Party-list proportional representation
Poster for the European Parliament election 2004 in Italy, showing party lists
In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats are distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote for the party, as in Albania
, and Israel
; or for candidates whose vote total will pool to the party/parties, as in Finland
and the Netherlands
; or for a list of candidates, as in Hong Kong
or a choice between the last two ways stated: Luxembourg
") and ("list vote").
The order in which a party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party or the candidates (a closed list
system) or it may be determined by the voters at large (an open list
system) or by districts (a local list
Many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation exist. The two most common are:
- The highest average method, including the D'Hondt method used in Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cambodia, Estonia, Finland, Israel, Poland, Spain and many other countries; and the Sainte-Laguë method used in Norway, Sweden, New Zealand, the German Bundestag, and in six German states (e.g., North Rhine-Westphalia and Bremen).
- The largest remainder (LR) methods, including the Hamilton method.
While the allocation formula is important, equally important is the district magnitude (number of seats in a constituency). The higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes - the most proportional being when there is no division into constituencies at all and the entire country is treated as a single constituency. More, in some countries the electoral system works on two levels: at-large
for parties, and in constituencies for candidates, with local party-lists seen as fractions of general, national lists. In this case, magnitude of local constituencies is irrelevant, seat apportionment being calculated at national level.
In France, party lists in proportional elections must include as many candidates (and twice as many substitutes for the departmental elections
) as there are seats to be allocated, whereas in other countries "incomplete" lists are allowed.
- ^ "Proportional Representation Systems". mtholyoke.edu.
- ^ "Proportional Representation Open List Electoral Systems in Europe" (PDF). International Foundation for Electoral Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-24.
- ^ "Système électoral du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg(fr)". elections.public.lu.
- ^ Benoit, Kenneth. "Which Electoral Formula Is the MostProportional? A New Lookwith New Evidence" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2010-06-24.
- ^ Wilson, Helen J. "The D'Hondt Method Explained" (PDF).
Last edited on 17 January 2021, at 16:57
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.