The opposite environment is relevant in Spanish
, whose voiced fricatives become stops post-pausa and after nasals. Such environments are often termed pre-pausal
, respectively. The phrases in pausa
and pausal form
are often taken to mean at the end of a prosodic unit, in pre-pausal position, as pre-pausal effects are more common than post-pausal effects.
Very commonly, such allophones are described as occurring "word-initially" or "word-finally", as opposed to other allophones found "word-medially", because that is a more accessible phrasing for most readers. However, that phrasing is accurate only for a word in citation form. It is not always clear in the description of a language whether an alleged word-boundary allophone is actually defined by the word boundary, as opposed to being pausal allophones being defined by prosodic boundaries.
In English, the last stressed syllable before a pausa receives tonic stress
, giving the illusion of a distinction between primary and secondary stress
. In dialects of English with linking
or intrusive R
(a type of liaison
), the r
is not realized in pausa even if the following word begins in a vowel. Similarly, French liaison
does not operate in pausa.
English words that have weak and strong forms
are realized as strong after and often also before a pausa.
, Biblical Hebrew
, other Semitic languages
, and Egyptian
, pausa affects grammatical inflections
. In Arabic, short vowels, including those carrying case
, are dropped before a pausa, and the gender is modified. The Arabic alphabet
has a letter ة
(tāʾ marbūṭa تاء مربوطة
) for the feminine, which is classically pronounced [h] in pausa but [t] in liaison. In Biblical Hebrew, /laχ/ (לָךְ
) is the general feminine form of 'to you' but also the pausal masculine form.
, voiced fricative/approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞] are pronounced as stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ] after a pausa and after a nasal.
, the full infinitive form of the verb occurs only pre-pausa.
- ^ pausa, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
- ^ παῦσις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus
- ^ cf. Elisha Qimron (2007). "The Nature of Pausal Forms". In Aharon Maman; Steven E. Fassberg; Yohanan Breuer (eds.). Sha‘arei Lashon: Studies in Hebrew, Aramaic and Jewish Languages Presented to Moshe Bar-Asher (in German). vol. 1. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute. pp. 92–106, 95–99. ISBN 978-965-342-945-1.
- ^ Watson & Bellem (2011). "Glottalisation and neutralisation". In Hassan & Heselwood (eds.). Instrumental Studies in Arabic Phonetics. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. ISBN 978-90-272-4837-4.
Last edited on 30 March 2021, at 13:39
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