"Over par" and "Under par" redirect here. For the golf term, see Par (score)
, in finance
, means stated value
or face value
. From this come the expressions at par
(at the par value), over par
(over par value) and under par
(under par value).
selling at par is priced at 100% of face value. Par can also refer to a bond's original issue value or its value upon redemption at maturity.
The par value of stock
has no relation to market value and, as a concept, is somewhat archaic.[when?]
The par value of a share is the value stated in the corporate charter below which shares of that class cannot be sold upon initial offering
; the issuing company promises not to issue further shares below par value, so investors can be confident that no one else will receive a more favorable issue price. Thus, par value is the nominal value of a security which is determined by the issuing company to be its minimum price. This was far more important in unregulated equity markets than in the regulated markets that exist today,[when?]
where stock issuance prices must usually be published. The par value of stock remains unchanged in a bonus stock issue but it changes in a stock split
In accounting, the par value allows the company to put a de minimis
value for the stock on the company's financial statement. Par value is also used to calculate legal capital
or share capital
Many common stocks
issued today do not have par values; those that do (usually only in jurisdictions where par values are required by law) have extremely low par values (often the smallest unit of currency in circulation), for example a penny (USD
$0.01) par value on a stock issued at USD
$25.00/share. Most jurisdictions do not allow a company to issue stock below par value.
Even in jurisdictions that permit the issue of stock with no par value, the par value of a stock may affect its tax treatment. For example, Delaware permits the issue of stock either with or without a par value, but by choosing to assign a par value, a corporation may significantly reduce its franchise tax liability.
have "no par value" printed on their certificates. Instead of par value, some U.S. states allow no-par stocks to have a stated value, set by the board of directors of the corporation, which serves the same purpose as par value in setting the minimum legal capital that the corporation must have after paying any dividends or buying back its stock.
Also, par value still matters for a callable common stock
: the call price is usually either par value or a small fixed percentage over par value.
The shares in a corporation may be issued partly paid
, which renders the owner of those shares liability to the corporation for any calls on those shares up to the par value of the shares.
Last edited on 17 September 2020, at 13:39
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