"Paşa" redirects here. For the footballer, see Cahit Paşa
;Persian padišāh Turkish
), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw
was a higher rank in the Ottoman
political and military system, typically granted to governors
, and others. As an honorary title
, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage
, and was also one of the highest titles in the 20th-century Kingdom of Egypt
. The title was also used in Morocco
in the 20th century, where it denoted a regional official or governor of a district.
According to Online Etymology Dictionary
, pasha is derived from the earlier basha
, itself from Turkish baş
, "head, chief"), itself from Old Persian pati-
("master", from Proto-Indo-European
) and the root of the Persian word shah
According to Oxford Dictionaries
, the word has its origins in the mid-17th century, and was formed as a result of the combination of the Pahlavi
"lord", and shah
According to Josef W. Meri
and Jere L. Bacharach
, the word is "more than likely derived from the Persian Padishah
). The same view is held by Nicholas Ostler
, who mentions that the word was formed as a shortening of the Persian word padishah
According to etymologist Sevan Nişanyan
, the word is derived from Turkish beşe
, "boy, prince"), which is cognate
with Persian bačče
Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/, and the word was spelled başa
still in the 15th century.
As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b". The English forms bashaw
, etc., general in the 16th and 17th century, derive through the medieval Latin
. Due to the Ottoman presence in the Arab world
, the title became used frequently in Arabic
, though pronounced basha
due to the absence of the /p/ sound in Arabic.
Role in Ottoman and Egyptian political system
A pasha's Tugh
with two horse tails
Within the Ottoman Empire
, the Sultan
had the right to bestow the title of Pasha
. Lucy Mary Jane Garnett
wrote in the 1904 work Turkish Life in Town and Country
that it was the sole "Turkish title which carries with it any definite rank and precedence".
It was through this custom that the title (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈbæːʃæ]
) came to be used in Egypt, which was conquered by the Ottomans in 1517. The rise to power in Egypt in 1805 by Muhammad Ali
, an Albanian
military commander, effectively established Egypt as a de facto independent state
, however, it still owed technical fealty to the Ottoman Sultan. Moreover, Muhammad Ali harboured ambitions of supplanting the Osman Dynasty
, and sought to style his Egyptian realm as a successor sultanate
to the Ottoman Empire. As such, he bore the title of Pasha
, in addition to the official title of Wāli
, and the self-declared title of Khedive
. His successors to the Egyptian and Sudanese throne
, and Isma'il
also inherited these titles, with Pasha
, and Wāli
ceasing to be used in 1867, when the Ottoman Sultan
officially recognised Isma'il as Khedive
The title Pasha
appears originally to have applied exclusively to military commanders and only high ranking family of the sultans, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, and also unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour.
Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of horse tails (three, two, and one respectively; a symbol of Turco-Mongol
tradition) or peacock tails that the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereigncommander in chief
The following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha (lower ranks were styled Bey or merely Effendi
- The Vizier-i-Azam (Grand Vizier, the prime minister, but also often taking the field as Generalissimo instead of the Sultan)
- Mushir (Field marshal)
- Ferik (army lieutenant-general or navy vice-admiral)
- Liva (major general or rear-admiral)
- The Kizlar Agha (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the Topkapı Palace; three tails, as commander of the baltadji corps of the halberdiers in the imperial army
- Istanbul's Shaikh ul-Islam, the highest Muslim clergyman, of cabinet rank.
If a Pasha governed a provincial territory
, it could be called a pashaluk
after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e.g. eyalet, vilayet/walayah
. Both Beylerbeys
(governors-general) and valis/wālis
(the most common type of Governor) were entitled to the style of Pasha (typically with two tails). The word pashalik
designated any province
or other jurisdiction of a Pasha, such as the Pasha or Bashaw of Tripoli
In an Egyptian context, the Abaza Family
is known as "the family of the pashas" for having produced the largest number of nobles holding this title under the Muhammad Ali dynasty
and was noted in Egyptian media[when?]
as one of the main "families that rule Egypt" to this day,
and as "deeply rooted in Egyptian society and… in the history of the country."
As an honorific, the title Pasha was an aristocratic title and could be hereditary or non-hereditary, stipulated in the "Firman" (patent of nobility) issued by the Sultan carrying the imperial seal "Tughra". The title did not bestow rank or title to the wife nor was any religious leader elevated to the title. In contrast to western nobility titles, where the title normally is added before the given name, Ottoman titles followed the given name. In contacts with foreign emissaries and representatives, holders of the title Pasha were often referred to as "Your Excellency".
The sons of a Pasha were styled Pashazada or Pashazade, which means just that.
In modern Egyptian
and (to a lesser extent) Levantine Arabic
, it is used as an honorific closer to "Sir" than "Lord", especially by older people. Among Egyptians born since the Revolution of 1952
and the abolition of aristocratic titles, it is considered a highly formal way of addressing one's male peers.
The Republican Turkish authorities abolished the title circa the 1930s.
Although it is no longer an official title, high-ranking officers of the Turkish Armed Forces
are often referred to as "pashas" by the Turkish public and media.
List of notable pashas
The inclusion criterion is that the person held the rank of "pasha" in his society
- Abaza Family, Egyptian Pashas and Beys
- Abbas I of Egypt
- Abbas II of Egypt
- Ali Pasha, multiple people
- Baker Pasha (Valentine Baker)
- Barbarossa Khair ad-Din Pasha
- Bucknam Pasha (Ransford Dodsworth Bucknam)
- Ahmed Pasha (Claude Alexandre de Bonneval)
- Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha
- Djemal Pasha
- Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite") and Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed")
- Dragut, Ottoman Naval Commander & Pasha of Tripoli
- Emin Pasha
- Enver Pasha
- Essad Pasha Toptani
- Fakhri Pasha
- Fekry Pasha Abaza
- Fuad Pasha
- Glubb Pasha (Sir John Bagot Glubb)
- Gordon Pasha (Charles George Gordon)
- Habib Abdoe'r Rahman Alzahier
- Hagop Kazazian Pasha
- Hajji Mustafa Pasha
- Hobart Pasha (Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden)
- Hüseyin Tevfik Pasha, arms and algebra expert
- Hussein Refki Pasha
- Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
- İsmet Pasha (İsmet İnönü)
- Jafar al-Askari
- Jamal Pasha
- Judar Pasha, Moroccan general
- Kara Mustafa Pasha
- Hicks Pasha (William Hicks), British Colonel, Hero of the Mahdist Wars
- Kazazian Pasha
- Kilic Ali Pasha
- Multiple members of the Köprülü family
- Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha
- Liman von Sanders Pasha (Otto Liman von Sanders)
- Goltz Pasha (Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz)
- Mahmud Dramali Pasha, Ottoman general
- Marcus Simaika Pasha, was an Egyptian Coptic leader, politician, and founder of the Coptic Museum in Cairo
- Mehmed Pasha Sokolović
- Meissner Pasha (Heinrich August Meissner)
- Melling Pasha (Antoine Ignace Melling)
- Midhat Pasha
- Müezzinzade Ali Pasha, Ottoman admiral
- Muhammad Ali Pasha, viceroy of Egypt
- Mustafa Kemal Pasha, subsequently known as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the post-Ottoman Turkish republic
- Mustafa Reshid Pasha
- Naguib Pasha Mahfouz, is known as the father of obstetrics and gynaecology in Egypt and was a pioneer in obstetric fistula
- Nubar Pasha
- Osman Pasha
- Omar Pasha Latas
- Piyale Pasha
- Radu Bey, Pasha of Wallachia, Brother of Vlad III Tepes
- Riyad Pasha, Egyptian statesman
- Rüstem Pasha the longest serving Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
- Said Pasha
- Şerif Pasha, Kurdish nationalist
- Sentot Prawirodirdjo, known as "Alibasah Sentot" or "Sentot Ali Pasha". Javanese Muslim commander during Java War
- Sinan Pasha,
- Stone Pasha (Charles Pomeroy Stone)
- Sulejman Pasha
- Sultan al-Atrash
- Tahir Pasha, vali of Mosul 1910-12
- Talat Pasha
- Tawfiq Bay (Tevfik Pasha), Arab pan-Islamist
- Tewfik Pasha
- Turhan Pasha Përmeti
- Tusun Pasha
- Urabi Pasha
- Vartan Pasha
- Wehib Pasha
- Williams Pasha (Sir William Williams), Canadian/British General
- Woods Pasha (Henry Felix Woods)
- Youssef Wahba Pasha, Egyptian Prime Minister
- Yusuf Murad Pasha (Józef Bem), Polish general and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, who served in the Ottoman Empire.
- Yusuf Karamanli, Pasha of Tripoli
- Ali Pasha Mubarak
- Qassim Pasha Al Zuhair, Pasha of Albasrah and Kuwait
- Krayem Pasha Al Nahar, Jordan
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- ^ Belghazi, Taieb (2006). "Festivalization of Urban Space in Morocco". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 15 (1): 97–107. doi:10.1080/10669920500515168. S2CID 145764601.
- ^ "pasha". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013.
- ^ "Pasha". Oxford Dictionaries (English). Archived from the original on 16 April 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- ^ Meri, Josef W.; Jere L. Bacharach (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: L–Z, index. Taylor & Francis. p. 814. ISBN 978-0415966924.
- ^ Ostler, Nicholas (2010). The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel. Penguin UK. pp. 1–352. ISBN 978-0141922218. Even in Ottoman Turkish much military vocabulary is borrowed from Persian. The highest rank, paşa, was a shortening of Persian padišāh 'emperor'.
- ^ Nişanyan, Sevan. paşa. Sözlerin Soyağaçı: Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimolojik Sözlüğü [Family trees of words: Etymologicial Dictionary of Contemporary Turkish]. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012.
- ^ Tietze, Andreas (2002). "başa". Tarihi ve Etimolojik Türkiye Türkçesi Lugatı (in Turkish). Simurg Kitapçılık. p. 290. ISBN 978-975-7172-56-7.
- ^ Garnett, Lucy Mary Jane. Turkish Life in Town and Country. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1904. p. 5.
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Last edited on 12 April 2021, at 07:58
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