Parliamentary republic
  (Redirected from Parliamentary republics)
For other uses, see Parliamentary Republic (disambiguation).
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Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
  Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature
  Semi-presidential system with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the rest of the executive, who is appointed by the president and accountable to the legislature
  Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial and non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive and is dependent on the confidence of the legislature
  Republics in which a combined head of state and government is elected by, or nominated by, the legislature and may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence
Monarchical forms of government:
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial and non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
  Semi-constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive or legislative power
  Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive
  One-party states (in principle republics)
  Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional government or unclear political situations)
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld).[1][2] Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.[clarification needed]
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In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).[1][2][clarification needed]
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, and South Africa), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.
In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.
Historical development
Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.[3]
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one.[original research?]
Commonwealth of Nations
Main article: Commonwealth of Nations
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in South Africa (which ceased to be a member of the Commonwealth immediately upon becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.
List of modern parliamentary republics and related systems
Main article: List of countries by system of government § Parliamentary republics
Full parliamentary republics
CountryHead of state elected byCameral structureParliamentary republic adoptedPrevious government formNotes
Parliament, by three-fifths majorityUnicameral1991One-party state
 ArmeniaParliament, by absolute majorityUnicameral2018[note 1]Semi-presidential republic
Direct election, by two-round systemBicameral1945One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)
 BangladeshParliamentUnicameral1991[note 2]Presidential republic
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaDirect election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post voteBicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
BulgariaDirect election, by two-round systemUnicameral1991One-party state
CroatiaDirect election, by two-round systemUnicameral2000Semi-presidential republic
 Czech Republic
Direct election, by two-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)Bicameral1993Parliamentary republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
 DominicaParliament, by majorityUnicameral1978Associated state of the United Kingdom
Parliament, by two-thirds majorityUnicameral1991[note 3]One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
 EthiopiaParliament, by two-thirds majorityBicameral1991One-party state
 FijiParliament, by majorityUnicameral2014Military dictatorship
 FinlandDirect election, by two-round systemUnicameral2000[note 4]Semi-presidential republic
Electoral college (parliament and regional delegates), by absolute majorityUnicameral2018[note 5]Semi-presidential republic
 GermanyFederal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majorityBicameral1949[note 6]One-party state
Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1975Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy
 HungaryParliament, by two-roundUnicameral1990One-party state
Direct election, by first-past-the-post voteUnicameral1944Constitutional monarchy (in a personal union with Denmark)
Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff voteBicameral1950Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
Parliament, by two-thirds majorityUnicameral[note 7]2005One-party state
 IrelandDirect election, by instant-runoff voteBicameral1949[note 8]To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
1936–1949: ambiguous
Parliament, by majorityUnicameral2001Semi-parliamentary republic
Parliament and region delegates, by absolute majorityBicameral1946Constitutional monarchyPrime Minister is dependent on the confidence of both of the houses of Parliament.
Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot, if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballotsUnicameral2008UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)
 KyrgyzstanDirect election, by two-round systemUnicameral2010Presidential republic
 LatviaParliamentUnicameral1991[note 9]One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
ParliamentUnicameral1941Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)
Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1974Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[4])[5]
Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1992Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[6][7][8])[5]
 MoldovaDirect election, by two-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
Unicameral2001Semi-presidential republic
 MontenegroDirect election, by two-round systemUnicameral1992One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
Parliament and state legislatorsBicameral[9]2015[note 10]Constitutional monarchy
 North MacedoniaDirect election, by two-round systemUnicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff voteBicameral2010[10][11]Semi-presidential republic
 SamoaParliamentUnicameral1960Trust Territory of New Zealand
Direct election, by two-round systemUnicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
Direct election (since 1993)Unicameral1965State of Malaysia
Direct election, by two-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)Unicameral1993Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
 SloveniaDirect election, by two-round systemBicameral1991One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
ParliamentBicameral2012[note 11]One-party state
 Trinidad and TobagoParliamentBicameral1976Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[12])[5]
 VanuatuParliament and regional council presidents, by majorityUnicameral1980British–French condominium (New Hebrides)
Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency
CountryHead of state elected byCameral structureParliamentary republic adoptedPrevious government formNotes
Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1966British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)
 KiribatiDirect election, by first-past-the-post voteUnicameral1979Protectorate
 Marshall IslandsParliamentBicameral1979UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
 NauruParliamentUnicameral1968UN Trusteeship between Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
 South Africa
Parliament, by majorityBicameral1961Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[13][14][15])[5]Was a full parliamentary republic from 1961–1984; adopted an executive presidency in 1984.
Assembly-independent systems
CountryHead of state elected byCameral structureParliamentary republic adoptedPrevious government formNotes
 Federated States of MicronesiaParliament, by majorityUnicameral1986UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Parliament, by an electoral collegeBicameral2010Military dictatorship
 San Marino
ParliamentUnicameral2010?Two collective heads of state and heads of government, the Captains Regent
ParliamentUnicameral1975Constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Directorial systems
CountryHead of state elected byCameral structureParliamentary republic adoptedPrevious government formNotes
Parliament by exhaustive ballot at a joint sitting of both housesBicameral1848Confederation of statesAlso has citizen-initiated referenda
List of former parliamentary republics
CountryBecame a
Changed toReason for change
First Austrian Republic
19201929Semi-presidential systemConstitutional amendment
 Belarus19901994Presidential systemNew constitution adopted
19611963Presidential systemReferendum
 Burma(present-day Myanmar)19481962Military dictatorship1962 Burmese coup d'état
18911924Military junta1924 Chilean coup d'état
19251925Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
Republic of China
19471991Semi-presidential systemConstitutional amendment[note 12]
First Czechoslovak Republic
19201939One-party stateMunich agreement
Third Czechoslovak Republic
19451948One-party stateCoup d'état
Fifth Czechoslovak Republic
19891992State dissolvedVelvet Divorce
French Third Republic
18701940Puppet stateWorld War II German Occupation
French Fourth Republic
19461958Semi-presidential systemPolitical instability
 Guyana19701980Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
Hungary19461949One-party stateCreation of the People's Republic of Hungary
19451959Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
19481996Semi-parliamentary systemConstitutional amendment
Second Republic of South Korea
19601961Military juntaMay 16 coup
Lithuanian First Republic19201926One-party state1926 Lithuanian coup d'état[note 13]
 Nigeria19631966Military dictatorship
(which led in 1979 to the democratic, presidentialSecond Nigerian Republic)
Coup d'état
19561958Military dictatorship1958 Pakistani coup d'état
197319781977 Pakistani coup d'état
198819991999 Pakistani coup d'état
Second Polish Republic19191939One-party stateInvasion of Poland
First Portuguese Republic
19111926Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
May 28 coup
First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)18991901Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces
Fourth Philippine Republic19731981Semi-Presidential Republic
(de facto Military dictatorship under Martial Law between 1972 and 1986.)
Constitutional Amendment
Republic of the Congo
19601965Military dictatorship
(De facto One-party state)
1965 Congolese coup d'état
 Rhodesia19701979Parliamentary systemCreation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
 Spanish Republic18731874Restoration of the monarchyRestoration
 Spanish Republic19311939Constitutional monarchyCoup d'état
 Sri Lanka19721978Semi-presidential systemConstitutional amendment
Syrian Republic19301958One-party stateCreation of the United Arab Republic
Syrian Arab Republic19611963One-party state1963 Syrian coup d'état
Transvaal Republic
18521902Colony of the British EmpireSecond Boer War
19232018Presidential systemReferendum
19631966One-party stateSuspension of the constitution
 Zimbabwe Rhodesia19791979Parliamentary systemReversion to Southern Rhodesia
 Zimbabwe19801987Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
See also
  1. ^ Changed after the 2015 referendum.
  2. ^ Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
  3. ^ Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  4. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. 24 (2): 95–109. doi​:​10.1111/1467-9477.00048​. as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.
  5. ^​https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/29/world/europe/georgia-president-salome-zurabishvili.html Georgia is transitioning to a parliamentary republic
  6. ^ In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
  7. ^ Officially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.
  8. ^ The head of state was ambiguous from 1936 until the Republic of Ireland Act came into force on 18 April 1949. A minority of Irish republicans assert that the Irish Republic proclaimed in 1919 is still extant.
  9. ^ Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  10. ^ Had a transitional government between 2008 and 2015.
  11. ^ Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.
  12. ^ On October 1, 1949, the Kuomintang-led Republic of China (ROC) was succeeded in Mainland China by the People's Republic of China, a single-party state governed by the Chinese Communist Party. The ROC government was then confined to the island of Taiwan from December 7, 1949.
  13. ^ In June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  1. ^ a b Twomey, Anne. "Australian politics explainer: Gough Whitlam's dismissal as prime minister". The Conversation. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  2. ^ a b "The President's Role - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  3. ^ Arend Lijphart, ed. (1992). Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878044-1.
  4. ^ "Malta: Heads of State: 1964-1974". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d "British Monarch's Titles: 1867-2018". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  6. ^ "Mauritius: Heads of State: 1968-1992". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  7. ^ Paxton, John (1984). The Statesman's Year-Book 1984-85. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-333-34731-7. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  8. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Mauritius". Worldstatesmen.org. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  9. ^ Constitution of Nepal Archived December 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Kiran Khalid, CNN (2010-04-09). "Pakistan lawmakers approve weakening of presidential powers". CNN.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  11. ^ "'18th Amendment to restore Constitution' | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. Archived from the original on 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  12. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago: Heads of State: 1962-1976". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  13. ^ "South Africa: Heads of State: 1910-1961". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  14. ^ Carlin, John (31 May 1994). "South Africa returns to the Commonwealth fold". The Independent. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Secession Talked by Some Anti-Republicans". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 11 October 1960. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
Last edited on 19 April 2021, at 01:49
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