire. Arriva UK Bus. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "Park and ride car parks". Roads and transport. Oxfordshire County Council. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "Oxford Bus Company Fleet List" (PDF). Oxford Bus Company. August 2015. Archived(PDF) from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ Holley, Mel (18 June 2014). "Fully electric York park-and-ride site means network now UK's largest". RouteOne. Diversified Communications. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "First York" (PDF). Unofficial Fleetlist. Sheffield Omnibus Enthusiasts Society. 12 September 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "Smart ticketing". Sustainability. Go-Ahead Group. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
- ^ "Free Wi-Fi on city buses and buildings as Oxford gets Super Connected". Newsroom. Oxford City Council. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015.
- ^ Oxford Bus Company (4 November 2014). "Free Wi-Fi on buses announced as Oxford gets Super Connected!". WordPress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015.
- ^ "Oxford bus users to get free wifi". News. ITV. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015.
- ^ Little, Reg (15 July 2010). "Transport revolution". The Oxford Times. Oxford: Newsquest (Oxfordshire) Ltd. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- ^ Holley, Mel (10 September 2014). "Gyrodrive debuts in Oxford". RouteOne. Diversified Communications. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ "2011 Census Analysis – Cycling to Work". ONS. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- ^ MacDermot 1927, pp. 180–181.
- ^ "Welcome to". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- ^ "Western Section". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- ^ "Central Section". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- ^ "Eastern Section". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- ^ Thacker, Fred. S. (1968) . The Thames Highway: Volume II Locks and Weirs. Newton Abbot: David and Charles.
- ^ Compton, Hugh J. (1976). The Oxford Canal. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-7238-8.
- ^ "Oxford's Zero Emission Zone to begin in August".
- ^ "Oxford Student Radio". oxideradio.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
- ^ "Milestone Group" (PDF). Milestone Group. Retrieved 17 April 2010.[dead link]
- ^ "That's Oxfordshire". media.info. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- ^ Ffrench, Andrew (7 April 2015). "New Oxfordshire community TV channel 'just weeks from launch'". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- ^ "Preview: Nightshift night Archived 5 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine", "Oxford Mail", 6 July 2000
- ^ Pegasus Theatre Archived 8 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, UK.
- ^ "Poems". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ Tyack, Geoffrey (1998). Oxford: An architectural guide. Oxford University Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-14-071045-8.
- ^ "Exploring Wadham's Holywell Music Room". Wadham College. 21 February 2017. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- ^ "Haydn in England". Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. 2018. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- ^ "Notable people buried in Oxford". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- ^ "Discography for NME Compilation Cassette for Oxford Sound City". Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- ^ "Obituary: Oxford artist Ken Messer". Oxford Mail. UK. 7 June 2018.
- ^ Bennett, Emma, ed. (2018). The Oxford Art Book: The City Through the Eyes of its Artists. UIT Cambridge. ISBN 978-1-906-860-84-4.
- ^ "Oxford". Artweeks 2020. Oxfordshire Artweeks. 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ "Welcome to OURLFC". Oxford University Rugby League. Archived from the original on 11 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- ^ "Oxford Brookes University Rugby League". Facebook. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- ^ "Rugby Union". ESPN. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- ^ "International Players". Oxford University Rugby Club. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- ^ Knox, Michael (27 June 2015). "RUGBY UNION: London Welsh quit Oxford's Kassam Stadium – but could be back". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- ^ "oxfordstars.com". Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- ^ "oxfordjuniorstars.co.uk". oxfordstars.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011.
- ^ "OUIHC". oxforduniversityicehockey.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- ^ "OUIHC BUIHA". buiha.org.uk. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- ^ "International Players". Oxford University Cricket in the Parks. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- ^ "Contact Us". Oxford University Boat Club. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f "Oxford's International Twin Towns". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- ^ "City Twinnings". Stadt Bonn. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble – Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- ^ Bragg, Alexander (21 October 2016). "The Oxford – Manizales connection of "town versus gown"". The City Paper. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ Council, Oxford City. "Historic moment as Oxford and Ramallah in Palestine become twin cities". www.oxford.gov.uk. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- ^ "Oxford, Padua, Ramallah – twin cities recognised". Oxford City Council. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ "Benny Wenda: West Papua leader receives freedom of Oxford". BBC News. 17 July 2019. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
- ^ Ffrench, Andrew (21 May 2015). "Regiment to exercise 'Freedom of the City'". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- Cooke, B.W.C., ed. (January 1960). "The Why and the Wherefore: Distances from London to Oxford". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 106 no. 705. Westminster: Tothill Press.
- MacDermot, E.T. (1927). History of the Great Western Railway, vol. I: 1833–1863. Paddington: Great Western Railway.
- MacDermot, E.T. (1931). History of the Great Western Railway, vol. II: 1863–1921. Paddington: Great Western Railway.
- Mitchell, Vic; Smith, Keith (July 2005). Oxford to Bletchley. Country Railway Routes. Middleton Press. ISBN 1-904474-57-8.
- Sager, Peter (2005). Oxford & Cambridge: An Uncommon History. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51249-3.
- Saint, Andrew (1970). "Three Oxford Architects". Oxoniensia. Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society. XXXV. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Simpson, Bill (1997). A History of the Railways of Oxfordshire. Part 1: The North. Banbury and Witney: Lamplight. ISBN 1-899246-02-9.
- Simpson, Bill (2001). A History of the Railways of Oxfordshire. Part 2: The South. Banbury and Witney: Lamplight. ISBN 1-899246-06-1.
- Aston, Michael; Bond, James (1976). The Landscape of Towns. Archaeology in the Field Series. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04194-0.
- Attlee, James (2007). Isolarion: A Different Oxford Journey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-03093-7.
- Curl, James Stevens (1977). The Erosion of Oxford. Oxford Illustrated Press Ltd. ISBN 0-902280-40-6.
- Dale, Lawrence (1944). Towards a Plan for Oxford City. London: Faber and Faber.
- Gordon, Anne (22 June 2008). "History, learning, beauty reign over Oxford". The Boston Globe.
- Morris, Jan (2001). Oxford. Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-19-280136-4.
- Sharp, Thomas (1948). Oxford Replanned. London: The Architectural Press.
- Tyack, Geoffrey (1998). Oxford An Architectural Guide. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-817423-3.
- Woolley, A. R. (1975). The Clarendon Guide to Oxford (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-951047-4.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Oxford
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oxford
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 23:16
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.