Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council
The permanent members were all allies in World War II
(and the victors of that war), and are also all states with nuclear weapons
(though not all five had developed nuclear weapons prior to the formation of the United Nations). The remaining 10 members of the council are elected by the General Assembly, giving a total of 15 UN member states
. All five permanent members have the power of veto
, which enables any one of them to prevent the adoption of any "substantive" draft Council resolution, regardless of its level of international support.
Current permanent members
The following is a table of the current permanent members of the U.N. Security Council.
The original permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in 1945 (dark blue) with their respective colonies and other holdings shown (pale blue).
The "power of veto" refers to the veto power wielded solely by the permanent members, enabling them to prevent the adoption of any "substantive" draft Council resolution, regardless of the level of international support for the draft. The veto does not apply to procedural votes, which is significant in that the Security Council's permanent membership can vote against a "procedural" draft resolution, without necessarily blocking its adoption by the council.
The veto is exercised when any permanent member—the so-called "P5"—casts a "negative" vote on a "substantive" draft resolution. Abstention
or absence from the vote by a permanent member does not
prevent a draft resolution from being adopted.
There have been proposals suggesting the introduction of new permanent members. The candidates usually mentioned are Brazil
, and Japan
. They comprise the group of four countries known as the G4 nations
, which mutually support one another's bids for permanent seats.
Most of the leading candidates for permanent membership are regularly elected onto the Security Council by their respective groups. Japan was elected for eleven two-year terms, Brazil for ten terms, and Germany for three terms. India has been elected to the council eight times in total, with the most recent successful bid being in 2020
Current leaders of the permanent members
The following are the heads of state
that represent the permanent members of the UN Security Council as of 2021:
- ^ On 25 October 1971, with opposition from the United States, the mainland communist People's Republic of China was given the Chinese seat on the Security Council in place of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
- ^ a b The President of China is legally a ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (de facto leader) has always held this office since 1993, except for the months of transition. The current paramount leader is President Xi Jinping.
- ^ The de jure head of government of China is the Premier, whose current holder is Li Keqiang.
- ^ Previously President of Russia in 2000-2008.
- ^ President of China since 14 March 2013.
- ^ "Security Council Members | United Nations Security Council". www.un.org. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- ^  Archived 20 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Ambassador Zhang Jun, PR". chnun.chinamission.org.cn. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- ^ "Nicolas de Rivière". France ONU. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- ^ "Постоянное представительство Российской Федерации при ООН". russiaun.ru. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- ^ "Barbara Woodward DCMG". GOV.UK. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- ^ "Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield". usun.usmission.gov. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- ^ Froehlich, Annette; Seffinga, Vincent (2019). The United Nations and Space Security: Conflicting Mandates between UNCOPUOS and the CD. p. 40. ISBN 9783030060251.
- ^ Sarmento, Clara (2009). Eastwards / Westwards: Which Direction for Gender Studies in the 21st Century?. p. 127. ISBN 9781443808682.
- ^ Hudson, Christopher (2014). The China Handbook. p. 59. ISBN 9781134269662.
- ^ Rigger, Shelley (2002). Politics in Taiwan: Voting for Reform. p. 60. ISBN 9781134692972.
- ^  Archived 30 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Sharma, Rajeev (27 September 2015). "India pushes the envelope at G4 Summit: PM Modi tells UNSC to make space for largest democracies". First Post. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 19:34
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