The area was originally inhabited by Muskogean-speaking
peoples. The Pensacola people
lived there at the time of European contact, and Creek people
frequently visited and traded from present-day southern Alabama
and southeast of Louisiana
. Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna
founded a short-lived settlement in 1559.
In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio
in the area, from which the modern city gradually developed. The area changed hands several times as European powers competed in North America. During Florida's British
rule (1763–1781), fortifications were strengthened.
It is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags", due to the five governments that have ruled it during its history: the flags of Spain
, Great Britain
, the United States of America
, and the Confederate States of America
. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches" (due to the white sand of Florida panhandle beaches), "Cradle of Naval Aviation", "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast
", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", and "P-Cola".
Pensacola was the site of one of the first European
-inhabited settlements in what would later become the United States of America.
The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay
area were Native American
peoples. At the time of European contact, a Muskogean
-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola
lived in the region. This name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city. Creek people, also Muskogean-speaking, came regularly from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and even continental network of relations.
The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology
is the Bottle Creek site, a large site located 59 miles (95 km) west of Pensacola north of Mobile, Alabama
. This site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, five of which are arranged around a central plaza. Its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550. It was a ceremonial center for the Pensacola people and a gateway to their society. This site would have had easy access by a dugout canoe
, the main mode of transportation used by the Pensacola.
The area's written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers
who were the first Europeans to reach the area. The expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez
in 1528 and Hernando de Soto
in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name "Bay of Ochuse".
In the age of sailing ships
Pensacola was the busiest port on the Gulf of Mexico, having the deepest harbor on the Gulf.
In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano
landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Veracruz
The expedition was to establish an outpost, ultimately called Santa María de Ochuse
by Luna, as a base for Spanish efforts to colonize Santa Elena
(present-day Parris Island, South Carolina
.) But the colony was decimated by a hurricane
on September 19, 1559,
which killed an unknown number of sailors and colonists, sank six ships, grounded a seventh, and ruined supplies.
The survivors struggled to survive, most moving inland to what is now central Alabama for several months in 1560 before returning to the coast; but in 1561, the effort was abandoned.
Some of the survivors eventually sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm struck there. Survivors made their way to Cuba
and finally returned to Pensacola, where the remaining fifty at Pensacola were taken back to Veracruz
. The Viceroy's advisers later concluded that northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle. They ignored it for 137 years.
In the late 17th century, the French
began exploring the lower Mississippi River
with the intention of colonizing the region as part of La Louisiane
or New France in North America. Fearful that Spanish territory would be threatened, the Spanish founded a new settlement in western Florida. In 1698 they established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas
, laying the foundation for permanent European-dominated settlement of the modern city of Pensacola.
The Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola:
- Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (1698–1719): the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria (east of present Fort Barrancas) and a village with church;
- Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa (1722–1752): this next presidio was on western Santa Rosa Island near the site of present Fort Pickens, but hurricanes battered the island in 1741 and 1752. The garrison was moved to the mainland;
- Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola (1754–1763): the final presidio was built about 5 miles (8 km) east of the first presidio; the present-day historic district of downtown Pensacola, named from "Panzacola", developed around the fort.
During the early years of settlement, a tri-racial creole
society developed. As a fortified trading post, the Spanish had mostly men stationed here. Some married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African
women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos
. The Spanish encouraged fugitive slaves
from the Southern colonies
to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism
. King Charles II of Spain
issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. Most went to the area around St. Augustine
, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683.
After years of settlement, the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763 as a result of an exchange following British victory over both France and Spain in the French and Indian War
(the North American theater of the Seven Years' War
), and French cession of its territories in North America. The British designated Pensacola as the capital of their new colony of West Florida
. From 1763, the British strengthened defenses around the mainland area of fort San Carlos de Barrancas
, building the Royal Navy Redoubt. George Johnstone
was appointed as the first British Governor, and in 1764 a colonial assembly
The structure of the colony was modeled after the existing British colonies in America
, as opposed to French Canada
, which was based on a different structure. West Florida was invited to send delegates to the First Continental Congress
which was convened to present colonial grievances against the British Parliament to George III
, but along with several other colonies, including East Florida, they declined the invitation. Once the American War of Independence
had broken out, the colonists remained overwhelmingly loyal to the Crown. In 1778 the Willing Expedition
proceeded with a small force down the Mississippi, ransacking estates and plantations, until they were eventually defeated by a local militia. In the wake of this, the area received a small number of British reinforcements.
British military resources were limited and Pensacola ranked fairly low on their list of priorities. For this reason only small token amounts of British military forces were ever sent to defend Pensacola. This was in contrast to colonies such as South Carolina, where large numbers of British soldiers were sent.
After Spain joined the American Revolution
in 1779 on the side of the rebels, Spanish forces captured the city in the 1781 Battle of Pensacola
, gaining control of West Florida.
After the war, the British officially ceded both West Florida and East Florida
to Spain as part of the post-war peace settlement
In 1785 many Creek from southern Alabama and Georgia
came to trade and Pensacola developed as a major trade center. It was a garrison town, predominantly males in the military or trade.
Americans made raids into the area, and settlers pressured the federal government to gain control of this territory.
In the final stages of the War of 1812
, American troops launched an offensive on Pensacola
against the Spanish and British garrisons protecting the city, which surrendered after two days of fighting. In 1819, Spain and the United States negotiated the Adams–Onís Treaty
, by which Spain sold the Floridas to the United States for US$5 million.
A Spanish census of 1820 indicated 181 households in the town, with a third of mixed-blood
. The people were predominantly French and Spanish Creole. Indians in the area were noted through records, travelers' accounts, and paintings of the era, including some by George Washington Sully and George Catlin
. Creek women were also recorded in marriages to Spanish men, in court records or deeds.
In 1821, with Andrew Jackson
as provisional governor, Pensacola became part of the United States.
The Creek continued to interact with European Americans and African Americans, but the dominant whites increasingly imposed their binary racial classifications: white and black ("colored", within which were included free people of color
, including Indians). However, American Indians and mestizos were identified separately in court and Catholic church records, and as Indians in censuses up until 1840, attesting to their presence in the society. After that, the Creek were not separately identified as Indian, but the people did not disappear. Even after removal
of many Seminole
to Indian Territory, Indians, often of mixed-race but culturally identifying as Muskogean, lived throughout Florida.
St. Michael's Cemetery was established in the 18th century at a location in a south central part of the city, which developed as the Downtown area. Initially owned by the Church of St. Michael, it is now owned and managed by St. Michael's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc.
Preliminary studies indicate that there are over 3,200 marked burials as well as a large number unmarked.
Tensions between the white community and Indians tended to increase during the Removal era. In addition, an increasing proportion of Anglo-Americans, who constituted the majority of whites by 1840, led to a hardening of racial discrimination in the area.
There was disapproval of white men living with women of color, which had previously been accepted. In 1853 the legislature passed a bill prohibiting Indians from living in the state, and provided for capture and removal to Indian Territory.
While the bill excluded half-bloods and Indians already living in white communities, they went "underground" to escape persecution. No Indians were listed in late 19th and early 20th century censuses for Escambia County. People of Indian descent were forced into the white or black communities by appearance, and officially, in terms of records, "disappeared". It was a pattern repeated in many Southern settlements. Children of white fathers and Indian mothers were not designated as Indian in the late 19th century, whereas children of blacks or mulattos were classified within the black community, related to laws during the slavery years.
In 1907–1908 there were 116 Creek in Pensacola who applied for the Eastern Cherokee
enrollment, thinking that all Indians were eligible to enroll. Based on Alabama census records, most of these individuals have been found to be descendants of Creek who had migrated to the Pensacola area from southern Alabama after Indian removal of the 1830s.
The land is sloped up northward from Pensacola Bay, with most of the city at an elevation above that which a potential hurricane storm surge could affect.
The Seville Tower
is one of the many historic and famous buildings in Pensacola.
Pensacola does not have a prominent skyline, but has several low-rise buildings. The tallest is the 15-floor Crowne Plaza Grand Hotel, which stands at 146 feet (45 m). Other tall buildings include the Scenic Apartments (98 feet, 30 m), SunTrust Tower (96 feet, 29 m), Seville Tower
(88 feet, 27 m), and the AT&T Building (76 feet, 23 m).
Weather statistics since the late 20th century have been recorded at the airport. The city has seen single digit temperatures (below −12 °C) on three occasions: 5 °F (−15 °C) on January 21, 1985, 7 °F (−14 °C) on February 13, 1899
and 8 °F (−13 °C) on January 11, 1982.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification
system, Pensacola has a humid subtropical climate
), with short, mild winters and hot, humid summers. Typical summer conditions have highs in the lower 90s °F (32–34 °C) and lows in the mid 70s °F (23–24 °C).
Afternoon or evening thunderstorms are common during the summer months. Due partly to the coastal location, temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) are relatively rare, and last occurred in June 2011, when two of the first four days of the month recorded highs reaching the century mark.
The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was 106 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1980.
The daily average temperature in January is 51.4 °F (10.8 °C); freezing temperatures occur on an average 13.7 nights per season, with the average window for freezing conditions being from December 13 to February 20.
Temperatures below 20 °F (−7 °C) are very rare, and last occurred on January 8, 2015,
when a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) was seen.
The lowest temperature ever recorded in the city was 5 °F (−15 °C) on January 21, 1985
is rare in Pensacola, but does occasionally fall. The most recent snowfall event occurred December 9, 2017,
and the snow event previous to it occurred on February 12, 2010.
The city receives 65.27 inches (1,660 mm) of precipitation per year, with a slightly more rainy season in the summer. The rainiest month is July, with 7.40 inches (188 mm), with May being the driest month at 4.17 inches (106 mm).
In June 2012 over one foot (300 mm) of rain fell on Pensacola and adjacent areas, leading to widespread flooding.
On April 29, 2014. Pensacola was drenched by at least 20 inches of rain within a 24-hour period, causing the worst flooding in 30 years
The city suffered a major blow on February 23, 2016, when a large EF3 wedge tornado
hit the northwest part of Pensacola, causing major damage and several injuries.
Damage done by Hurricane Ivan
in 2004 at the bayou near Naval Air Station
Pensacola's location on the Florida Panhandle
makes it vulnerable to hurricanes. Hurricanes which have made landfall at or near Pensacola since the late 20th century include Eloise (1975)
, Frederic (1979)
, Juan (1985)
), and Sally
). In July 2005, Hurricane Dennis made landfall just east of the city, sparing it the damage received from Ivan the year before. However, hurricane and near-hurricane-force winds were recorded in downtown, causing moderate damage.
Pensacola received only a glancing blow from Hurricane Katrina
in 2005, resulting in light to moderate damage reported in the area. The aftermath of the extensive damage from Katrina was a dramatic reduction in tourism coming from Louisiana
On September 16, 2004,
Pensacola and several surrounding areas were devastated by Hurricane Ivan. Pensacola was on the eastern side of the eyewall
, which sent a large storm surge
into Escambia Bay
; this destroyed most of the I-10 Escambia Bay Bridge
. The storm knocked 58 spans off the eastbound and westbound bridges and misaligned another 66 spans, forcing the bridge to close to traffic in both directions.
The surge also destroyed the fishing bridge that spanned Pensacola Bay alongside the Phillip Beale Memorial Bridge, locally known as the Three Mile Bridge.
Over $6 billion in damage occurred in the metro area and more than 10,000 homes were destroyed, with another 27,000 heavily damaged. NASA
created a comparison image
to illustrate the massive damage. Because of the widespread losses, Hurricane Ivan drove up the cost of housing in the area, leading to a severe shortage of affordable housing.
In September 2020, Pensacola suffered heavy damage by Hurricane Sally
. Damages in Escambia County were estimated by local officials at $29 million.
Downtown Pensacola was flooded.
As of the census
of 2010, there were 51,923 people, 23,600 households, and 14,665 families residing in the city, and 402,000 people in the Pensacola MSA
. The population density
was 2,303.5 people per square mile (956.8/km2
). There were 26,848 housing units at an average density of 1,189.4 per square mile (459.2/km2
). The racial makeup of the city is 66.3% White
, 28.0% African American
, 2.0% Asian
, 0.6% Native American
, 0.1% Pacific Islander
, 2.3% from two or more races. 3.3% are Hispanic
of any race.
There were 24,524 households, out of which 24.6% had children living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92.
Out of the total population in Pensacola, 45.9% identify with a religion, slightly lower than the national average of 48.3%.
Over 48% of Pensacolians who practice a religion identify as Baptists (22.1% of all city residents).
Other Christian denominations include Roman Catholics (9.2% of city residents), Pentecostal (3.8%), Methodist (3.8%), Episcopal (1.1%), Presbyterian (1.1%), and Orthodox (0.3%).
Pensacola is home to a small (0.2% of city residents)
but significant Jewish
community, whose roots date mostly to German Jewish immigrants of the mid-to-late 19th century. There were also Sephardic Jewish migrants from other areas of the South, and immigrants from other areas of Europe. The first Florida chapter of B'nai Brith
was founded downtown in 1874, as well as the first temple
, in 1876. Apart from the Reform
Beth-El, Pensacola is also served by the Conservative
B'nai Israel Synagogue. Paula Ackerman
, the first woman who performed rabbinical functions in the United States, was a Pensacola native and led services at Beth-El.
Map of Pensacola
The median income for a household in the city was $34,779, and the median income for a family was $42,868. Males had a median income of $32,258 versus $23,582 for females. The per capita income
for the city was $30,556 in 2011. About 12.7% of families and 16.3%
of the population were below the poverty line
, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
The city has been referred to as "The Cradle of Naval Aviation". Naval Air Station Pensacola
(NASP) was the first Naval Air Station commissioned by the U.S. Navy in 1914. Tens of thousands naval aviators have received their training there, including John H. Glenn
, USMC, who became the first American to orbit the earth in 1962, and Neil Armstrong
, who became the first man to set foot on the moon in 1969.
The Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels
, is stationed there.
The National Museum of Naval Aviation
is located on the Naval Air Station and is free to the public. The museum cares for and exhibits hundreds of vintage Naval Aviation aircraft and preserves the history of Naval Aviation through displays, symposiums, IMAX movies and tours.
Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center
serves as an annex for the main base and the center for Information Dominance
. CWO3 Gary R. Schuetz Memorial Health Clinic is at Corry Station, Naval Hospital Pensacola, as is the main Navy Exchange and Defense Commissary Agency
commissary complex for both Corry Station and NAS Pensacola. The Army National Guard B Troop 1-153 Cavalry, Bravo Company 146th Expeditionary Signal Battalion is stationed in Pensacola.
Pensacola is home to a number of annual festivals, events, historic tours, and landmarks. The Pensacola Seafood Festival and the Pensacola Crawfish Festival have been held for nearly 30 years in the city's historic downtown. The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival
is held annually in November in Seville Square, and often draws more than 200 regional and international artists. The Children's Art Festival, also held in Seville Square, displays art by local schoolchildren. Pensacon
is a comic convention held each February, with nearly 25,000 attendees from around the world.
There are several walking tours of restored 18th-century-era neighborhoods in Pensacola.
The city's convention and visitors' bureau, Visit Pensacola,
is overseen by the Greater Pensacola Chamber.
The arts and theatre
Saenger Theater in Downtown Pensacola
There are a number of performance venues in the Pensacola area, including the Pensacola Bay Center
(formerly the Pensacola Civic Center), often used for big-ticket events, and the Saenger Theater
, used for performances and mid-level events. Other theatres used for live performances, plays, and musicals include the Pensacola Little Theatre, Pensacola State College, University of West Florida, Vinyl Music Hall, and Loblolly Theatre. Pensacola is also home to the Pensacola Opera
, Pensacola Children's Chorus, Pensacola Symphony Orchestra, Pensacola Civic Band, Pensacola Bay Concert Band, and the Choral Society of Pensacola, as well as Ballet Pensacola. There is also the Palafox Place
The Pensacola Marathon is hosted annually on Veteran's Day weekend. The race begins and ends at Admiral Mason Park running 26.2 miles through several Pensacola neighborhoods.
Parks and recreation
Law and government
The city of Pensacola utilizes a strong mayor-council
form of government, which was adopted in 2011 after citizens voted in 2009 to approve a new city charter. An elected mayor serves as the chief executive of the city government, while a seven-member city council serves as the city's governing body. A council president is selected by the council from its members, along with a vice president.
City voters approved a charter amendment on June 11, 2013 which eliminated the then-nine member council's two at-large seats; one seat was phased out in November 2014, and the other expired in November 2016. Two additional charter amendments were approved on November 4, 2014 which made the position of mayor subject to recall and provided the city council with the authority to hire staff. The current city hall
was opened in 1986.
After the Civil War
, Pensacola, like the rest of the South
, was controlled by Republicans
during the Reconstruction era
(1865-1877). The Republican government had numerous African American politicians, including several county commissioners, city aldermen, constables, state representatives, and even one African American mayor—Salvador Pons. However, with the 1884 election of native Pensacolian and former Confederate general Edward Perry
, a dramatic shift occurred. Perry, a Democrat
who actually lost the Escambia County vote during the statewide election, acted to dissolve the Republican city government of Pensacola and in 1885 replaced this government with hand-picked successors, including railroad magnate William D. Chipley. The only African American to remain in city government was George Washington Witherspoon, a pastor with the African Methodist Episcopal Church
who was previously a Republican and switched parties to the Democrats. Following Governor Perry's dissolution of the Republican government, the city remained Democratic for more than a century after the Civil War
with no African Americans serving in an elected capacity for nearly a century.
As was the case in most of Florida, the Democratic primary was the real contest for most state and local elections until the 1970s. However, from the 1960s onward, due in part to the Republican Party's Southern strategy
, residents of this staunchly conservative military and Bible Belt
city began splitting their tickets and voting Republican in national elections. Despite this, Democrats continued to win most elections at the state and local level well into the 1990s, though most of them were very conservative even by Southern Democratic
This changed in 1994, when Republican attorney Joe Scarborough
defeated Vince Whibbs, Jr., the son of popular former Democratic mayor Vince Whibbs
, in a landslide to represent Florida's 1st congressional district
, which is based in Pensacola. Republicans also swept all of the area's seats in the state legislature, the majority of which were held by Democrats. Since then, Republicans have dominated every level of government, although municipal elections are officially nonpartisan. In August 2005, registered Republicans outnumbered Democrats for the first time in the area's history. As of August 2005, in Escambia County, 44% of the residents were registered Republicans compared to 39.91% of the population having registered as Democrats, with another 13.21% having no party affiliation.
The largest daily newspaper in the area is the Pensacola News Journal
, with offices on Romana Street in downtown; the News Journal
is owned by the Gannett Company
. There is an alternative weekly newspaper, Inweekly
Pensacola is home to WEAR-TV
, the ABC
affiliate for Pensacola, Navarre
, Fort Walton Beach
, and Mobile, Alabama
, and WSRE
-TV, the local PBS
member station, which is operated by Pensacola State College
. Other television stations in the market include WALA-TV
, the Fox affiliate; WKRG
, the CBS
affiliate; and WPMI
, the NBC
affiliate, which are all located in Mobile. Cable service in the city is provided by Cox Communications
and AT&T U-Verse
is the area's NPR
affiliate and is based at the University of West Florida
. WPCS (FM)
is broadcast from the Pensacola Christian College
campus, where the nationwide Rejoice Radio Network maintains its studio.
Pensacola Magazine, the city's monthly glossy magazine, and Northwest Florida's Business Climate, the only business magazine devoted to the region, are published locally. The News Journal also publishes Home & Garden Weekly magazine as well as the monthly Bella, devoted to women.
ECAT bus, June 2006
Pensacola International is the largest airport in Northwest Florida by passenger count and is the second busiest in all of North Florida
, just behind Jacksonville
By 1928, a number of short lines built northward from Pensacola to Kimbrough, Alabama
, were acquired by the Frisco Railroad
, giving it access to the port of Pensacola.
Some thirty years later, retired Frisco steam engine 1355 was donated to the city and stands in the median of Garden Street, near the site of the now-demolished Frisco passenger station.
The local bus service is the Escambia County Area Transit.
In December 2007, ECAT announced that it would cut many of its routes citing poor rider frequency. However, in January 2008, ECAT announced that it would expand service to neighboring Gulf Breeze
and change existing routes to more convenient locations.
- Chuck Baldwin, politician, pastor
- Derrick Brooks, Hall of Fame NFL linebacker
- Ashley Brown, singer and actress
- Austin Carlile, lead vocalist for Of Mice & Men
- Adron Chambers, baseball player, 2011 World Series champion
- Josh Donaldson, Major League Baseball third baseman for the Minnesota Twins
- Reggie Evans, NBA player
- Derrick Gainer, former world champion boxer
- Mark Gormley, singer-songwriter who rose to internet fame
- Robert Graysmith, true-crime author and former cartoonist, protagonist of film Zodiac
- Gigi Gryce, jazz composer and musician
- Harry B. Harris Jr., first Asian-American four-star admiral in the U.S. Navy; U.S. Pacific Command Commanding Officer.
- Kim Helton, college and pro football coach
- Martin Holley, Roman Catholic bishop
- Kent Hovind, Christian fundamentalist evangelist and tax protester
- Daniel "Chappie" James Jr., former US Air Force fighter pilot who became the first African American to reach the rank of four-star general in the military
- Horace Jones, NFL defensive end
- Roy Jones, Jr., professional boxing champion and 1988 Olympic silver medalist
- Phil Thomas Katt, singer-songwriter, filmmaker, music video producer, and radio DJ. Host of The Uncharted Zone
- Fred Levin, attorney from Pensacola, co-founder of the Levin Papantonio Law Firm
- Max Macon, Major League Baseball pitcher/first baseman-outfielder and scout, Minor League manager, high school and college basketball referee
- Rob Mariano, Survivor Hall of Fame member, Amazing Race contestant and winner of Survivor Redemption Island
- Amber Mariano, Survivor castaway, Amazing Race contestant and winner of Survivor All-Stars
- Gwen McCrae, singer
- Mike McCready, lead guitar player for Pearl Jam
- Katy Mixon, actress
- Alfred Morris, NFL running back
- Joan Perry, actress
- Jeremy Reaves, NFL strong safety
- Roman Reigns, professional wrestler currently signed to WWE
- Trent Richardson, NFL running back
- Fred Robbins, NFL defensive tackle
- Peter S. Ruckman, pastor
- Buck Showalter, former manager Major League Baseball
- John Schwab, actor
- Don Shirley, famed pianist, focus of the movie Green Book
- Josh Sitton, NFL offensive lineman
- Betty Skelton, aviatrix and auto racer
- Emmitt Smith, NFL running back in Pro Football Hall of Fame
- Peter Thomas, narrator known for Forensic Files
- Rysa Walker, author of The Chronos Files series
- Jim White, singer, songwriter and guitarist
- Holman Williams, boxer in International Boxing Hall of Fame
Bands from Pensacola
- ^ "Red Snapper Fishing in Pensacola, Florida". Entertainment Guide - Local.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- ^ "Florida fears for world's whitest beaches". Reuters. 2010-05-04. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- ^ "About NAS Pensacola". Cnic.navy.mil. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
- ^ UWF - About UWF - Location Archived 2013-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Pensacola city, Florida". www.census.gov. Retrieved 2019-12-30.
- ^ "Annual Estimares of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 - United States - Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area, and for Puerto Rico - 2018 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
- ^ John E. Worth, The Tristán de Luna Expedition, 1559-1561, http://uwf.edu/jworth/spanfla_luna.htmArchived 2016-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Swanton, John Reed (2003). The Indian tribes of North America. Genealogical Publishing. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-0-8063-1730-4. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Jane E. Dysart, "Another Road to Disappearance: Assimilation of Creek Indians in Pensacola, Florida during the Nineteenth Century", The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 1 (July 1982), pp. 37–48, Published by: Florida Historical Society, Article Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/30146156, accessed 26 June 2014
- ^ Dean R. Snow, Archaeology of Native North America (2010), New York: Prentice-Hall. pp. 248–249
- ^ a b c ""History" (Luna colony at Ochuse/Pensacola)". MyFlorida.com. State of Florida, Office of Cultural & Historical Programs. 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- ^ Davis, Jack E. (2017). The Gulf: The Making of an American Sea. Liveright. ISBN 978-0871408662.
- ^ a b c d John E. Worth, The Tristán de Luna Expedition, 1559–1561, http://uwf.edu/jworth/spanfla_luna.htmArchived 2016-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b c d Johnson, Jane. "Santa Rosa Island - a History (Part 1)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- ^ a b c d Pinson, Steve. "The Tristan de Luna Expedition". Pensacola Archeology Lab. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- ^ "Floripedia: Pensacola, Florida". University of South Florida. 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- ^ a b c d "Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa". University of West Florida. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-03-19. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- ^ Gene Allen Smith, Texas Christian University, Sanctuary in the Spanish Empire: An African American officer earns freedom in Florida, National Park Service
- ^ John Richard Alden (1957). The South in the Revolution, 1763–1789. Louisiana State University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-8071-0013-4.
- ^ Coker, William S; Shofner, Jerrell H.; Morris, Joan Perry; Malone, Myrtle Davidson (1991). Florida from the Beginning to 1992 : a Columbus Jubilee Commemorative. Houston: Pioneer Publications. p. 4. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
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