- A tilde or swung dash through the letter indicates velarization, uvularization or pharyngealization, as in [ᵶ], the pharyngealized equivalent of [z].
- The symbol ⟨ˤ⟩ (a superscript variant of ⟨ʕ⟩, the voiced pharyngeal approximant; graphically a reversed glottal stop) after the letter standing for the pharyngealized consonant, as in [tˤ] (the pharyngealized equivalent of [t]).
The swung dash or combining tilde diacritic (U+0334) was originally intended to combine with other letters to represent pharyngealization. However, precomposed letters are required for proper display in most IPA fonts. They are available only for labial consonants ⟨ᵱ ᵬ ᵮ ᵯ⟩ and coronal consonants
⟨ᵵ ᵭ ᵴ ᵶ ᵰ ᵲ ᵳ ɫ⟩.
The Unicode characters ⟨ˤ⟩ (U+02E4 modifier letter small reversed glottal stop) and ⟨ˁ⟩ (U+02C1 modifier letter reversed glottal stop) look graphically similar. The IPA Handbook
lists the former, U+02E4 (IPA Number 423), as the only unambiguous pharyngealization marker. The superimposed tilde (U+0334, IPA Number 428) denotes either velarization or pharyngealization, and the IPA Handbook does not mention U+02C1 at all.
, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language
spoken in Russia
, used pharyngealization in 14 pharyngealized consonants. Chilcotin
has pharyngealized consonants that trigger pharyngealization of vowels. Many languages (such as Salishan
) in the Plateau culture area of North America also have pharyngealization processes that are triggered by pharyngeal or pharyngealized consonants, which affect vowels.
(or !Xóõ) has pharyngealized vowels that contrast phonemically with voiced, breathy and epiglottalized vowels.
That feature is represented in the orthography by a tilde under the respective pharyngealized vowel. In Tuu languages
, epiglottalized vowels are phonemic.
For many languages, pharyngealization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants. Dark l
tends to be dental or denti-alveolar, but clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Examples of pharyngealized consonants
Examples of pharyngealized vowels
- ^ International Phonetic Association (1999:172-173)
- ^ Ladefoged (2005:183)
- ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell.
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005). "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878.
- International Phonetic Association, ed. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press.
Last edited on 24 January 2021, at 00:46
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