The Pahlavis came to power after Ahmad Shah Qajar
, the last Qajar
ruler of Iran, proved unable to stop British and Soviet encroachment on Iranian sovereignty, had his position extremely weakened by a military coup, and was removed from power by the parliament while in France. The Iranian parliament, known as the Majlis
, convening as a Constituent Assembly
on 12 December 1925, deposed the young Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Khan the new king (shah
) of the Imperial State of Persia
. In 1935, Reza Shah
asked foreign delegates to use the endonym Iran
in formal correspondence, and the official name the Imperial State of Iran was adopted.
Following the coup d'état
in 1953 supported by the United Kingdom
and the United States
, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's rule became more autocratic and was aligned with the Western Bloc
during the Cold War
, although he enacted a series of economic and social reforms known as the White Revolution
. By 1978 the Shah faced growing public discontent and popular rebellion, and the second Pahlavi went into exile with his family in January 1979, sparking a series of events that quickly led to the end
of the state and the beginning of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 11 February 1979.
Persia on the eve of Reza Pahlavi's coup
In 1925, Reza Khan, a former Brigadier-General of the Persian Cossack Brigade
, deposed the Qajar dynasty
and declared himself king (shah
), adopting the dynastic name of Pahlavi
, which recalls the Middle Persian
language of the Sasanian Empire
(He had chosen the last name Pahlavi for himself in November 1919.
) By the mid-1930s, Rezā Shāh's strong secular rule caused dissatisfaction among some groups, particularly the clergy, who opposed his reforms, but the middle and upper-middle class of Iran liked what Rezā Shāh did. In 1935, Rezā Shāh issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence, in accordance with the fact that "Persia
" was a term used by Western peoples for the country called "Iran" in Persian. His successor, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, announced in 1959 that both Persia and Iran were acceptable and could be used interchangeably.
Reza Shah tried to avoid involvement with the UK and the Soviet Union
. Though many of his development projects required foreign technical expertise, he avoided awarding contracts to British and Soviet companies because of dissatisfaction during the Qajar Dynasty between Persia, the UK, and the Soviets. Although the UK, through its ownership of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company
, controlled all of Iran's oil resources, Rezā Shāh preferred to obtain technical assistance from Germany, France, Italy and other European countries. This created problems for Iran after 1939, when Germany and Britain became enemies in World War II
. Reza Shah proclaimed Iran as a neutral country
, but Britain insisted that German engineers and technicians in Iran were spies with missions to sabotage
British oil facilities in southwestern Iran. Britain demanded that Iran expel all German citizens, but Rezā Shāh refused, claiming this would adversely affect his development projects.
World War II
Iran claimed to be a neutral country during the opening years of World War II. In April, 1941, the war reached Iran's borders when Rashid Ali
, with assistance from Germany
, launched the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état
, sparking the Anglo-Iraqi War
of May, 1941. Germany and Italy quickly sent the pro-Axis forces in Iraq military aid from Syria but during the period from May to July the British and their allies defeated the pro-Axis forces in Iraq and later Syria and Lebanon
On 13 September 1943 the Allies
reassured the Iranians that all foreign troops would leave by 2 March 1946.
At the time, the Tudeh Party of Iran
, a communist party
that was already influential and had parliamentary representation, was becoming increasingly militant, especially in the North. This promoted actions from the side of the government, including attempts of the Iranian armed forces to restore order in the Northern provinces. While the Tudeh headquarters in Tehran
were occupied and the Isfahan
branch crushed, the Soviet troops present in the Northern parts of the country prevented the Iranian forces from entering. Thus, by November 1945 Azerbaijan
had become an autonomous state helped by the Tudeh party.
This pro-Soviet nominal-government fell by November 1946, after support from the United States for Iran to reclaim the regions that declared themselves autonomous.
At the end of the war, Soviet troops remained in Iran and established two puppet states in north-western Iran, namely the People's Government of Azerbaijan
and the Republic of Mahabad
. This led to the Iran crisis of 1946
, one of the first confrontations of the Cold War
, which ended after oil concessions were promised to the USSR and Soviet forces withdrew from Iran proper in May 1946. The two puppet states were soon overthrown and the oil concessions were later revoked.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
replaced his father on the throne on 16 September 1941. He wanted to continue the reform policies of his father, but a contest for control of the government soon erupted between him and an older professional politician, the nationalistic Mohammad Mosaddegh
In 1951, the Majlis
(the Parliament of Iran
) named Mohammad Mossadegh
as new prime minister by a vote of 79–12, who shortly after nationalized the British-owned oil industry (see Abadan Crisis
). Mossadegh was opposed by the Shah who feared a resulting oil embargo imposed by the West would leave Iran in economic ruin. The Shah fled Iran but returned when the United Kingdom and the United States staged a coup against Mossadegh in August 1953 (see Operation Ajax
). Mossadegh was then arrested by pro-Shah army forces.
Major plans to build Iran's infrastructure were undertaken, a new middle class began flourishing and in less than two decades Iran became the indisputable major economic and military power of the Middle East.
Collapse of the dynasty
The Shah and his wife left Iran on 16 January 1979.
The last Shah of Iran
meets clergy. Some of Iranian clergy opposed him while some others supported him as "The only Shi'ite ruler".
The Shah's government suppressed its opponents with the help of Iran's security and intelligence secret police, SAVAK
. Such opponents included leftists and Islamists.
By the mid-1970s, relying on increased oil revenues, Mohammad Reza began a series of even more ambitious and bolder plans for the progress of his country and the march toward the "White Revolution
". But his socioeconomic advances increasingly irritated the clergy. Islamic leaders, particularly the exiled cleric AyatollahRuhollah Khomeini
, were able to focus this discontent with an ideology tied to Islamic principles that called for the overthrow of the Shah and the return to Islamic traditions, called the Islamic revolution
. The Pahlavi regime collapsed following widespread uprisings in 1978 and 1979. The Islamic Revolution dissolved the SAVAK and replaced it with the SAVAMA
. It was run after the revolution, according to U.S. sources and Iranian exile sources in the US and in Paris, by Gen. Hossein Fardoust
, who was deputy chief of SAVAK under Mohammad Reza's reign, and a friend from boyhood of the deposed monarch.
Mohammad Reza fled the country, seeking medical treatment in Egypt
, Mexico, the United States, and Panama, and finally resettled with his family in Egypt as a guest of Anwar Sadat
. On his death, his son Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi
succeeded him in absentia
as heir apparent to the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Pahlavi and his wife live in the United States in Potomac, Maryland
, with three daughters.
Under the Qajar dynasty
the Persian character of Iran was not very explicit. Although the country was referred to as Persia by westerners, and the dominant language in court and administration was Persian
the dichotomy between pure Persian and Turkic
elements had remained obvious until 1925. The Pahlavi rule was instrumental in Iran's nationalisation in line with Persian culture and language which, among other ways, was achieved through the official ban on the use minority languages such as Azerbaijani
and successful suppression of separatist movements. Reza Pahlavi
is credited for the reunification of Iran
under a powerful central government. The use of minority languages in schools and newspapers was not tolerated. The succeeding regime – the Islamic Republic of Iran
– has adopted a more inclusive approach in relation to the use of ethnic minorities and their language, however the issues as to Azeris
, the Iran's largest ethnic minority, remain and pose considerable challenges for the unity and territorial integrity of Iran
Pahlavi Shahs of Iran
Use of titles
- Shâh: Emperor, followed by Shâhanshâh of Iran, with style His Imperial Majesty
- Shahbânu: Shahbânu or Empress, followed by first name, followed by "of Iran", with style Her Imperial Majesty
- Valiahd: Crown Prince of Iran, with style His Imperial Highness
- Younger sons: Prince (Shâhpūr, or King's Son), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style His Imperial Highness.
- Daughters: Princess (Shâhdokht, or King's Daughter), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style Her Imperial Highness.
- Children of the monarch's daughter/s use another version of Prince (Vâlâ Gohar, "of superior essence") or Princess (Vâlâ Gohari), which indicate descent in the second generation through the female line, and use the styles His Highness or Her Highness. This is then followed by first name and father's surname, whether he was royal or a commoner. However, the children by the last Shah's sister Fatemeh, who married an American businessman as her first husband, are surnamed Pahlavi Hillyer and do not use any titles.
The rulers of the Imperial State of Iran — Reza Shah Pahlavi and his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi — employed secret police, torture, and executions to stifle political dissent. The Pahlavi dynasty has sometimes been described as a "royal dictatorship" or "one-man rule". According to one history of the use of torture by the Iranian government, the abuse of prisoners varied at times during the Pahlavi dynasty.
led an anti-corruption study group which submitted at least 30 reports in 13 years detailing corruption of high-ranking officials and the royal circle, but Shah called the reports "false rumors and fabrications". Parviz Sabeti
, a high-ranking official of SAVAK
believed that the one important reason for successful opposition to the regime was the allegations of corruption.
Notes and references
- ^ "Flags of the World: Iranian Empire (Pahlavi Dynasty, 1964–1979)". Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- ^ Whitney Smith (1980), Flags and Arms across the World, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-059094-6
- ^ a b c d e "IRAN: Keshvaré Shahanshahiyé Irân", The Statesman's Year-Book 1978–79, Springer, 2016, pp. 674–682, ISBN 9780230271074
- ^ کوروش, نوروز مرادی; نوری, مصطفی (1388). "سندی نویافته از نیای رضاشاه" (PDF). پیام بهارستان. د۲،س ۱،ش۴.
- ^ معتضد, خسرو (1387). تاج های زنانه (چاپ اول ed.). تهران: نشر البرز. pp. 46 47 48 49 50 51 جلد اول. ISBN 9789644425974.
- ^ نیازمند, رضا (1387). رضاشاه از تولد تا سلطنت (چاپ ششم ed.). تهران: حکایت قلم نوین. pp. 15 16 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 39 40 43 44 45. ISBN 9645925460.
- ^ زیباکلام, صادق (1398). رضاشاه (اول ed.). تهران: روزنه،لندن:اچ انداس. pp. 61, 62. ISBN 9781780837628.
- ^ Gholam Reza Afkhami (27 October 2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- ^ Zirinsky, Michael P. (1992). "Imperial power and dictatorship: Britain and the rise of Reza Shah, 1921-1926". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 24 (4): 639–663. doi:10.1017/s0020743800022388. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- ^ Afkhami, Gholam Reza (2009). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 4. (..) His mother, who was of Georgian origin, died not long after, leaving Reza in her brother's care in Tehran. (...).
- ^ GholamAli Haddad Adel; et al. (2012). The Pahlavi Dynasty: An Entry from Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam. EWI Press. p. 3. (...) His mother, Nush Afarin, was a Georgian Muslim immigrant (...).
- ^ Homa Katouzian. "State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis" I.B.Tauris, 2006. ISBN 978-1845112721 p 269
- ^ Ansari, Ali M. (2003). Modern Iran Since 1921: The Pahlavis and After. Longman. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-582-35685-6. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- ^ Chehabi, H. E. (2020). Onomastic Reforms: Family Names and State-Building in Iran. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674248199. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021.
- ^ Glenn E. Curtis, Eric Hooglund; US Government Printing Office (2008). Iran: A Country Study. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8444-1187-3.
- ^ Farrokh, Kaveh (2011). Iran at War: 1500–1988. ISBN 978-1-78096-221-4.
- ^ David S. Sorenson (2013). An Introduction to the Modern Middle East: History, Religion, Political Economy, Politics. Westview Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8133-4922-0.
- ^ Iran: Foreign Policy & Government Guide. International Business Publications. 2009. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7397-9354-1.
- ^ T.H. Vail Motter; United States Army Center of Military History (1952). United States Army in World War II the Middle East Theater the Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia. CMH.
- ^ a b Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945–1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5.
- ^ The Iranian Crisis of 1945–1946 and the Spiral Model of International Conflict, by Fred H. Lawson in International Journal of Middle East Studies p.9
- ^ Louise Fawcett, "Revisiting the Iranian Crisis of 1946: How Much More Do We Know?." Iranian Studies 47#3 (2014): 379–399.
- ^ Gary R. Hess, "the Iranian Crisis of 1945–46 and the Cold War." Political Science Quarterly 89#1 (1974): 117–146. online
- ^ Michael Coleman (30 July 2013). "Son of Iran's Last Shah: 'I Am My Own Man'". The Washington Diplomat. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- ^ Tohidi, Nayereh. "Iran: regionalism, ethnicity and democracy". Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- ^ a b c d "Former Iranian Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi will proclaim himself the new shah of Iran", United Press International, 17 October 1980, archived from the original on 28 January 2019, retrieved 25 January 2019, His Imperial Highness Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran, will reach his constitutional majority on the 9th of Aban, 1359 (October 31, 1980). On this date, and in conformity with the Iranian Constitution, the regency of Her Imperial Majesty Farah Pahlavi, Shahbanou of Iran, will come to an end and His Imperial Highness, who on this occasion will send a message to the people of Iran, will succeed his father, His Imperial Majesty Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi, deceased in Cairo on Mordad 5, 1359 (July 27, 1980).
- ^ Ganji, p. 8-9
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