and State Defense Police
The agency that would later become the PIDE was established by the Decree-Law 22992 of August 1933, as the Surveillance and State Defense Police or PVDE. It resulted from the merger of two former agencies, the Portuguese International Police and the Political and Social Defense Police.
The PVDE was transformed into the PIDE in 1945. PIDE was itself transformed into the Directorate-General of Security
in 1968. After the 25 April 1974 Carnation Revolution
, DGS was disbanded in Portugal, but continued to exist transitionally in the Portuguese overseas territories
as the Military Information Police
, being finally completely disbanded in 1975.
Although the acronym PIDE was only formally used from 1945 to 1969, the set of successive secret polices that existed during the 40 years of the Estado Novo
regime are commonly referred to as the PIDE. Historically, this set of police agencies is also often referred as PIDE/DGS
, from the acronyms of its two last designations. It is referred to in this last way in article 293 of the Portuguese Constitution
, which states its criminalization and judgment of its former officers.
In 1918, the police services were organized as an umbrella organization
named Civic Police, which started to include two agencies that were the remote ancestors of the PIDE: the Preventive Police and the Emigration Police. The first agency was a secret police responsible for the State security. The Preventive Police would become the State Security Police in 1919, the Social Defense Police in April 1919, and the Preventive and State Security Police in October 1919. The Emigration Police was an agency responsible for the border and migration control, with a special focus in the fight against illegal emigration.
After the 28 May 1926 coup d'état
and the establishment of the military Ditadura Nacional
, the Preventive and State Security Police was disbanded. However, soon after, two similar agencies were created, the Lisbon Information Police and the Porto Information Police, respectively under the control of the civil governor of Lisbon and the civil governor of Porto. In 1928, the two agencies were merged into a single Information Police under the direct control of the Minister of the Interior. In the same year, the Portuguese International Police was created as a section of the Information Police, succeeding the former Emigration Police. In 1931, the Information Police was disbanded and the Portuguese International Police became autonomous, under the direct control of the Minister of the Interior. In 1932, the Political and Social Surveillance Section of the Portuguese International Police was created, with the same role of the former Information Police.
With Salazar in office as prime minister, the Political and Social Surveillance Section became autonomous in January 1933, as the Political and Social Surveillance Police. The Portuguese International Police and the Political and Social Surveillance Police would merge in August 1933, as the PVDE.
The origins of PIDE can be traced to 1933, the year of the inauguration of the Estado Novo. Under direct orders from Salazar himself, the Surveillance and State Defence (Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado) or PVDE was created, with two main sections:
- Social and Political Defence Section, which was used to prevent and repress crimes of a political and social nature (see: Censorship)
- International Section, which was used to control the entrance of immigrants, to expel undesirable immigrants and to take care of counter-espionage and/or international espionage.
PVDE was founded and led by Captain Agostinho Lourenço
. According to Professor Douglas Wheeler "an analysis of Lourenco's career suggest[s] strongly that British Intelligence Services' influence had an impact on the structure and activity of PVDE". Lourenço had earned a reputation with British observers, recorded in a confidential document generated at the British Embassy, which suggested a "pro-British" bias on his part. Lourenço always kept a good relationship with the MI6
, which helped him to become the head of the international police organization Interpol
In 1936, the prison
was created in the Portuguese colony of Cape Verde
. This camp, under the direct control of the PVDE, was the destination for those political prisoners considered dangerous by the regime. Among the first prisoners were the convicted sailors from the 1936 Naval Revolt
. The sailors, affiliated with the Communist Party, had attempted to sail two Portuguese Navy ships out of Lisbon to join the Spanish Republican forces fighting in Spain. Throughout the more than 40 years of the Estado Novo
, 32 people lost their lives in Tarrafal, which was known for its severe methods of torture.
During World War II, the PVDE experienced its most intense period of activity. Neutral Lisbon
was the European
center of espionage
and one of the favourite exile
destinations. Writers such as Ian Fleming
(the creator of James Bond
) were based there, while other prominent people such as the Duke of Windsor
and the Spanish Royal Family
were exiled in Estoril. German spies attempted to buy information on trans-Atlanticshipping
to help their submarines
fight the Battle of the Atlantic
. The Spaniard Juan Pujol Garcia, better known as Codename Garbo
, passed on misinformation to the Germans, hoping it would hasten the end of the Spanish State
—he was recruited by Britain as a double agent
while in Lisbon. Conversely, William Colepaugh
, an American traitor
, was recruited as an agent
by the Germans while his ship was in port in Lisbon—he was subsequently landed by U-boat
, in Maine
before being captured. In June 1943, a commercial airliner
carrying the actor Leslie Howard
was shot down over the Bay of Biscay
by the Luftwaffe
after taking off from Lisbon, possibly because German spies in Lisbon believed that Prime Minister Winston Churchill
was on board.
reports called Lisbon "The Capital of Espionage". However, the PVDE always maintained a neutral stance towards foreign espionage activity, as long as no one intervened in Portuguese internal policies.
in November 2011, the former headquarters of PIDE in Mozambique, at Lourenço Marques (presently Maputo
In 1945, the PVDE was dissolved and replaced by the PIDE. Unlike its predecessor, which sought inspiration in the Gestapo, PIDE followed the Scotland Yard
model. Receiving the same status as the Polícia Judiciária
(criminal investigation police), it had full powers to investigate, detain, and arrest anyone who was thought to be plotting against the State. It had two main functions:
- Administrative functions (which included those related to the migration services)
- Criminal prevention and repression functions
PIDE is considered by many authors as being one of the most functional and effective secret services
in history. Using a wide network of covert cells
, which were spread throughout Portugal and its overseas territories, PIDE had infiltrated agents into almost every underground movement, including the Portuguese Communist Party as well as the independence movements in Angola
. The PIDE encouraged citizens – the so-called bufos
(snitches) – to denounce suspicious activities, through the use of monetary and prestige incentives. This resulted in an extremely effective espionage service which was able to fully control almost every aspect of Portuguese daily life.
Directorate-General of Security
In 1969, Marcelo Caetano
changed the name PIDE to DGS (Direcção-Geral de Segurança
, "General Security Directorate"). The death of Salazar and the subsequent ascension of Caetano brought some attempts at democratization
, in order to avoid popular insurgency against censorship
, the ongoing colonial war, and the general restriction of civil rights. This resulted in a decrease in the perceived level of violence
used by the secret police and a consequent reduction in its effectiveness.
The most dramatic moments of the 1974 Carnation Revolution occurred near the DGS headquarters at António Maria Cardoso Street in Lisbon. Unidentified agents - desperate after being surrounded by rebellious troops and a throng of civilians - opened fire from the top of the building, killing four demonstrators. In turn, a DGS agent was also killed by the rebellious troops when trying to escape. These five people were the sole victims of the coup d'état which brought down the dictatorship.
This was the last strategic point to be occupied by the insurgents, thus leading to the escape of many of the agents and the destruction of most of the records. In the days following the revolution, most escaped to Spain
or went underground. Many of the agents, including the director-general Silva Pais were, however, captured. Of those agents, 89 would latter escape from the Alcoentre penitentiary, in a massive and never well-explained prison break in June 1975.
Some of the PIDE/DGS archives were reportedly handed over by the Portuguese Communist Party to Soviet
After being sanitized, the corporation continued its operations in the Portuguese colonies under the name of the Military Information Police (Polícia de Informação Militar).
A commission was created for the extinction of the secret police. The remainder of the documents since 1990 are in the Torre do Tombo
National Archive. They can be accessed, but the names of agents and informers are not disclosed.
The only PIDE agents who faced trial were those responsible for the death of exiled opposition leader Humberto Delgado
. They were tried in absentia
and the case dragged on for several years. None of them served time in jail.
The brutality of the PIDE/DGS is dramatised in the 2000 film April Captains
, about the events of the day of the Carnation Revolution.
- ^ 25 de Abril Always, worldwithouttorture.org, retrieved 21 September 2015
- ^ Portugal Intelligence Services, photius.com, retrieved 21 September 2015
Wheeler, Douglas L. (1983). "In the Service of Order: The Portuguese Political Police and the British, German and Spanish Intelligence, 1932-1945". Journal of Contemporary History
. Sage Publications, Ltd. 18
(1): 1–25. doi
. JSTOR 260478
Last edited on 26 April 2021, at 00:36
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