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Peninsular Arabic
Peninsular Arabic are the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula. This includes the countries of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Southern Iraq,[1] Southern Iran and the tribes of Jordan (the native Jordanians).
Peninsular Arabic
Geographic
distribution
Arabian Peninsula
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
Peninsular Arabic
Glottologarab1393
An overview of the different Arabic varieties
The modern dialects spoken in the Arabian Peninsula are closer to Classical Arabic than elsewhere.[2][3] Some of the local dialects have retained many archaic features lost in other dialects, such as the conservation of nunation for indeterminate nouns. They retain most Classical syntax and vocabulary but still have some differences from Classical Arabic like the other dialects.
Varieties
Approximate historical distribution of Semitic languages
The following varieties are usually noted:
The following table compares the Arabic terms between Saudi dialects of urban Hejazi and urban Najdi in addition to the dialect of the Harb tribe[4] with its parts (Najdi and Hejazi parts) which shows a correlation between those dialects:
Comparison between a number of dialects in Saudi Arabia
TermStandard ArabicUrban HejaziḤarb tribe (Hejazi)Ḥarb tribe (Najdi)Urban Najdi
"water"ماء māʼموية mōyaما mā or موية mōyaموية mōya
"I want"أريد ʼurīdأبغى ʼabḡa or rarely أبى ʼabaأبى ʼabaأبي ʼabi
"where?"أين ʼaynفين fēnوين wēn
"what?"ماذا māḏāإيش ʾēšويش wēšوش wiš
"why?"لماذا limāḏāليش lēš or ليه lēh
"early morning"ضُحَى ḍuḥāضُحَى ḍuḥaضَحى ẓaḥa (ظَحى)
"now"الآن alʼānدحين daḥīn or daḥēnذحين daḥīnهالحين hal-ḥīnالحين il-ḥīn
"coffee"قَهْوَة qahwaقَهْوَة gahwaقْهَوَة ghawaقْهَوَة ghawa or قَهْوَة gahwa
"bread"خُبْز ḵubzخُبْز ḵubuz or عيش ʿēšعيش ʿayšخِبْز ḵibzخِبْز ḵibz
"also"أيْضًا ʾayḍan or كَذَٰلِكَ ka-ḏālikaكمان kamān or برضه barḍuكمان kamān or برضه barẓu (برظه)كَذَٰلِكَ ka-ḏālikبَعَد baʿad
"run"يَرْكُض yarkuḍu or يَجْرِي yajrīيِجْري yijriيَجْرِي yajriيَرْكُض yarkiẓ (يَرْكِظ)
"maybe"يُمْكِن yumkinيِمْكِن yimkin or بَلْكي balki*يِمْكِن yimkin
"we were"كُنَّا kunnāكُنَّا kunnaكِنَّا kinna
"they said"قالوا qālūقالوا gāluقالوا gālawقالوا gālaw or قالوا gālu
"cows"بَقَر baqarبَقَر bagarبُقَر bugarبِقَر bigar
"neck"رَقَبة raqabaرَقَبة ragabaرْقُبة rgubaرْقَبة rgaba
"little"قَليل qalīlقَليل galīlقِليل gilīl
"strong"قَوِيّ qawiyyقَوي gawiقُوي guwi
"talked to you"كَلَّمَكَ kallamakaكَلَّمَك kallamakكَلَّمْك kallamk
"all"كُلّ kullكُلّ kullكِل kill
"got bigger"كَبُرَ kaburaكِبِر kibirكِبَر kibar
"he drank"شَرِب šaribشِرِب širibشِرَب širab
"he inhabited"سَكَن sakanسَكَن sakanسِكَن sikan
"he told the truth"صَدَق ṣadaqaصَدَق ṣadagصِدَق ṣidag
"he knows"يَعْرِف yaʿrifيِعْرِف yiʿrifيْعَرِف yʿarif
"he wrote"كَتَبَ katabaكَتَب katabكِتَب kitab
"he writes"يَكْتُبُ yaktubuيِكْتُب yiktubيَكْتِب yaktibيَكْتِب yaktib or يْكَتِب ykatib
"he enters"يَدْخُل yadḵulيِدْخُل yidḵulيَدْخِل yadḵil
"we count"نَحْسِبُ naḥsibuنِحْسِب niḥsibنْحَسِب nḥasibنْحَسِب nḥasib or نِحْسِب niḥsib
"piece of wood"خَشَبَة ḵašabaخَشَبَة ḵašabaخْشِبَة ḵšibaخْشِبَة ḵšiba or خَشَبَة ḵašaba
"she sits"تَقْعُد taqʿudتِقْعُد tigʿudتَقْعُد tagʿudتَقْعِد tagʿid
"I said"قُلْت qultقُلْت gultقِلْت gilt
"he woke up"صَحِيَ ṣaḥiyaصِحِي ṣiḥiصَحَى ṣaḥa
"dig"اِحْفِرْ iḥfirاَحْفُر aḥfurاِحْفِرْ iḥfir
"take!"خُذْ ḵuḏخُذْ ḵud (خُد)خُذْ ḵuḏخِذْ ḵiḏ
"say!"قُل qulقول gūlقِل gil or rarely قول gūl
"go!"اِذْهَب iḏhabروح rūḥرح riḥ or rarely روح rūḥ
"leave!"خَلِّ ḵalliخَلِّي ḵalliخل ḵall
"tomb"قَبْر qabrقَبُر gaburقبر gabir
"poverty"فَقْر faqrفَقِر fagirفَقُر fagurفَقِر fagir
"afternoon"عَصْر ʿaṣrعَصُر ʿaṣurعَصِر ʿaṣir
"camel"جَمَل jamalجَمَل jamalجِمَل jimalجِمَل jimal or جَمَل jamal
"truth"حَقيقة ḥaqīqaحَقيقة ḥagīgaحِقيقة ḥigīga
"big"كَبير kabīrكَبير kabīrكِبير kibīrكِبير kibīr or كَبير kabīr
"it dried"يَبِس yabisaيِبِس yibisيِبَس yibas
"we"نَحْن naḥnuاحنا iḥna or نحنا niḥnaحنا ḥinna
"them"هُم humَّهُم hummaهُم hum
"he"هُوَ huwaهُوَّ huwwaهو hū or huw or huwah or اهو ihwaهو hū or huw
"this"هذا hāḏāهذا hāda (هدا)هذا hāḏa
"like"مِثْل miṯl or كما kamaزَي zayمِثْل miṯl or كما kima or زَي zayمِثْل miṯil or زَي zay
Notes:
بَلْكي balki is archaic and barely used in both dialects.
See also
Footnotes
  1. ^ Holes, Clive (2001). Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes. pp. XIX. ISBN 9004107630.
  2. ^ Zhluktenko, Y. A. (1988). Interlanguage relations and language policy. Capitalist states and countries of the "Third World". Naukova dumka. p. 190. ISBN 9785120001410.
  3. ^ Alexeyev, B. A. (2003). All Asia. Geographical handbook. АСТ. p. 311. ISBN 9785897371518.
  4. ^ Il-Hazmy (1975:234)
Bibliography
Il-Hazmy, Alayan (1975). A critical and comparative study of the spoken dialect of the Harb tribe in Saudi Arabia (PDF).

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Last edited on 12 May 2021, at 23:53
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